# Famous 19th Century British Mathematicians

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Find out more about the greatest 19th Century British Mathematicians, including George Boole, Ada Lovelace, James Clerk Maxwell, Bertrand Russell and Lewis Carroll.

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**Birthdate: **December 10, 1815

**Sun Sign: **Sagittarius

**Birthplace: **London

**Died: **November 27, 1852

Ada Lovelace was a mathematician known for her work on the *Analytical Engine*, a mechanical general-purpose computer proposed by Charles Babbage. Many believe that Lovelace was the first to recognize the potential of computers. It is also believed that she published the first algorithm after realizing that the algorithm could be carried out by a machine like the *Analytical Engine*.

**Birthdate: **May 18, 1872

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Trellech, Monmouthshire, Wales

**Died: **February 2, 1970

Bertrand Russell was a British polymath and Nobel laureate. His work, which is spread across various fields, has had a considerable influence on philosophy, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, linguistics, and logic. Russell is also credited with leading the revolt against idealism in Britain and is regarded as one of the founders of analytic philosophy.

3

George Boole(Mathematician, Philosopher, and Logician Best Known as the Author of â€˜The Laws of Thoughtâ€™)

**Birthdate: **November 2, 1815

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England

**Died: **December 8, 1864

George Boole is remembered for pioneering Boolean algebra, a tool used in digital computer circuits. More of a self-taught mathematician, Boole began teaching at 16 and later grew up to be a math professor at **Queen’s College, Cork**. His work in differential equations and algebraic logic was groundbreaking.

4

G. H. Hardy(English Mathematician Known for His Contributions in Number Theory and Mathematical Analysis)

**Birthdate: **February 7, 1877

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Cranleigh, England

**Died: **December 1, 1947

English mathematician G. H. Hardy is best recognised for his work and achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis, and also as mentor of distinguished Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan. He is noted for his essay on mathematics titled *A Mathematician's Apology*. He also made his mark in biology formulating a basic principle of population genetics called *Hardy–Weinberg principle*.

**Birthdate: **June 26, 1824

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Belfast

**Died: **December 17, 1907

Lord Kelvin was a British mathematical physicist and engineer. He studied at the Glasgow University and proceeded to teach there as well. Besides his academic career, he also had a career as an electric telegraph engineer and inventor. He received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1883. Absolute temperatures are stated in units of kelvin in his honor.

**Birthdate: **August 16, 1821

**Sun Sign: **Leo

**Birthplace: **Richmond, Surrey, UK

**Died: **January 26, 1895

**Birthdate: **February 15, 1861

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Ramsgate, Kent, England

**Died: **December 30, 1947

Alfred North Whitehead was a British mathematician and philosopher, best known for his collaboration with his student Bertrand Russell on *Principal of Mathematics*, a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics. Also known for his pioneering works on process philosophy and metaphysics, he is credited with developing a comprehensive metaphysical system that differs from most Western philosophies.

**Birthdate: **December 28, 1882

**Sun Sign: **Capricorn

**Birthplace: **Kendal

**Died: **November 22, 1944

Arthur Eddington was an English physicist, astronomer, and mathematician. He wrote numerous articles that explained Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. He began his career in academics and eventually shifted to astronomy, becoming the chief assistant to the Astronomer Royal at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. He was a recipient of the Henry Draper Medal.

9

Mary Somerville

(Mathematician, Linguist, Translator, Astronomer, Scientist)

**Birthdate: **December 26, 1780

**Sun Sign: **Capricorn

**Birthplace: **Jedburgh

**Died: **November 28, 1872

One of the two pioneering female honorary members of the **Royal Astronomical Society**, Mary Somerville was a 19th-century polymath and science writer. Though she specialized in math and astronomy, she was also well-versed in botany and geology. *The Connection of the Physical Sciences *remains her most notable work.

10

John Herschel

(British Polymath Known for His Invention of 'Blueprint')

**Birthdate: **March 7, 1792

**Sun Sign: **Pisces

**Birthplace: **Slough, Buckinghamshire, England

**Died: **May 11, 1871

The son of renowned astronomer William Herschel, John Herschel was educated at **Eton **and **Cambridge** and grew up to be a polymath. Apart from contributing to the field of photography, he was known for cataloguing and naming stars and satellites. He briefly also served as the *Master* of the **Royal Mint**.

11

John Edensor Littlewood

(Mathematician, University teacher)

**Birthdate: **June 9, 1885

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Rochester

**Died: **September 6, 1977

12

Oliver Heaviside

(Mathematician, Physicist, Engineer, Telegraphy)

**Birthdate: **May 18, 1850

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Camden Town

**Died: **February 3, 1925

Oliver Heaviside was an English mathematician and physicist. He invented a new technique for solving differential equations and independently developed vector calculus. He is also credited with rewriting Maxwell's equations in the form commonly used today. He formulated the telegrapher’s equations and invented the Heaviside step function as well. In 1922, he received the Faraday Medal.

