Famous Russian Scientists

Much of the luxuries which have become necessities of modern life have been provided to us by the Russian scientists. Be it the yoghurt that owes its root in Bulgaria or television that was the result of engineering of Vladimir Zworykin, Russians have been responsible for much of our daily existence. Imagine life without modern day transportation vehicles, car, bus or helicopter? Vehicles today would have been mere objects of display if not for the petrol and the tyres. Cracking is a process that allows petrol to be produced in enormous quantities. Almost 70% of crude oil can be turned into petrol through the process of cracking, which was invented by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov. Synthetic rubber which is used to make tyres for vehicles and aircrafts was first developed by Russian chemist Sergei Lebedev. Helicopter was the brainchild of Russian inventor Ivor Sikorsky who is also credited with inventing the first hydroplane of the world and the first multiple-engine aircraft. Other scientific inventions that owe their root in the Russian soil include solar cell, videotape recorder, transformer and grain harvester. Check this segment and find out in detail about the life of famous Russian scientists, their career and their inventions.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev.
1
Famous As: Inventor of Periodic Table
Birthdate: February 8, 1834
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tobolsk
Died: February 2, 1907
Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic Law and his version of the Periodic Table of Elements that revolutionized the field of chemistry. His table was independent of German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer’s version of the table. Mendeleev also assisted in the development of the first oil refinery in Russia.

 2 Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler.
2
Famous As: Mathematician, Physicist
Birthdate: April 15, 1707
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Basel
Died: September 18, 1783

Leonhard Euler was a Swiss physicist, mathematician, logician, geographer, astronomer, and engineer. He is credited with making influential and important mathematical discoveries, such as graph theory and infinitesimal calculus. Widely regarded as one of the greatest and most prolific mathematicians of all time, Leonhard Euler also made pioneering contributions to analytic number theory and topology.

 3 Lev Landau

Lev Landau .
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: January 22, 1908
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Baku, Baku Governorate, Russian Empire
Died: April 1, 1968

Nobel Prize-winning Russian physicist Lev Landau is remembered for his pathbreaking research in quantum mechanics. A math prodigy, he had learned calculus at 13. He failed to receive his Nobel in person due to a near-fatal car crash which caused him injuries that eventually caused his death 6 years later.

 4 Anatoli Bugorski

Anatoli Bugorski.
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Famous As: physicist, nuclear scientist
Birthdate: June 25, 1942
Sun Sign: Cancer
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 5 Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov.
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Famous As: The Father of Soviet nuclear bomb’
Birthdate: May 21, 1921
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: December 14, 1989

Andrei Sakharov was a Russian dissident and nuclear physicist best remembered for designing RDS-37, Soviet Union's first two-stage hydrogen bomb. Also an activist for peace and human rights, Andrei Sakharov was honored with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, which is awarded by the European Parliament, is named in his honor.

 6 Boris Berezovsky

Boris Berezovsky
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Famous As: entrepreneur, mathematician, politician, economist
Birthdate: January 23, 1946
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: March 23, 2013

Russian business-tycoon, engineer, mathematician and government official Boris Berezovsky is counted among the famed Russian oligarchs who made their fortunes during the 1990s, when Russia was going through privatization of state property. He remained a vocal critic of Russian President Vladimir Putin since the latter’s election as president in 2000 and was granted political asylum by the UK in 2003.

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 7 Aleksandr Borodin

Aleksandr Borodin.
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Famous As: Composer, Chemist
Birthdate: November 12, 1833
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: February 27, 1887

Aleksandr Borodin was a Russian musical composer. He was one of the popular 19th-century group of musicians known as The Five, who worked together to create a national style of classical music. A chemist and doctor by profession, Borodin also made important contributions to organic chemistry. His best known work as a chemist is his work pertaining to organic synthesis.

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 8 Boris Nemtsov

Boris Nemtsov
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: October 9, 1959
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Sochi, Russia
Died: February 27, 2015
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 9 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.
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Famous As: Russian-Soviet Rocket Scientist
Birthdate: September 17, 1857
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Izhevskoye, Ryazan Governorate
Died: September 19, 1935

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a Russian rocket scientist. Credited with pioneering astronautic theory, Tsiolkovsky is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of astronautics and modern rocketry. His works served as an inspiration to several other Soviet rocket engineers like Valentin Glushko and Sergei Korolev. Hence, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's work played an influential role in the Soviet space program.

