Famous 20th Century Revolutionaries

Right IconThis ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

Vote for Your Favourite 20th Century Revolutionaries
 1 
Che Guevara
(Revolutionary)
Che Guevara
25
Birthdate: June 14, 1928
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Rosario, Argentina
Died: October 9, 1967

Argentine Marxist revolutionary, Che Guevara, was a major figure of the Cuban Revolution. A physician by profession, he developed radical views upon witnessing the injustices in the world and joined Fidel Castro’s revolutionary 26th of July Movement. Assassinated in 1967, he remains both a revered and reviled historical figure.

 2 
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
(Founder of the Republic of Turkey,)
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
13
Birthdate: May 19, 1881
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Thessaloniki
Died: November 10, 1938
Kemal Atatürk, known as the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, was its first president. He unified Turkey into a secular country and invested in education and women’s rights. He also popularized the Latin-based Turkish alphabet and made minorities speak Turkish in public. His policies are known as “Kemalism.” 
 3 
Mahatma Gandhi
(Indian Freedom Fighter who Employed Non-violent Resistance & Known as 'Father of the Nation')
Mahatma Gandhi
20
Birthdate: October 2, 1869
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Porbandar, India
Died: January 30, 1948

An Indian lawyer and anti-colonial nationalist, Mahatma Gandhi was a major figure in India’s fight for independence from British rule. He is renowned for his employment of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience methods. Despite his popularity, he had numerous detractors as well and was assassinated in 1948. He is widely considered the Father of the Nation in India.

Recommended Lists:
 4 
Joseph Stalin
(Soviet Political Leader & Dictator Who Led the Soviet Union from 1922 Until His Death in 1953)
Joseph Stalin
8
Birthdate: December 18, 1878
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Gori, Georgia
Died: March 5, 1953

Controversial Russian dictator, Joseph Stalin, ruled the Soviet Union for around 25 years from 1929 to 1953 and is credited for making it a prominent industrial and military power of the world. During the Second World War, his army defeated the Nazis too. However, his regime was also one of terror and brutality where numerous Soviet citizens lost their lives.

 5 
Bhagat Singh
(Revolutionary Hero of the Indian Independence Movement)
Bhagat Singh
17
Birthdate: September 28, 1907
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Banga, Punjab, British India
Died: March 23, 1931

Bhagat Singh is one of the most revered freedom fighters of Indian Independence movement. His execution by the British rulers at a young age of 23 inspired many young people to join the freedom struggle. His life’s mission was to free India from colonial rule and his legacy as a symbol of bravery and patriotism continues to live on.

 6 
Huey P. Newton
(Political Activist, Revolutionary Leader and Co-Founder of the ‘Black Panther Party’)
Huey P. Newton
13
Birthdate: February 17, 1942
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Monroe, Louisiana, United States
Died: August 22, 1989

Huey P. Newton was an African-American civil and political rights activist. He is credited with co-founding The Black Panther Party (BPP), which went on to become one of black movement's most influential organizations of the late-1960s. The party, under Newton's leadership, founded more than 60 community support programs, including Free Breakfast for Children, which provided food to thousands of children.

 7 
Josip Broz Tito
(Yugoslav Communist Revolutionary and the chief Architect of the 'Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia')
Josip Broz Tito
13
Birthdate: May 25, 1892
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Kumrovec, Croatia
Died: May 4, 1980
Josip Broz Tito served as the prime minister of Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1963 and as its president from 1953 to 1980. He was also the Marshal of Yugoslavia. During World War II, he led the Partisans. He was also one of the main figures behind the Non-Aligned Movement.
 8 
Pancho Villa
(Governor of Chihuahua from 1913 to 1914)
Pancho Villa
7
Birthdate: June 5, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: La Coyotada, Mexico
Died: July 20, 1923
Military leader Pancho Villa was a significant figure of the Mexican Revolution. He supported the ouster of dictator Porfirio Diaz and later fought to remove Victoriano Huerta from power. He also allied with Emiliano Zapata and fought against Venustiano Carranza. He remains immortalized in many films and novels.
 9 
Rosa Luxemburg
(Revolutionary Socialist, Marxist Philosopher & Anti-War Activist)
Rosa Luxemburg
9
Birthdate: March 5, 1871
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Zamosc, Poland
Died: January 15, 1919
Polish Marxist and socialist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg was a member of parties such as the SPD, the USPD, and the KPD. Luxemburg was an anti-war activist and taught economics and Marxism at SPD's Berlin training center. She was assassinated by the Freikorps troops during the German Revolution
 10 
Emiliano Zapata
(Leading Figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920)
Emiliano Zapata
6
Birthdate: August 8, 1879
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Anenecuilco, Mexico
Died: April 10, 1919
Emiliano Zapata was a key figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920 and led the agrarian movement known as Zapatismo. As the leader of the Liberation Army of the South, he contributed to the fall of Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz and later fought against Venustiano Carranza.
 11 
Vladimir Lenin
(Russian Revolutionary & Politician Who Served as the First Head of Government of Soviet Russia)
Vladimir Lenin
4
Birthdate: April 22, 1870
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ulyanovsk, Russia
Died: January 21, 1924

