Birthday: July 19, 1894
Died At Age: 70
Sun Sign: Cancer
Also Known As: Назимуддин, Хаваджа
Born in: Dhaka
Famous as: Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
political ideology: Political party-Muslim League
siblings: Khwaja Shahabuddin
Died on: October 22, 1964
place of death: Dhaka
City: Dhaka, Bangladesh
education: Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Aligarh Muslim University, Dunstable Grammar School
Who was Khawaja Nazimuddin?
Khawaja Nazimuddin, born in Dhaka, is known for being one of the most influential politicians in the history of East Bengal and Pakistan. Even though he hailed from the aristocratic Nawab family of East Bengal, this famous leader was considered by many as the epitome of humility. Having received his education from prestigious institutions in India and England, he harboured a mix of Indian and Western principles. This man is revered to this day by people, because of his integrity, gentle temperament, and sense of commitment towards the good of the nation. This exceptional politician served in posts of high standing, on several occasions, before and after the formation of Pakistan. He was the ‘Education Minister’ as well as the ‘Chief Minister’ of Bengal before the partition of India-Pakistan, and had headed the ‘Muslim League’ for many years. The reforms and measures introduced by him during his term highly benefitted the Muslim population of India. Later, after Pakistan separated from India, he went on to become the Governor-general of the former, finally taking over the post of the country’s Prime Minister. This well-known national leader was a political stalwart during his time, but because of his orthodox ways, was not always popular with the masses. As homage, districts and roads in Pakistan have been named after this passionate leader
Childhood & Early Life
Khawaja Nazimuddin was born on July 19, 1894, in Dhaka, present Bangladesh, to Khwaja Nizamuddinand Nawabzadi BilkeesBano, members of the Nawab family of East Bengal.
He pursued his primary education from the 'Dunstable Grammar School' in Bedfordshire, England. The young man then attended the ‘Aligarh Muslim University’ in Uttar Pradesh, and 'Trinity Hall' college of the 'University of Cambridge', in England, for higher studies.
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He started his political careerin 1922, when hebecame the Chairman of 'Dhaka Municipality', and also held a position at the 'Executive Council' of 'Dhaka University'.
In the Barisal Muslim constituency, he became a 'Member of Bengal Legislative Assembly' on three occasions, from 1923-29.
In 1929 Sir Khawaja was appointed as the 'Education Minister' of Bengal. The same year he became a representative of the ‘Governor’s Executive Council’. As the 'Education Minister', this political leader passed the 'Compulsory Primary Education Bill', which aimed at bringing about educational equality amongst Hindus and Muslims.
Nazimuddin was made the 'Minister of Agriculture' in 1934, in the capacity of which he introduced major reforms like the 'Agriculture Debtors Bill' and the 'Bengal Rural Development Bill', which sought to stop the oppression of Muslim peasants by Hindu zamindars.
The ‘Muslim League’ in Bengal was reorganized by Khawaja, in 1935, and it included all Muslim political parties, barring the ‘KrishakPraja Party’ formed by FazlulHaq. Two years later the former lost to Haq at the general elections held in Bengal's Patuakhali constituency, but won the elections in North Calcutta.
In 1937, this eminent leader became a part of Haq’s Coalition Ministry, serving as the Home Minister for four years. A supporter of Pakistani leader Jinnah, Sir Khawaja resigned from his post when differences with Haq started surfacing.
This dedicated politician was announced the Chief Minister of Bengal in 1943, where he took prompt steps to deal with the famine affecting the region. During the same time, he also served as the Head of the ‘Muslim League’.
In 1945 Nazimuddin’s cabinet of ministers had to step down and his comrade Suhrawardibecame the chief minister.Two years later, when Pakistan was formed, this leader was made the Chief Minister of the new country’s state of East Bengal.
Jinnah passed away in 1948, and Khawaja succeeded the former as Governor-general of Pakistan.The next year, the national leader from Dhaka formed the 'Basic Principles Committee', acting on the suggestionofLiaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, to discuss the principles of the country’s constitution.
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In 1951, Liaquat was succeeded by Sir Khawaja as the Prime minister of Pakistan. He also acted as a representative of the ‘Constituent Assembly’and as the President of ‘Muslim League’.
Adverse circumstances like poor economic conditions, weak governing policies, and the rivalry between the Punjabi and Bengali population led to the dismissal of Nazimuddin as Prime Minister on April 17, 1953. Governor-general Ghulam Mohammad forcibly removed the prime minister and allowed the new ministry to be formed by Mohammad Ali Bogra.
Even though his tenure was prematurely shortened, Sir Khawaja will always be remembered for being one of the most dedicated Prime Ministers of Pakistan. Even today, his removal from the post is considered to have hindered democracy in the country.
Awards and Achievements
In 1926, Nazimuddin was honoured with the title of the ‘Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire’, a rank of courage founded by Queen Victoria.
He received the rank of ‘Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire’, in 1934, from King George V.
Personal Life & Legacy
Khawaja Nazimuddin got married in 1924, to the daughter of Khwaja Ashraf, Shah Bano.
He died on October 22, 1964 and was buried next to the graves of Bangladeshi national leaders, FazlulHaq and Suhrawardi at the ‘SuhrawardiUdyan’, inside the premises of the Dhaka High Court.
This distinguished leader is the eponym of Karachi’s outlying districts of Nazimabad and North Nazimabad. Dhaka and Islamabad, the capital cities of Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively, have the Nazimuddin Roads named in his honour.
The ‘Pakistan Post’, which is a major postal service of the country, issued a stamp as a tribute to Nazimuddin.
This former Prime Minister of Pakistan, knighted by the British Empire, gave up his knighthood in 1946, as a sign of support for the independence struggle in India