 10 Alexey Pazhitnov

Alexey Pazhitnov
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Famous As: Video game designer
Birthdate: March 14, 1956
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Moscow

 11 Grigori Perelman

Grigori Perelman.
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 13, 1966
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman is best known for his work on geometry, especially Riemannian geometry, geometric analysis, and geometric topology. He declined many prizes, such as the Fields Medal and the Millennium Prize. His proof of the Poincaré conjecture was named the Breakthrough of the Year by Science magazine.

 12 Trofim Lysenko

Trofim Lysenko.
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Famous As: Experimenter
Birthdate: September 29, 1898
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Karlivka
Died: November 20, 1976

Trofim Lysenko was a Soviet biologist and agronomist. Lysenko was one of the most influential supporters of Lamarckism. He also condemned Mendelian genetics and supported Lysenkoism, a political campaign that rejected natural selection. Lysenko used his political power to imprison his critics. Several Soviet scientists, including Nikolai Vavilov, who failed to renounce genetics were either imprisoned or killed.

 13 Alexander Borodin

Alexander Borodin
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Famous As: Composer, Chemist
Birthdate: November 12, 1833
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: February 27, 1887

 14 Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii

Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii
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Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: August 30, 1863
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Murom
Died: September 27, 1944

 15 Vladimir Demikhov

Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov.
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Famous As: Organ Transplant Pioneer
Birthdate: July 18, 1916
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: November 22, 1998
While some called him a mad scientist, Vladimir Demikhov is now remembered as a pioneer of organ transplantation. The Soviet scientist coined the term transplantology and shocked the world by creating two-headed dogs, by attaching the head of one dog to the body of another. 

 16 Sergey Brin

Sergey Brin.
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Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: August 21, 1973
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Moscow
Google co-founder Sergey Brin also served as the president of Alphabet Inc. The seventh-richest person in the world as of 2020, Brin earlier dropped his PhD plans at Stanford, following which he and Larry Page launched Google in a garage. He is a devoted philanthropist and a Democratic Party donor.

 17 Nicholas Roerich

Nicholas Roerich
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Famous As: Philosopher, Painter, Choreographer, Writer, Archaeologist, Poet, Diplomat
Birthdate: October 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: December 13, 1947

 18 Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Lomonosov.
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Famous As: Scientist, Poet, Geologist, Astronomer
Birthdate: November 19, 1711
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Lomonossowo, Russia
Died: April 15, 1765

Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov was born to a fisherman father and left his village later to satiate his hunger for knowledge. Apart from reforming Russian language and literature, he also made the first colored glass mosaic in his country and discovered the atmosphere of Venus. He loved simple life.

 19 Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Kolmogorov.
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: April 25, 1903
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tambov, Russia
Died: October 20, 1987

Russian mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov lost his mother at birth and was raised by his aunts. His talent in mathematics was discovered when he joined the Moscow State University to study history and math, while simultaneously studying metallurgy elsewhere. His greatest contribution to mathematics was in the field of probability theory.

 20 Marina Oswald

Marina Oswald
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Famous As: Pharmacist
Birthdate: July 17, 1941
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Severodvinsk Molotovsk, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

 21 Mikhail Botvinnik

Mikhail Botvinnik
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Famous As: Chess player
Birthdate: August 17, 1911
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Repino, Russia
Died: May 5, 1995

 22 Nikolai Lobachevsky

Nikolai Lobachevsky
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 1, 1792
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Died: February 24, 1856

 23 Vitalik Buterin

Vitalik Buterin
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Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: January 31, 1994
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kolomna, Russia

 24 George Gamow

George Gamow.
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: March 4, 1904
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Odessa
Died: August 19, 1968

Born to school teacher parents, Ukrainian-American physicist George Gamow grew up to be a pioneer of the big-bang theory. His other contributions include the liquid-drop model of atomic nuclei and his research on DNA. Apart from various science textbooks, he also wrote the popular Mr. Tompkins series of physics books.

 25 Sergei Korolev

Sergei Korolev
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Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: January 1, 1907
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Zhytomyr, Ukraine
Died: January 14, 1966

 26 Vladimir Bukovsky

Vladimir Bukovsky
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Famous As: Writer, Human rights activist
Birthdate: December 30, 1942
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Belebey

 27 Pafnuty Chebyshev

Pafnuty Chebyshev
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Famous As: mathematician, statistician
Birthdate: May 4, 1821
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Borovsk
Died: November 26, 1894

 28 Alexander Stepanovich Popov

Alexander Stepanovich Popov
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Famous As: Physicist, Inventor, Engineer
Birthdate: March 16, 1859
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Krasnoturyinsk
Died: January 13, 1906

 29 Nikolai Vavilov

Nikolai Vavilov
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Famous As: botanist, biologist, explorer, geneticist, geographer
Birthdate: November 13, 1887
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: January 26, 1943

