Famous Indian Intellectuals & Academics

India has never had a dearth of people who possess powers of logical reasoning and remonstration. The world’s first university at Takshashila was founded by a group of Indian intellectuals. It is because of Aryabhatta, that India can proudly lay claim to ‘Zero’, a mammoth contribution to the number system. India’s freedom from the shackles of colonial rule would not have been possible, if not for intellectuals like Gandhi and Tagore. The country’s economy would have continued to suffer had it not been for economists like Amartya Sen or Bimal Jalan. Indian intellectuals and academics are recognized globally for their contribution to the society in general. Many of them have made their mark on Indian and foreign soils alike. Be it philosophers, writers, professors, researchers, film and theatre personalities, activists or scientists, the Indian society needs such people at every step. These are the people who have been paving the way for India to touch the peak of holistic development. Here we bring you a collection of biographies of some of the most famous Indian intellectuals and academicians. Read on and find out all about their life stories, timelines and also some interesting facts & trivia related to their lives.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Famous As: Socio-religious Reformer
Birthdate: May 22, 1772
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Radhanagore, West Bengal, India
Died: September 27, 1833

Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an Indian social and religious reformer. He is credited with co-founding the Brahmo Sabha, a social-religious reform movement. Often referred to as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance, Roy has had an influential role in fields like politics, education, and religion. In 2004, he was ranked 10th in BBC's Greatest Bengali of all time poll.

 2 Jiddu Krishnamurti

Jiddu Krishnamurti.
Famous As: Public Speaker & Philosopher
Birthdate: May 12, 1895
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Madanapalle
Died: February 17, 1986

Jiddu Krishnamurti was an Indian philosopher, speaker, and writer. Many years after his death, Krishnamurti's supporters oversee several schools based on his views and ideas. The Krishnamurti Foundation runs several schools in India and foreign countries. Among those who were influenced by his works were Toni Packer, Dada Dharmadhikari, and Achyut Patwardhan.

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 3 Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Famous As: Social Reformer, Philosopher
Birthdate: September 26, 1820
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paschim Midnapore District, West Bengal, India
Died: July 29, 1891

 4 Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen.
Famous As: Economist & Philosopher
Birthdate: November 3, 1933
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Santiniketan
Indian economist Amartya Sen was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory. Sen is known for his development of more sophisticated measures of poverty, and also for his work on the causes and prevention of famines. He is considered an important contemporary liberal thinker for his views about the nature and primacy of liberty. 
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 5 Ramana Maharshi

Ramana Maharshi.
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: December 30, 1879
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Tiruchuzhi, Virudhunagar, India
Died: April 14, 1950

Indian Hindu sage Ramana Maharshi had run away to Arunachala, a sacred mountain in Tamil Nadu, at 16, and had stayed there throughout his life. He propagated vichara, or self-enquiry, as the primary means of self-realization, instead of the study of scriptures as proposed by the Advaita Vedanta philosophy.

 6 Osho Rajneesh

Osho Rajneesh.
Famous As: Spiritual leader and Public speaker, Philosopher
Birthdate: December 11, 1931
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Kuchwada, Madhya Pradesh, India
Died: January 19, 1990

Osho Rajneesh was an Indian godman and mystic. Also known as Acharya Rajneesh and Bhagwan Shri Rajneesh, he was the founder of the Rajneesh movement. He preached the importance of meditation, mindfulness, celebration,  love, courage, and creativity and called for a more open attitude to human sexuality, because of which he was considered a controversial new religious movement leader. 

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 7 Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore.
Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: May 7, 1861
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died: August 7, 1941

Rabindranath Tagore was an Indian polymath who contributed greatly to the fields of literature, art, and philosophy. Referred to as the Bard of Bengal, Tagore is credited with reshaping Bengali literature and music. The first non-European to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, Tagore is also credited with composing the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.

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 8 Ramanuja

Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 1017 AD
Birthplace: Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: 1137 AD

 9 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
Famous As: Confident, Ambitious
Birthdate: September 5, 1888
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Thiruttani, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: April 17, 1975

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the second President of India and served from 1962 to 1967. He is regarded as one of India’s most eminent scholars and wrote extensively on Indian philosophy and religion. Lifelong he defended Hindu traditions and culture against criticism from the West. September 5, his birthday, is observed as Teachers Day in India, in his honour.

