Famous 18th Century Emperors & Kings

Right IconThis ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

Find out more about the greatest 18th Century Emperors & Kings, including George III of the United Kingdom, Tipu Sultan, Louis XVI of France, William IV of the United Kingdom and Frederick The Great.
Vote for Your Favourite 18th Century Emperors & Kings
 1 
Napoleon Bonaparte
(Emperor of the French (1804-1814))
Napoleon Bonaparte
93
Birthdate: August 15, 1769
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ajaccio, France
Died: May 5, 1821
French military leader Napoleon Bonaparte ruled as the French emperor from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815. He strengthened France’s position in Europe through the Napoleonic Wars and extended his kingdom. However, he was eventually defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo and sent to exile. 
 2 
Louis XIV of France
(King of France from 1643 to 1715)
Louis XIV of France
32
Birthdate: September 5, 1638
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Died: September 1, 1715

Louis XIV of France reigned as the King of France from 1643 to 1715. Louis XIV is the longest-reigning monarch of a sovereign country in the history of Europe. Under his rule, France often asserted its military prowess and emerged as the most dominant European monarchy. His life inspired several films, such as The Taking of Power by Louis XIV.

 3 
Frederick The Great
(Former King of Prussia (1740 - 1786))
Frederick The Great
18
Birthdate: January 24, 1712
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: August 17, 1786
Prussian king Frederick II, also known as Frederick the Great and The Old Fritz, was the longest-reigning Hohenzollern king. He is known for his involvement in the Silesian Wars and the Partitions of Poland. He also supported art and culture, and reformed the judicial system of Prussia.
Recommended Lists:
 4 
George III of the United Kingdom
(King of Great Britain and of Ireland from 1760 to 1801)
George III of the United Kingdom
22
Birthdate: June 4, 1738
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: January 29, 1820

The King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for almost six decades, George III had a reign that was longer than those of any of his predecessors. His reign was marked by a series of military conflicts. He suffered from mental illness in his later years.

 5 
Louis XV of France
(Former King of France (1715 - 1774))
Louis XV of France
9
Birthdate: February 15, 1710
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France
Died: May 10, 1774
After losing his parents and his brother to measles, Louis XV became the king of France at the tender age of 5. Known for his extravagances and his reliance on his mistresses, Louis XV was disliked by most. His reign also witnessed judicial reforms and the Seven Years’ War.
 6 
Louis XVI of France
(King of France)
Louis XVI of France
14
Birthdate: August 23, 1754
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France
Died: January 21, 1793

Louis XVI of France reigned as the last king of France from 1774 to 1792 before the French Revolution, which ended the monarchy in France. During his reign, Louis made attempts to remove land and labor tax, abolish serfdom, and improve tolerance toward non-Catholics. However, the proposed reforms were opposed by the French nobility.

 7 
Shaka
(Zulu Emperor)
Shaka
15
Birthdate: 1787 AD
Birthplace: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Died: September 22, 1828

Widely regarded as one of the most influential and important monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, Shaka reigned as the king of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. Through a series of influential and wide-reaching reforms, Shaka was able to re-organize the Zulu military into a formidable force. His life and work inspired the 1986 South African TV series, Shaka Zulu.

 8 
George II of Great Britain
(Former King of Great Britain & Ireland (1727 - 1760))
George II of Great Britain
23
Birthdate: November 10, 1683
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Hanover, Germany
Died: October 25, 1760
George II was the king of Great Britain from 1727 to 1760. He had negligible control over his country’s policies, as the Parliament took most of the significant decisions back then. His participation in the 1743 Battle of Dettingen made him the last British monarch to fight in a battle.
 9 
William IV of the United Kingdom
(King of the United Kingdom (1830 - 1837))
William IV of the United Kingdom
11
Birthdate: August 21, 1765
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: London, England
Died: June 20, 1837
William IV, the third son of George III, was the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and that of Hanover, from 1830 to 1837. His stint in the Royal Navy earned him the nickname “Sailor King.” He introduced electoral reforms, abolished slavery, and restricted child labor.
 10 
Kamehameha I
(King of Hawaii)
Kamehameha I
14
Birthdate: 1758 AD
Birthplace: Kohala, Hawaii
Died: May 8, 1819
 11 
Ahmad Shah Durrani
(Founder of the 'Durrani Empire')
Ahmad Shah Durrani
11
Birthdate: 1722 AD
Birthplace: Herat, Afghanistan
Died: June 4, 1772
Ahmad Shah Durrani reigned as the first Emir of the Durrani Empire from 1747 to 1772. Credited with founding the Durrani Empire, Ahmad Shah is also considered the founder of modern Afghanistan. The Durrani Empire thrived under Ahmad Shah's reign and he was succeeded by his son Timur Shah Durrani.
 12 
George I of Great Britain
(Former King of Great Britain and Ireland (1714 - 1727))
George I of Great Britain
18
Birthdate: May 28, 1660
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Hanover, Germany
Died: June 11, 1727
George I ruled as the king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727. He also ruled the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1698 to 1727. He was the House of Hanover’s first British monarch. George's reign witnessed the rise of Robert Walpole and the cabinet government. 
 13 
Nader Shah
(Shah of Iran from 1736 to 1747)
Nader Shah
27
Birthdate: October 22, 1688
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Dargaz, Iran
Died: June 19, 1747