**Birthdate: **August 4, 1834

**Sun Sign: **Leo

**Birthplace: **Kingston upon Hull

**Died: **April 4, 1923

14

Karl Pearson

(Mathematician, Historian of mathematics, Statistician, Historian, Philosopher, Biographer)

**Birthdate: **March 27, 1857

**Sun Sign: **Aries

**Birthplace: **London

**Died: **April 27, 1936

One of the greatest statisticians of all time, Karl Pearson established the first university-level statistics department at **UCL** and also launched the statistics-oriented journal* Biometrika*. He was also well-versed in law and believed in eugenics. His *The Grammar of Science* later inspired Albert Einstein and other scientists.

**Birthdate: **July 2, 1862

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Wigton, England, United Kingdom

**Died: **March 12, 1942

William Henry Bragg was an English physicist, chemist, and mathematician. He is best known for sharing the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his son Lawrence Bragg for their work in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays. William Henry Bragg had an illustrious academic career and was elected president of the Royal Society in 1935.

16

George Biddell Airy

(British Mathematician and Astronomer)

**Birthdate: **July 27, 1801

**Sun Sign: **Leo

**Birthplace: **Alnwick, Northumberland, England

**Died: **January 2, 1892

English astronomer George Biddell Airy is best known for locating Greenwich as the prime meridian. He was ripped apart by critics for allegedly failing to help British astronomer John Couch Adams to discover Neptune. The *Astronomer Royal* was also the first to cure astigmatism by using cylindrical lenses.

17

William Kingdon Clifford

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **May 4, 1845

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Exeter, England

**Died: **March 3, 1879

18

George Darwin

(British Barrister, Astronomer and the Second Son of Naturalist Charles Darwin)

**Birthdate: **July 9, 1845

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Down House, Downe, Kent, England

**Died: **December 7, 1912

Born to legendary biologist Charles Darwin, George Darwin initially studied law and became a barrister. However, his interest in science made him deviate to astronomy. He believed the Moon was one part of the Earth. He later also taught at **Cambridge** and was made a *Fellow* of **The Royal Society**.

19

George Green

(British Mathematical Physicist Who Was First to Attempt to Devise a Theory of Electricity and Magnetism)

**Birthdate: **July 14, 1793

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Sneinton, Nottinghamshire, England

**Died: **May 31, 1841

With one year of formal schooling, George Green was entirely self-taught until the age of forty, when he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. By then, he had published his first book, propagating what are now known as *Green’s theorem* and *Green’s functions*. A fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, he also established *Green's identities, Green's law, and Green's matrix. *

20

James Joseph Sylvester

(Former Mathematician who made fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory, and combinatorics)

**Birthdate: **September 3, 1814

**Sun Sign: **Virgo

**Birthplace: **London, England, United Kingdom

**Died: **March 15, 1897

21

Lewis Fry Richardson

(Former Mathematician, physicist, meteorologist noted for his pioneering work concerning fractals and a method for solving a system of linear equations known as modified Richardson iteration)

**Birthdate: **October 11, 1881

**Sun Sign: **Libra

**Birthplace: **Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

**Died: **September 30, 1953

British physicist, meteorologist, mathematician, psychologist and pacifist Lewis Fry Richardson was the first to apply modern mathematical techniques of weather forecasting to predict weather accurately. He also pioneered the use of similar methods in studying reasons of wars and the way to stop them. He proposed the iterative method called *modified Richardson iteration* for solving a system of linear equations.

22

Mary Everest Boole

(mathematician, philosopher)

**Birthdate: **1832 AD

**Birthplace: ** Wickwar

**Died: **1916 AD

23

John Couch Adams

(Mathematician, Astronomer, University teacher)

**Birthdate: **June 5, 1819

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Laneast

**Died: **January 21, 1892

24

James Jeans

(British Physicist, Astronomer and Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **September 11, 1877

**Sun Sign: **Virgo

**Birthplace: **Ormskirk, Lancashire, England

**Died: **September 16, 1946

James Jeans was an English physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who made great contributions to the areas of quantum theory, the theory of radiation, and stellar evolution. Along with Arthur Eddington, Jeans is a founder of British cosmology. He spent his academic career at Trinity College, Cambridge, and the Princeton University. He received the Royal Medal in 1919.

25

Hertha Ayrton

(British Engineer, Mathematician, Physicist and Inventor Known for Her Work With the 'Electric Arcs')

**Birthdate: **April 28, 1854

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Portsea, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England

**Died: **August 26, 1923

Hertha Ayrton was a British engineer, physicist, mathematician, and inventor. She is remembered for her work on electric arcs and ripple marks in sand and water, for which she was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society. As a woman in the 19th century, she had to face innumerable struggles in her career. She was also a passionate suffragist.

26

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth

(Economist, Statistician, Lawyer, Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **February 8, 1845

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **County Longford

**Died: **February 13, 1926

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth was an Anglo-Irish economist and statistician, known for his significant contributions to the methods of statistics. An autodidact in mathematics and economics, he imaginatively applied mathematics to the fields of economics and statistics, writing several books, including *Mathematical Psychics*, presenting new ideas on various topics like on the generalized utility function, the indifference curve etc. .