 10 Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda.
Famous As: Indian Monk
Birthdate: January 12, 1863
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died: July 4, 1902

The founder of the Ramakrishna Mission and Ramakrishna Math, Swami Vivekananda was an Indian Hindu monk, philosopher, and spiritual leader. He is credited with introducing the Indian philosophies of Yoga and Vedanta to the Western world. He is also credited with elevating the status of Hinduism as a major religion in the modern world by raising interfaith awareness.

 11 Jaggi Vasudev

Jaggi Vasudev.
Famous As: Yoga Guru
Birthdate: September 3, 1957
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Mysore, Karnataka, India

The recipient of Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award of India, Jaggi Vasudev is a mystic, yogi, and author.  His spiritual program called inner engineering is famous all over the world, particularly in the Western world. Popularly known as Sadhguru, Jaggi Vasudev's yoga programs, environmental initiatives, and educational and social initiatives have earned him celebrity status in India.

 12 Nagarjuna

Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 0150 AD
Birthplace: Andhra Pradesh
Died: 0250 AD

 13 Tiruvalluvar

Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Uncertain: Madurai,Chennai, India

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar, also known as Valluvar, had written some of the finest masterpieces of Tamil literature, such as his collection of couplets, Tirukkural. His towering statue adorns the coast of Kanyakumari, the southern-most tip of India. He is also known as the patron saint of bus drivers in Chennai.

 14 Kabir

Famous As: Saint and Mystic Poet
Birthdate: 1440 AD
Birthplace: Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died: 1518 AD

Kabir was an Indian saint and mystic poet whose works influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement, which in turn played a key role in the formation of Sikhism, the fifth-largest organized religion in the world. Kabir is an important figure in both Hinduism and Islam and his legacy continues to live through a religious community known as the Kabir panth.

 15 Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh.
Famous As: Former Prime Minister of India
Birthdate: September 26, 1932
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Gah, Punjab, British India (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)

The 13th Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh became the first Sikh in office when he took office in 2004. A prominent economist and academic, he held several key posts in the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. Known for his humility, he  has been described by the media as "one of the world's most revered leaders."

 16 Ramakrishna Paramhamsa

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa.
Famous As: Spiritual & Religious Leader
Birthdate: February 18, 1836
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kamarpukur, West Bengal, India
Died: August 16, 1886

The widely revered Hindu religious leader and saint who had a large following was known for promoting the ancient Indian philosophy of Advaita Vedanta and Bhakti. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa was a devotee of Goddess Kali who he worshipped as the universal mother. His marriage to Sharada Devi was never consummated. Swami Vivekanada was the most famous disciple of the Bengal-born mystic.

 17 Sri Aurobindo

Sri Aurobindo.
Famous As: Philosopher, Spiritual Leader
Birthdate: August 15, 1872
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died: December 5, 1950

Sri Aurobindo was an Indian philosopher, poet, yogi, teacher, and nationalist. He was one of the most influential leaders of the Indian independence movement before becoming a spiritual reformer, focusing on spiritual evolution and human progress. He is credited with founding the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry, which continues to serve spiritual aspirants from all over the world.

 18 Girish Karnad

Girish Karnad
Famous As: Linguist, Author, Film director, Actor, Translator, Screenwriter
Birthdate: May 19, 1938
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Matheran, Maharashtra, India

Actor, film director and playwright, Girish Karnad was also a Rhodes Scholar with a Masters degree in philosophy, political science and economics. A prolific writer, he authored scores of plays in Kannada, which were later translated into other languages. Also an eminent actor, film director and screenwriter, he was conferred with numerous awards including the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan.

 19 Raghuram Rajan

Raghuram Rajan.
Famous As: Adviser
Birthdate: February 3, 1963
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Bhopal

 20 Paramahansa Yogananda

Paramahansa Yogananda.
Famous As: Guru
Birthdate: January 5, 1893
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died: March 7, 1952

Paramahansa Yogananda was an Indian Hindu monk, yogi, and guru. He is known for introducing the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his organization Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF) / Yogoda Satsanga Society (YSS) of India to millions across the world. He authored the book Autobiography of a Yogi and is considered the Father of Yoga in the West.