Nader Shah reigned over Iran as the Shah of Iran from 1736 until his death in 1747. He is widely regarded as one of the most powerful rulers in the history of Iran. He has also been described as the Napoleon of Persia, thanks to his military genius, which was evident in his several campaigns.

 14 
Philip V of Spain
(Former King of Spain (1700 - 1724))
Philip V of Spain
8
Birthdate: December 19, 1683
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Versailles, France
Died: July 9, 1746

Philip V reigned as the king of Spain from November 1700 to January 1724, and again from September 1724 to 1746. Philip introduced the centralization of monarchy and imposed the Nueva Planta decrees. Philip's accession initiated the 13-year War of the Spanish Succession. His final years were marred by depression.

 15 
Qianlong Emperor
(Emperor of China)
Qianlong Emperor
13
Birthdate: September 25, 1711
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Lama Temple, Beijing, China
Died: February 7, 1799
The Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty was the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor and reigned over China from 1735 to 1796. Known for the economic prosperity and military prowess his kingdom gained under his rule, he continued to indirectly rule as the Retired Emperor even after his abdication.
 16 
Leopold I of Belgium
(First King of the Belgians (1831 - 1865))
Leopold I of Belgium
8
Birthdate: December 16, 1790
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Coburg, Germany
Died: December 10, 1865
Leopold I, the youngest son of Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was the first king of Belgium and reigned from 1831 to 1865. He fought against Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars. He rejected the throne of Greece. His reign is known for establishing Belgium's first railway and for its modernization.
 17 
Paul I of Russia
(Emperor of Russia (1796 - 1801))
Paul I of Russia
15
Birthdate: October 1, 1754
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: March 24, 1801
Paul I ruled as the Russian emperor from 1796 till his assassination in 1801. He was officially the son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, but it is believed he was sired by Catherine’s lover, Sergei Saltykov. Paul established the law of succession to the throne of Russia.
 18 
George IV of the United Kingdom
(King of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1820 - 1830))
George IV of the United Kingdom
12
Birthdate: August 12, 1762
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: London, England
Died: June 26, 1830

Regarded as the first gentleman of England, King George IV of the United Kingdom saw his empire consolidating its position as the global hegemon, particularly after the Napoleonic Wars. His regency during the illness of his father and then his 10-year reign were marked by royal extravagance. 

 19 
Kangxi Emperor
(Emperor of the Qing Dynasty from 1661 to 1722)
Kangxi Emperor
8
Birthdate: May 4, 1654
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Beijing, China
Died: December 20, 1722
Son of emperor Shunzhi and empress Xiaokang, Xuanye, or the Kangxi Emperor, was the Qing dynasty’s third emperor. Apart from signing the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia, he crushed the revolt of the three warlords, known as the Rebellion of Wu Sangui. He was also known to be a workaholic.
 20 
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790)
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
7
Birthdate: March 13, 1741
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: February 20, 1790

Joseph II reigned as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1765, and as the sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780, until 1790. Son of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I, and brother of Marie Antoinette, he laid down policies now known as Josephinism. He died without heirs.