 30 Igor Kurchatov

Igor Kurchatov
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Famous As: Nuclear physicist
Birthdate: January 12, 1903
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Sim, Russia
Died: February 7, 1960

 31 Alexander Friedmann

Alexander Friedmann
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: June 16, 1888
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: St. Petersburg, Russia
Died: September 16, 1925

 32 Vladimir Arnold

Vladimir Arnold
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 12, 1937
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Odessa, Ukraine
Died: June 3, 2010

 33 Alexander Abramov

Alexander Abramov
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Famous As: entrepreneur
Birthdate: 1959 AD
Birthplace: Moscow

 34 Andrey Markov

Andrey Markov
2
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 14, 1856
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Ryazan, Russia
Died: July 20, 1922

 35 Vladimir Voevodsky

Vladimir Voevodsky
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 4, 1966
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: September 30, 2017

 36 Alexander Oparin

Alexander Oparin
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Famous As: biologist, biochemist, chemist
Birthdate: March 2, 1894
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Uglich
Died: April 21, 1980

 37 Pyotr Kapitsa

Pyotr Kapitsa.
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: July 8, 1894
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kronstadt, Russian Empire
Died: April 8, 1984

Nobel Prize-winning Soviet physicist Pyotr Kapitsa revolutionized science with his invention of new machines for liquefaction of gases. He is also remembered for discovering that liquid helium is superfluid. He had also served in World War I and had lost his father, wife, and children in the 1918-1919 flu epidemic.

 38 Aleksandr Lyapunov

Aleksandr Lyapunov
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Famous As: mathematician, physicist
Birthdate: June 6, 1857
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Yaroslavl
Died: November 3, 1918

 39 Leonid Kantorovich

Leonid Kantorovich.
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Famous As: Economist
Birthdate: January 19, 1912
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
Died: April 7, 1986

Leonid Kantorovich was a Soviet economist and mathematician. Credited with founding linear programming, Kantorovich was honored with the prestigious Stalin Prize in 1949. In 1975, he won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his work on the theory of optimum allocation of resources. He also made important contributions to functional analysis, operator theory, and approximation theory.

 40 Vladimir Vernadsky

Vladimir Vernadsky.
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Famous As: Mineralogist
Birthdate: March 12, 1863
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: January 6, 1945

Vladimir Vernadsky was a geochemist and mineralogist who is widely regarded as one of the founders of radiogeology, biogeochemistry, and geochemistry. He is also credited with founding the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Vernadsky is best remembered for his book, The Biosphere, which discusses Eduard Suess' work. He won the prestigious Stalin Prize in 1943.

 41 Stepan Makarov

Stepan Makarov
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Famous As: Oceanographer
Birthdate: January 8, 1849
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Mykolaiv, Ukraine
Died: April 13, 1904

 42 Israel Gelfand

Israel Gelfand
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: September 2, 1913
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kherson Governorate
Died: October 5, 2009

 43 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: June 25, 1928
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: March 29, 2017

 44 Pavel Florensky

Pavel Florensky
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Famous As: Theologian
Birthdate: January 22, 1882
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Yevlakh, Azerbaijan
Died: December 8, 1943

 45 Petr Mitrichev

Petr Mitrichev
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Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: March 19, 1985
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Moscow

 46 Vitaly Ginzburg

Vitaly Ginzburg
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Famous As: physicist, astronomer, inventor, professor
Birthdate: September 21, 1916
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: November 8, 2009

 47 Igor Tamm

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm.
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: July 8, 1895
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vladivostok, Russian Empire
Died: April 12, 1971

Igor Tamm was a Soviet physicist whose contribution to the discovery of Cherenkov radiation earned him the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, which he shared with Ilya Mikhailovich Frank and Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov. In the 1940s and '50s, Igor Tamm played an important role in the Soviet atomic bomb project, which was authorized by Joseph Stalin.

 48 Dmitri Ivanovsky

Dmitri Ivanovsky
1
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: October 28, 1864
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Gdov, Russia
Died: June 20, 1920

 49 Pavel Cherenkov

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov.
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: July 28, 1904
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Voronezh Oblast, Russian Empire
Died: January 6, 1990

Pavel Cherenkov was a Soviet physicist whose discovery of Cherenkov radiation in 1934 earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in physics in 1958. He also played an important role in the investigation of photo-meson reactions and photo-nuclear and in the construction and development of electron accelerators. Over the course of his career, Cherenkov won several awards, including two Stalin Prizes.

 50 Alexander Stepanov

Alexander Stepanov
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Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: November 16, 1950
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Moscow