Vladimir Lenin played a key role in the history of Russian politics by developing a political ideology called Leninism. During and after his lifetime, Lenin had a massive influence over international communist movement. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and significant personalities of the 20th century.

 12 
Gavrilo Princip
(Assassinator of Archduke Franz Ferdinand)
Gavrilo Princip
8
Birthdate: July 25, 1894
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Obljaj
Died: April 28, 1918
Gavrilo Princip was a Bosnian Serb member of the Young Bosnia movement who wished to end the Austro-Hungarian reign in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He thus assassinated Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, at age 19. This eventually contributed to the start of World War I
 13 
Fidel Castro
(Former Prime Minister of Cuba)
Fidel Castro
4
Birthdate: August 13, 1926
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Birán, Cuba
Died: November 26, 2016

Serving as the Cuban prime minister from 1959 to 1976 and as president from 1976 to 2008, Fidel Castro was one of the most prominent Cuban leaders in the history. As the longest-reigning non-royal head of the 20th and 21st centuries, Castro was responsible for making Cuba a communist state.

 14 
Alexander Kerensky
(Minister-President of the Russian Republic (September 1917 - November 1917))
Alexander Kerensky
3
Birthdate: May 4, 1881
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ulyanovsk, Russia
Died: June 11, 1970

Alexander Kerensky was a Russian revolutionary and lawyer who played a major role in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Alexander Kerensky is often portrayed in films and TV series. In the 1971 epic historical drama film Nicholas and Alexandra, he was played by John McEnery. In the 2019 series The Last Czars, he was portrayed by Kestutis Cicenas.

 15 
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(Indian Independence Activist and One Third of the 'Lal Bal Pal' Triumvirate)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
7
Birthdate: July 23, 1856
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Maharashtra, India
Died: September 1, 1920
Indian nationalist and freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also known as Lokmanya Tilak, promoted the concept of Swaraj, or self-rule. He was part of the freedom-fighter trio know as Lal Bal Pal, along with fellow Indian National Congress members Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal.
 16 
Peter Kropotkin
(Anarchist, Socialist & Historian)
Peter Kropotkin
3
Birthdate: December 9, 1842
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: February 8, 1921

Russian philosopher Peter Kropotkin was a passionate advocate of anarcho-communism. He was also an activist, revolutionary, economist, and sociologist. He was arrested and imprisoned for his activism in 1874. However, he managed to escape and lived in exile for over 40 years in different countries across Europe. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. 

 17 
Jiang Qing
(Chinese Political Figure Who Played an Important Role During 'The Cultural Revolution')
Jiang Qing
9
Birthdate: March 19, 1914
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Zhucheng, Weifang, China
Died: May 14, 1991

Jiang Qing was a Chinese actress, communist revolutionary and major political figure who played an important role during the Cultural Revolution in China. She is also remembered for forming a Maoist political faction called the Gang of Four. Jiang Qing married Mao Zedong and played a prominent role in propagating Mao's brand of Communist ideology.

 18 
Nestor Makhno
(Ukrainian Anarchist Revolutionary and the Commander of the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine)
Nestor Makhno
3
Birthdate: November 7, 1888
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Hulyaipole, Ukraine
Died: July 25, 1934
Remembered for his guerrilla tactics, his Robin Hood image, and his Black Army that kept the Red and White armies away from a part of Ukraine, Nestor Makhno lost his father as an infant. He began working on farms at age 7 and grew up to be an anarchist revolutionary. 
 19 
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
(Independence Activist, Reformer)
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
18
Birthdate: May 28, 1883
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Bhagur
Died: February 26, 1966

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian politician and independence activist. He formulated the Hindu nationalist philosophy of Hindutva and was a leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha. He was known for his strong oratory skills and was an eloquent writer. He was initially charged as a co-conspirator in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was later acquitted.