 21 
Charles XII of Sweden
(King of Sweden (1697 – 1718))
Charles XII of Sweden
10
Birthdate: June 27, 1682
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: December 11, 1718
Charles XII ruled Sweden as an absolute monarch for 18 years during the Great Northern War. He took over the throne at 15. Although appreciated for his effective legal and tax reforms, he is known to have led Sweden to immense destruction by participating in the 1707-1709 campaign against Russia.
 22 
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806)
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
11
Birthdate: February 12, 1768
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: March 2, 1835
Francis II reigned as the last Holy Roman Emperor, from 1792 to 1806, and as the Emperor of Austria (as Francis I), from 1804 to 1835. Francis II fought against Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars and lost at Austerlitz. Eventually, his daughter Marie Louise was married off to Napoleon.
 23 
Peter III of Russia
(Emperor of Russia (January 1762 - July 1762))
Peter III of Russia
16
Birthdate: February 21, 1728
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kiel, Germany
Died: July 17, 1772

Peter III of Russia reigned over Russia as the emperor for just six months in 1762 before being deposed by people loyal to his wife Catherine II, who then succeeded him. In his short reign, Peter made progressive reforms, including the abolishment of the secret police, which was renowned for its extreme violence. Peter is often portrayed in films.

 24 
Louis XVIII of France
(King of France from 1814 to 1824)
Louis XVIII of France
5
Birthdate: November 17, 1755
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Versailles, France
Died: September 16, 1824

Louis XVIII of France was the king of France from 1814 to 1824, except for the duration of the “Hundred Days” in 1815.  He was the son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony. He ruled for slightly less than a decade. He was not popular as a king.

 25 
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
7
Birthdate: June 5, 1771
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: November 18, 1851
 26 
Tipu Sultan
(Ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore Based in South India)
Tipu Sultan
30
Birthdate: December 1, 1751
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Died: May 4, 1799
Tipu Sultan, or the “Tiger of Mysore,” ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1782 to 1799. Apart from improving his kingdom’s military arrangements, he also established a new calendar, a new land-revenue system, and a coinage system. He died while defending the fort of Seringapatam in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War.
 27 
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1745 - 1765))
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: December 8, 1708
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Nancy, France
Died: August 18, 1765
Married to Maria Theresa, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, was often outshone by his wife. Their marriage was a political step of Maria’s father, Emperor Charles VI. An art connoisseur, Francis was not as much interested in the administrative affairs of his kingdom as he was in the cultural aspects.
 28 
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1806 - 1826))
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
5
Birthdate: January 2, 1784
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Coburg, Germany
Died: January 29, 1844

Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha reigned as the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld from 9 December 1806 to 12 November 1826. He oversaw the construction of many projects, including a court theatre, in Coburg. Ernest is also remembered for the educational, constitutional, and economic development of his territories.

 29 
Jean-Jacques Dessalines
(Haitian General)
Jean-Jacques Dessalines
5
Birthdate: September 20, 1758
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Guinea
Died: August 17, 1806

Jean-Jacques Dessalines was an important figure and leader of the Haitian Revolution. He went on to rule an independent Haiti, which became the first country to abolish slavery permanently. Considered one of Haiti's founding fathers, Dessalines reigned as the emperor of Haiti from 1804 until his murder in 1806. Today, he is regarded as an icon of Haitian nationalism.

 30 
Ivan VI of Russia
(Emperor of Russia)
Ivan VI of Russia
8
Birthdate: August 23, 1740
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: July 16, 1764
The eldest child of Duke Anthony Ulrich and Duchess Anna Leopoldovna, Ivan VI of Russia, took over the throne as a 2-month-old baby, with his mother as the regent. His first cousin Elizabeth’s coup later resulted in his imprisonment for 20 years and his eventual assassination. 
 31 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(1st Maharaja of the Sikh Empire)
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
17
Birthdate: November 2, 1780
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Gujranwala, Pakistan
Died: June 27, 1839
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, also known as the "Lion of Punjab" and the “Napoleon of the East,” was a Sikh leader who reigned over the northwest Indian subcontinent in the 19th century. He fought valiantly against the Afghans and introduced many modern reforms. His Khalsa Army included people of all religions.
 32 
Baji Rao I
(Peshwa of Maratha Empire from 1720 to 1740)
Baji Rao I
5
Birthdate: August 18, 1700
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sinnar, Maharashtra, India
Died: April 28, 1740

Baji Rao I was a peshwa, or chief minister, of the Maratha empire in India. His conquests led a massive blow to the Mughal Empire. In spite of being married to Kashibai, he took a second wife, half-Muslim Mastani, a story that was retold in several movies later.