 21 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
Famous As: Founder of Aligarh Muslim University
Birthdate: October 17, 1817
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Delhi, India
Died: March 27, 1898
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the founder of the Aligarh Muslim University. He is accredited as the father of Two-Nation Theory and is regarded as the originator of Muslim nationalism in India. A proponent of freedom of speech and democratic ideals, he propelled social and educational reforms.

 22 Urjit Patel

Urjit Patel
Famous As: Economist
Birthdate: October 28, 1963
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Nairobi, Kenya

 23 Abhijit Banerjee

Abhijit Banerjee.
Famous As: Economist
Birthdate: February 21, 1961
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Calcutta, India

Born to economics professor parents, Abhijit Banerjee grew up in India before he moved to the U.S. to study at Harvard. He later taught at Harvard and Princeton and is now associated with MIT. His studies on the ways of reducing world poverty won him a Nobel Prize.

 24 Madhvacharya

Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 1238 AD
Birthplace: Pajaka, India
Died: 1317 AD

 25 Subramanian Swamy

Subramanian Swamy
Famous As: Economist, Politician, Author
Birthdate: September 15, 1939
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Mylapore

Indian politician Subramanian Swamy, who is a BJP MP, has also been the president of the Janata Party earlier. Known for his far-right views, he was previously a professor economics at IIT, Delhi. He boasts of a PhD from Harvard and has penned several books, such as Terrorism in India.

 26 Romila Thapar

Romila Thapar
Famous As: Historian, University teacher
Birthdate: November 30, 1931
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Lucknow

 27 Jnanadeva

Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: 1275 AD
Birthplace: Alandi, India
Died: 1296 AD

Jnanadeva was an Indian poet, philosopher, saint, and yogi who lived in the 13th century AD. He is credited with authoring Dnyaneshwari, the oldest surviving work in the Marathi language. He is also credited with co-founding the Varkari Bhakti movement tradition of Hinduism. Over the years, Jnanadeva's legacy has inspired several saint-poets, including Tukaram and Eknath.  

 28 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar.
Famous As: Independence Activist, Reformer
Birthdate: May 28, 1883
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Bhagur
Died: February 26, 1966

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian politician and independence activist. He formulated the Hindu nationalist philosophy of Hindutva and was a leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha. He was known for his strong oratory skills and was an eloquent writer. He was initially charged as a co-conspirator in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was later acquitted.

 29 Ramananda

Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: 1380 AD
Birthplace: Prayagraj, India
Died: 1475 AD

Ramananda was a 14th-century Vaishnava devotional poet-saint who lived in India. He is considered the founder of the Bairagi Sampradaya, popularly known as the Ramanandi Sect. He was a pioneering figure of the Bhakti movement and an early social reformer. Unlike many other saints of his era, he accepted disciples without any caste or gender discrimination. 

 30 Debendranath Tagore

Debendranath Tagore.
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: May 15, 1817
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kolkata
Died: January 19, 1905

 31 Basava

Famous As: Hindu religious leader
Birthdate: 1105 AD
Birthplace: Basavan Bagewadi, India
Died: 1167 AD

Basava was an Indian poet, philosopher, social reformer, statesman, and saint who lived in the 12th century AD. He is credited with spreading social awareness through his poems. Although hagiographic texts and traditional legends claim that Basava founded Lingayatism, modern scholars believe that he refined and popularized the already existing religious tradition, which is popular in Karnataka, South India.

 32 Patanjali

Famous As: Author
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: India
Died: 0150 AD

 33 Keshab Chunder Sen

Keshab Chunder Sen
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: November 19, 1838
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Kolkata, India
Died: January 8, 1884

 34 E.M.S. Namboodiripad

E.M.S. Namboodiripad
Famous As: Politician
Birthdate: June 13, 1909
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Perintalmanna, Madras Presidency, British India
Died: March 19, 1998

 35 Vyasa

Famous As: Author
Birthdate: 0000 BC
Birthplace: Kalpi

Indian sage Vyasa, also known as Vedavyasa, is regarded as the author of one of the most significant Indian epics, the Mahabharata. Considered one of the seven immortals of Hinduism, he is also credited with dividing the Vedas into four parts and penned the eighteen Puranas.