 20 
Chandra Shekhar Azad
(Indian Revolutionary Who Reorganised Hindustan Socialist Republican Association)
Chandra Shekhar Azad
6
Birthdate: July 23, 1906
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Badarka, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died: February 27, 1931

Chandra Shekhar Azad joined India’s freedom struggle against the British after being deeply affected by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Born Chandra Shekhar Tiwari, he declared himself as Azad when arrested in connection with Gandhiji’s non-cooperation movement. He shot himself to death to escape being held captive by the British.

 21 
Kenneth Kaunda
3
Birthdate: April 28, 1924
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Chinsali, Awemba North, Northern Rhodesia
Died: June 17, 2021

Kenneth Kaunda is a Zambian former politician. He served as the first president of Zambia from 1964 to 1991. A major figure in Zambia’s struggle for independence from British rule, he became the first president of independent Zambia. As the president, he implemented many educational and economic reforms to accelerate the rate of modernization in the country.

 22 
Robert Mugabe
(Former PM & President of Zimbabwe)
Robert Mugabe
13
Birthdate: February 21, 1924
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Harare, Zimbabwe
Died: September 6, 2019

Robert Mugabe was a Zimbabwean revolutionary. He played a major role in the Rhodesian Bush War, which eventually led to the Lancaster House Agreement, resulting in the creation of the Republic of Zimbabwe. Subsequently, Mugabe served as the first prime minister of Zimbabwe and later as its president. A controversial figure, Mugabe is also often criticized for his tyrannical ways.

 23 
Patrick Pearse
(Barrister and a Leader of the Easter Rising in 1916)
Patrick Pearse
3
Birthdate: November 10, 1879
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Died: May 3, 1916

Patrick Pearse was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, and revolutionary. He was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Opinionated with radical views, he decided as a boy that he would dedicate his life to Irish freedom. A relentless idealist, he was executed after the Easter Rising and was immortalized as a symbol of the rebellion.

 24 
Constance Markievicz
3
Birthdate: February 4, 1868
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: London, England, United Kingdom
Died: July 15, 1927

Irish revolutionary political leader and suffragist Constance Markievicz scripted history by becoming the first woman to be elected as a cabinet minister in Europe and also the first female to be elected to the British Parliament. Sentenced to death for her role in the Easter Rising, she was later granted amnesty.

 25 
Muammar Gaddafi
(Prime Minister of Libya (1970-72))
Muammar Gaddafi
11
Birthdate: June 7, 1942
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Qasr Abu Hadi, Libya
Died: October 20, 2011
A revolutionary, politician and political theorist, Muammar Gaddafi seized power in Libya from King Idris in a bloodless coup in 1969 and became its authoritarian dictator for more than 40 years. He initially gained popularity and support; however, later, his increased dominance, support for international terrorism, and human rights violation turned people against him. He was eventually overthrown.
 26 
Hu Yaobang
(Former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China)
Hu Yaobang
4
Birthdate: November 20, 1915
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Liuyang, Changsha, China
Died: April 15, 1989

Hu Yaobang served as the Chinese Communist Party's general secretary from 1982 to 1987. Prior to his position as the general secretary, Hu served as the party's chairman from 1981 to 1982. Under Deng Xiaoping's leadership, Hu Yaobang rose to prominence and played a crucial role in the Boluan Fanzheng program, which was initiated by Deng.

 27 
Udham Singh
(Indian Revolutionary Known for Assassinating ‘Michael O’Dwyer’, the Former Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab in India)
Udham Singh
0
Birthdate: December 26, 1899
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Sunam, Punjab, India
Died: July 31, 1940
 28 
Wang Jingwei
(1st President of the Republic of China)
Wang Jingwei
3
Birthdate: May 4, 1883
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Sanshui District, Foshan, China
Died: November 10, 1944
Wang Jingwei lost both his parents in childhood. He grew up to become a close associate of Sun Yat-sen. He was the first president of the Republic of China. His collaboration with Japan to form a government in Nanjing made him a traitor in the eyes of his countrymen. 
 29 
Francisco I. Madero
(37th President of Mexico)
Francisco I. Madero
3
Birthdate: October 30, 1873
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Parras de la Fuente, Mexico
Died: February 22, 1913

Apart from being the president of Mexico, Francisco I. Madero was also a social reformist. Born into an affluent landowning family, Madero grew up to challenge the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and was one of the initiators of the Mexican Revolution. He was assassinated in a right-wing coup.

