Mikhail Kalinin Biography
(Mayor of Saint Petersburg)
Birthday: November 19, 1875 (Scorpio)
Born In: Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Russia
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was a Russian communist leader, who served as the formal head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, as well as of the Soviet Union later, from 1919 to 1946. Kalinin was born to a peasant family, and during his early years he worked as a metal worker in Petrograd City. During this time, he took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution and also become a member of the Bolsheviks. After the revolution, he became chief administrator of Petrograd. Soon, within a short time, he gained importance, and eventually became a member of the party’s Central Committee from 1919, as well as the formal head of the Soviet State. Few years later, he also became a full member of the Politburo. After the rise of Joseph Stalin, he remained the head, though he had very little influence or power. His wife, who criticized Stalin’s policies, was arrested, and Kalinin was unable to prevent it. She was tortured and imprisoned for around fifteen years in a labor camp. Kalinin made his retirement in 1946 and died shortly after.