 36 Abul A'la Maududi

Abul A'la Maududi
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: September 25, 1903
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Aurangabad, India
Died: September 22, 1979

 37 Aśvaghoṣa

Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 0080 AD
Birthplace: Ayodhya, India
Died: 0150 AD

Aśvaghoṣa was an Indian Buddhist philosopher, poet, dramatist, and orator. Widely regarded as one of the greatest Indian poets of all time, Aśvaghoṣa was the most popular and important poet among a group of Buddhist court writers. He is credited with writing two of the most important Sanskrit-language poems held dear by the Buddhist community—Buddhacharita and Saundarananda.

 38 Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi.
Famous As: Leader of Indian Independence Movement
Birthdate: October 2, 1869
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British Indian Empire
Died: January 30, 1948

An Indian lawyer and anti-colonial nationalist, Mahatma Gandhi was a major figure in India’s fight for independence from British rule. He is renowned for his employment of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience methods. Despite his popularity, he had numerous detractors as well and was assassinated in 1948. He is widely considered the Father of the Nation in India.

 39 Maithili Sharan Gupt

Maithili Sharan Gupt
Famous As: Linguist, Poet, Politician, Translator
Birthdate: August 3, 1886
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Chirgaon
Died: December 12, 1964

Maithili Sharan Gupt was a Hindi poet considered one of the most important modern poets in the language. He was a pioneer of  Khari Boli (plain dialect) poetry. Most of his works were on patriotic themes, and he was widely quoted during India’s independence struggle. Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi gave Gupt the title of Rashtra Kavi. 

 40 Pampa

Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: 0902 AD
Birthplace: Vemulawada, Telangana, India
Died: 0975 AD

Pampa was an Indian poet remembered for his works written in the Kannada language. A court poet of Arikesari II, Pampa is renowned for writing epics like Vikramarjuna Vijaya and Adipurana. These epics served as a paradigm for future works written in the champu style. Along with Ranna and Ponna, Pampa is counted among the three gems of Kannada literature.

 41 Satish Dhawan

Satish Dhawan
Famous As: Aerospace engineer, Engineer
Birthdate: September 25, 1920
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Srinagar
Died: January 3, 2002

 42 Ramachandra Guha

Ramachandra Guha.
Famous As: Writer
Birthdate: April 29, 1958
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh, India (now in Uttarakhand, India)

 43 Adi Shankara

Adi Shankara.
Famous As: Advaita Philosopher
Birthdate: 0788 AD
Birthplace: Kalady
Died: 0820 AD
Indian philosopher and theologian Adi Shankaracharya, or Adi Shankara, promoted the Hindu philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. His Sanskrit works talk about concepts such as the Ātman and Nirguna Brahman. He criticized the Mīmāṃsā school and explained the differences between Hinduism and Buddhism. He also established four "mathas," or monasteries.

 44 Rajmohan Gandhi

Rajmohan Gandhi
Famous As: writer, university teacher
Birthdate: 1935 AD
Birthplace: New Delhi

 45 Purandara Dasa

Purandara Dasa
Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: 1484 AD
Birthplace: Shimoga, Karnataka, India
Died: January 2, 1564

 46 Mahadev Govind Ranade

Mahadev Govind Ranade.
Famous As: Judge, Social Reformer
Birthdate: January 18, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Niphad
Died: January 16, 1901

 47 M. N. Roy

M. N. Roy.
Famous As: Indian Revolutionary
Birthdate: March 22, 1887
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Changripota, 24 Parganas, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day West Bengal, India)
Died: January 25, 1954

Apart from being one of the co-founders of the Communist Party of India, M. N. Roy also established the Mexican Communist Party. Jailed for his political activities, he penned the nine-volume Prison Manuscripts in prison. He later joined the Indian National Congress but quit it soon after.

 48 Akka Mahadevi

Akka Mahadevi
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Karnataka

 49 Swami Sivananda

Swami Sivananda
Famous As: Spiritual & Yoga Teacher
Birthdate: September 8, 1887
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: July 14, 1963

 50 Yellapragada Subbarow

Yellapragada Subbarow
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: January 12, 1895
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bhimavaram
Died: August 9, 1948

Yellapragada Subbarow was an Indian biochemist who is credited with developing methotrexate, an immune-system suppressant and chemotherapy agent which is widely used to treat autoimmune diseases and cancer. He also helped American plant physiologist Benjamin Duggar discover chlortetracycline, the world's first tetracycline antibiotic.