 30 
Jonas Savimbi
(Politician)
Jonas Savimbi
3
Birthdate: August 3, 1934
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Munhango, Angola
Died: February 22, 2002
 31 
Ulrike Meinhof
(Journalist and founding member of the Red Army Faction (RAF) in West Germany)
Ulrike Meinhof
4
Birthdate: October 7, 1934
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Oldenburg, Germany
Died: May 9, 1976
 32 
Nikolai Bukharin
(General Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (1926-1929))
Nikolai Bukharin
3
Birthdate: October 9, 1888
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: March 15, 1938
Marxist economist Nikolai Bukharin was drawn toward the Bolshevik ideology while studying economics. Though a staunch communist and a chief ally of Joseph Stalin, Bukharin was later falsely accused of spying and engaging in counter-revolutionary activities. Following his execution, he was posthumously made a party member in 1988.
 33 
Talaat Pasha
(The Grand Vizier of Turkey during World War I)
Talaat Pasha
3
Birthdate: September 1, 1874
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kardzali, Bulgaria
Died: March 15, 1921

Turkish politician Talaat Pasha, who chaired the Union and Progress Party during its one-party dictatorship, later became the Grand Vizier, or prime minister, of Turkey. He had also been Turkey’s minister of the interior and finance. A convicted war criminal, he was assassinated by an Armenian in Germany, where he had escaped.

 34 
Karl Liebknecht
(German Socialist and One of the Founders of the 'Communist Party of Germany')
Karl Liebknecht
3
Birthdate: August 13, 1871
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Leipzig, Germany
Died: January 15, 1919

German socialist radical Karl Liebknecht is best remembered for co-founding the Spartacus League, an underground group that was declared illegal but later led to the formation of the Communist Party of Germany. He was shot to death on the orders of German commander Waldemar Pabst in the 1919 Spartacus Revolt.

 35 
Augusto César Sandino
(Nicaraguan Revolutionary Who Fought Against the United States Occupation of Nicaragua)
Augusto César Sandino
3
Birthdate: May 18, 1895
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Niquinohomo, Nicaragua
Died: February 21, 1934

Augusto César Sandino was a Nicaraguan revolutionary. From 1927 to 1933, Sandino led a rebellion against the United States occupation of Nicaragua, due to which he was lauded as a hero throughout Latin America. Although the US government labeled him a bandit, Sandino went on to become a symbol of resistance and is revered as a national hero in Nicaragua.

 36 
Arul Pragasam
(Sri Lankan Tamil Activist and Revolutionary)
Arul Pragasam
4
Birthdate: April 13, 1948
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: affna, Sri Lanka
Died: December 3, 2019

Arul Pragasam was a Sri Lankan Tamil activist and revolutionary. He played an important role in the formation of the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students during the Tamil independence movements in England. The movement, which originated in Sri Lanka, aimed at securing an independent Tamil state in the island country due to the oppression of Sri Lankan-Tamils by the government.

 37 
Alexei Rykov
(Russian Bolshevik Revolutionary and Premier of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1930)
Alexei Rykov
3
Birthdate: February 25, 1881
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saratov, Russia
Died: March 15, 1938

Alexei Rykov was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as the  Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union in the 1920s. A key player in the 1905 Russian Revolution, he often came into political conflict with Vladimir Lenin. He oversaw the implementation of the "War Communism" economic policy during the Russian Civil War.

 38 
Agostinho Neto
(Former President of Angola)
Agostinho Neto
3
Birthdate: September 17, 1922
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Ícolo e Bengo
Died: September 10, 1979

MPLA leader Agostinho Neto was Angola’s first president. Born to school teacher parents, Neto grew up to become a poet and later studied medicine. However, while pursuing his academic career, he also participated in indigenous movements. Following his arrest and the subsequent unrest, he joined the Angolan liberation movement.

