Jose Rizal was a Filipino polymath and nationalist. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal turned towards writing and inspired the Philippine Revolution through his writings. The revolution eventually led to Philippine independence and Rizal became a national hero. His life has inspired several biographical films and TV series.
Alfred Adler was an Austrian psychotherapist and medical doctor. He is credited with founding the school of individual psychology. He was also one of the founders of the psychoanalytic movement along with Sigmund Freud and Freud's colleagues. In 2002, a survey conducted by Review of General Psychology named Adler among the 20th century's most eminent psychologists.
Born Richard Raskind, a boy, Renée Richards became an LGBT icon after winning a landmark case against the US Tennis Association and acquiring the right to compete in women’s tennis events in spite of her sex-change operation. She is also a qualified ophthalmologist and has trained the likes of Martina Navratilova.
Fred Hollows became a renowned name in the field of ophthalmology after helping thousands of people see by restoring their sight. Born in New Zealand, Hollows later became an Australian citizen. He had initially aspired to join the clergy but had decided against it after visiting a mental institution.
Ophthalmologist Patricia Bath is remembered for her pathbreaking invention of the Laserphaco Probe, which made laser cataract surgery possible. The first Black female surgeon at the UCLA Medical Center and the first female faculty staff of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute, she dedicated her life to curing blindness.
Part of the Mayo medical family of the U.S., Charles Horace Mayo had established the Mayo Clinic with his brother William James Mayo and others. He specialized in varied medical fields, mastering neurosurgery, goitre surgery, cataract operations, and other procedures. He later served the U.S. Army surgical team.
21 Karl Koller
American ophthalmologist, inventor, surgeon, entertainer, jazz-musician, and Broadway producer Charles Kelman, called the father of phacoemulsification, is best-known for inventing phacoemulsification and several other surgical techniques and instruments used in cataract surgery. He received the National Medal of Technology from the then US President George H. W. Bush, the Lasker Award and was inducted into National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Regarded as the pioneer of modern ophthalmology, Albrecht von Gräfe was born to German surgeon Karl Ferdinand von Graefe, known for his pathbreaking research on plastic surgery. He explained Gräfe’s sign, made the first legitimate use of the ophthalmoscope, and also launched an eye clinic deemed one of Europe’s best.
25 Arnall Patz
Ophthalmologist and Johns Hopkins University professor Arnall Patz was the first to find out the link between the oxygen used in incubators and blindness in infants. The Lasker Award-winning doctor also worked on laser treatment of retinal ailments, thus developing one of the world’s first argon lasers.