27

E. T. Whittaker

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **October 24, 1873

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Southport, England

**Died: **March 24, 1956

28

Charles Howard Hinton

(Mathematician, writer, science fiction writer)

**Birthdate: **1853 AD

**Birthplace: **England

**Died: **April 30, 1907

29

Eric Temple Bell

(Mathematician, Historian of mathematics, Novelist, Writer, Science fiction writer)

**Birthdate: **February 7, 1883

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Peterhead

**Died: **December 21, 1960

Born to a Scottish factor, mathematician Eric Temple Bell spent most of his life in the U.S. The **Stanford **alumnus contributed to the analytic number theory and also taught math at institutes such as **Caltech**. He also penned sci-fi novels such as *The Time Stream* as *John Taine*.

30

Dugald Stewart

(Philosopher)

**Birthdate: **November 22, 1753

**Sun Sign: **Sagittarius

**Birthplace: **Edinburgh,Scotland

**Died: **June 11, 1828

Dugald Stewart was a Scottish mathematician and philosopher best remembered for his efforts to popularize the works of Adam Smith and Francis Hutcheson. Considered one of the most prominent personalities of *the Scottish Enlightenment,* Stewart played a major role in explaining the *Scottish Common Sense Realism*. Among his students were Sir Walter Scott, Sir Archibald Alison, and Sir James Mackintosh.

31

Harold Jeffreys

(Mathematical statistician)

**Birthdate: **April 22, 1891

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Fatfield, Washington, England

**Died: **March 18, 1989

33

John Playfair

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **March 10, 1748

**Sun Sign: **Pisces

**Birthplace: **Angus council, United Kingdom

**Died: **July 20, 1819

34

Horace Lamb

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **November 27, 1849

**Sun Sign: **Sagittarius

**Birthplace: **Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, England

**Died: **December 4, 1934

35

William George Horner

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **June 9, 1786

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Bristol, England

**Died: **September 22, 1837

36

Douglas Hartree

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **March 27, 1897

**Sun Sign: **Aries

**Birthplace: **Cambridge, England

**Died: **February 12, 1958

37

Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope

(Statesman)

**Birthdate: **August 3, 1753

**Sun Sign: **Leo

**Birthplace: **London, England

**Died: **December 15, 1816

39

Sydney Chapman

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **January 29, 1888

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Eccles, England

**Died: **June 16, 1970

40

Joseph Larmor

(British Physicist and Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **July 11, 1857

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **County Antrim, Ireland

**Died: **May 19, 1942

**Copley Medal-**winning Irish physicist Joseph Larmor is best remembered for his physics book *Aether and Matter*. Known for his contribution to the fields of thermodynamics and the magnetic field, he now has a crater on the Moon and a scientific phenomenon called *Larmor precession* named after him.

**Birthdate: **February 14, 1896

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Kingston upon Hull

**Died: **September 21, 1950

British astrophysicist and cosmologist Edward Arthur Milne was a brilliant student and a** Cambridge** scholar. Remembered for his work on kinematic relativity, he introduced the *Milne model*, too. He applied the Saha equation in his studies on the spectral lines of stars and also lectured on Christianity.

42

Augustus Edward Hough Love

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **April 17, 1863

**Sun Sign: **Aries

**Birthplace: **Weston-super-Mare, England

**Died: **June 5, 1940

Udny Yule was an English statistician best remembered for discovering the *Yule distribution*, a discrete probability distribution. A prolific writer, Yule wrote several books, including* Introduction to the Theory of Statistics* which has been used as a textbook. Yule is also remembered for his association with the* Royal Statistical Society*, where he served as the president from 1924 to 1926.

**Birthdate: **January 24, 1814

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Died: **June 20, 1883

45

Peter Barlow

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **October 13, 1776

**Sun Sign: **Libra

**Birthplace: **Norwich, England

**Died: **March 1, 1862

46

Alexander John Ellis

(English Mathematician, Phonetician, and Philologist Known for His Contribution to Musicology)

**Birthdate: **June 14, 1814

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Hoxton, Middlesex, England

**Died: **October 28, 1890

English mathematician, phonetician, and philologist Alexander John Ellis is remembered for his work on speech, song, and vocal and musical pitch. He also contributed immensely to the field of musicology. His best-known works include *On Early English Pronunciation* and *The Alphabet of Nature*.

47

Ernest Barnes

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **April 1, 1874

**Sun Sign: **Aries

**Birthplace: **Birmingham, England

**Died: **November 29, 1953

48

Henry John Stephen Smith

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **November 2, 1826

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Dublin, Ireland

**Died: **February 9, 1883

49

Ernest William Brown

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **November 29, 1866

**Sun Sign: **Sagittarius

**Birthplace: **Hull, England

**Died: **July 22, 1938

50

Andrew Forsyth

(Mathematician)

**Birthdate: **June 18, 1858

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Glasgow, Scotland

**Died: **June 2, 1942