 39 
Yakov Yurovsky
(Soviet Era Executioner)
Yakov Yurovsky
3
Birthdate: June 19, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tomsk, Siberia, Russian Empire
Died: 1938 AD

Yakov Yurovsky was a Russian Old Bolshevik. Also a Soviet Revolutionary, he acted as the chief executioner of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family on the night of 17 July 1918. A watchmaker by trade, he was a Chekist for a short time. In his later life, he allegedly expressed remorse over his role in the executions.

 40 
Babrak Karmal
(Afghan Politician, Revolutionary and General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan)
Babrak Karmal
3
Birthdate: January 6, 1929
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Kamari, Kabul Province, Afghanistan
Died: December 3, 1996
Babrak Karmal was an Afghan politician and revolutionary. He is best remembered for his role as the General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan from 27 December 1979 to 4 May 1986. Babrak Karmal also served as the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council and as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers between 1979 and 1986.
 41 
Lev Kamenev
(Revolutionary, Political Leader)
Lev Kamenev
3
Birthdate: July 18, 1883
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: August 24, 1936

A communist and an Old Bolshevic, Lev Kamenev was a close aide of Vladimir Lenin. Born to revolutionary parents, Kamenev was exiled but returned to Russia after the February Revolution. At the onset of the Great Purge, he was ousted from his party, arrested, and executed by a firing squad.

 42 
Ali Khamenei
(Supreme Leader of Iran)
Ali Khamenei
10
Birthdate: July 17, 1939
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Mashhad
Ali Khamenei has been serving as the supreme leader of Iran since 1989 and has previously been its president. He is one of the co-founders of the Islamic Republic Party and led his country during the Iran–Iraq War. His reign has also seen extreme treatment of journalists and protestors.
 43 
Laurent-Désiré Kabila
(3rd President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Laurent-Désiré Kabila
3
Birthdate: November 27, 1939
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moba, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Died: January 16, 2001
 44 
Omar Mukhtar
(Ruler of Zawiyat Ayn Kalk)
Omar Mukhtar
3
Birthdate: August 20, 1858
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Zawiyat Zanzur, Libya
Died: September 16, 1931
 45 
Subcomandante Marcos
(Mexican Insurgent, the Former Military Leader and Spokesman for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN))
Subcomandante Marcos
3
Birthdate: June 19, 1957
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tampico, Mexico

One of the most talked-about guerrilla leaders since Che Guevara, Subcomandante Marcos led the Zapatista National Liberation Army. An excellent student in his youth, he briefly taught and later moved to the Chiapas, where he led a rebellion in support of the indigenous people. He is also a talented poet and author.

 46 
Abū Niḍāl
(Palestinian Military Leader and Founder of 'The Abu Nidal Organization')
Abū Niḍāl
5
Birthdate: 1937
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Jaffa, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel
Died: August 16, 2002
Abu Nidal was a Palestinian military leader who founded the Abu Nidal Organization. The organization was considered the most ruthless of all Palestinian groups at the peak of its militancy during the 1970s and 1980s. It is believed that Abu Nidal ordered attacks in at least 20 nations, killing more than 300 and injuring over 650.
 47 
Michael X
(Civil rights activist, Revolutionary)
Michael X
1
Birthdate: August 17, 1933
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Died: May 16, 1975
 48 
Julius Martov
(Russian Revolutionary and Prominent Menshevik Leader)
Julius Martov
3
Birthdate: November 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Constantinople, Turkey
Died: April 4, 1923

Russian revolutionary and politician Julius Martov was a prominent leader of the Mensheviks. A close associate of Vladimir Lenin since his initial political career, he later clashed with Lenin’s ideology of limiting party membership to an exclusive group. He spent his finals years in Berlin as an editor of Socialist Courier.

 49 
Amílcar Cabral
(Agricultural engineer and Politician)
Amílcar Cabral
3
Birthdate: October 24, 1924
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Bafatá, Portuguese Guinea
Died: January 20, 1973
 50 
Anastas Mikoyan
(First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union (1955 - 1964))
Anastas Mikoyan
3
Birthdate: November 25, 1895
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Sanahin, Alaverdi, Armenia
Died: October 21, 1978

Anastas Mikoyan was an Armenian Communist revolutionary. He was an Old Bolshevik. He held several high governmental posts during Joseph Stalin’s rule but began to lose favor towards the end of his regime. He once again regained his power during Nikita Khrushchev’s rule and served as the chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. He also wrote several memoirs.