 33 
Yongzheng Emperor
(Fourth Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (1722 - 1735))
Yongzheng Emperor
7
Birthdate: December 13, 1678
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Beijing, China
Died: October 8, 1735

Yongzheng reigned over the Qing dynasty as its fourth Emperor from 1722 to 1735. He was also the third Qing emperor to reign over the Eighteen Provinces. Remembered for his hard-working nature, Yongzheng's most prominent objective was to come up with an effective government at minimum expense. Yongzheng, who cracked down on corruption, is credited with forming the Grand Council.

 34 
Mahmud II
(Sultan of Ottoman Empire)
Mahmud II
3
Birthdate: July 20, 1785
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: İstanbul, Turkey
Died: July 1, 1839

Mahmud II reigned as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 to 1839. His reign was marked by the extensive military, administrative, and fiscal reforms which he initiated. The reforms that he initiated eventually led to the formation of the modern Turkish Republic. He is also credited with rebuilding a strong naval force for the empire.

 35 
Frederick William I of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1713 - 1740))
Frederick William I of Prussia
3
Birthdate: August 14, 1688
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: May 31, 1740

The Soldier King Frederick William I of Prussia is remembered for transforming his nation into a prosperous state. He was known for his simple lifestyle, as opposed to his father’s kingly excesses. His experience at the War of the Spanish Succession led him to strengthen Prussia militarily, too.

 36 
Peter II of Russia
(Emperor of Russia (1727 - 1730))
Peter II of Russia
8
Birthdate: October 23, 1715
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: January 30, 1730
Peter II Alexeyevich, the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, ruled as the emperor of Russia from 1727 to 1730. He became a Tsar as a child but died an untimely death due to small pox at 14, on the day that he had planned to marry Ekaterina Dolgorukova.
 37 
William III of England
(Former King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689 - 1702))
William III of England
19
Birthdate: November 14, 1650
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: The Hague, Netherlands
Died: March 8, 1702
King William III of England, son of William II, Prince of Orange, was also known as William of Orange. A staunch Protestant, he is remembered for his joint rule with his wife, Queen Mary II, and for his exploits such as the Glorious Revolution and the Nine Years' War.
 38 
Muḥammad Shah
(13th Mughal Emperor Who Reigned from 1719 to 1748)
Muḥammad Shah
5
Birthdate: August 7, 1702
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ghaznī, Afghanistan
Died: April 6, 1748
Muhammad Shah reigned as the 13th Mughal Emperor from 27 September 1719 to 26 April 1748. A patron of music and other forms of art, Shah also encouraged cultural and scientific developments during his reign. Muhammad Shah's reign also marked the decline of the great Mughal Empire.
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: October 1, 1685
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: The Hofburg, Vienna, Austria
Died: October 20, 1740

Much before his daughter Maria Theresa’s birth, Emperor Charles VI’s Pragmatic Sanction enabled his future daughter to succeed him, due to the lack of male heirs. Though he was always busy fighting, he apparently did it all to bring about peace. He had also unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Spain.

 40 
Joseph Bonaparte
(Older Brother of Napoleon Bonaparte)
Joseph Bonaparte
6
Birthdate: January 7, 1768
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Corte, France
Died: July 28, 1844

Older brother of Napoleon, Joseph Bonaparte, had been the king of Naples and Spain. After Napoleon’s fall, he was exiled to New Jersey, U.S. Later, in Europe, he lived a lavish life at Point Breeze, surrounded by all the wealth he had inherited, along with a classy collection of paintings.

 41 
Jiaqing Emperor
(6th Emperor of the Qing dynasty (1796 - 1820))
Jiaqing Emperor
3
Birthdate: November 13, 1760
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Yuanmingyuan Park, Beijing, China
Died: September 2, 1820

Jiaqing served as the sixth emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1796 to 1820. He was also the fifth Qing emperor to reign over the Eighteen Provinces. Jiaqing's reign is remembered for the prosecution of a corrupt official named Heshen. He made several attempts to curb the smuggling of opium into his dynasty and to restore order within the empire.

 42 
Aurangzeb
(6th Emperor of the Mughal Empire (1658 - 1707))
Aurangzeb
47
Birthdate: November 3, 1618
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Dahod, Gujarat, India
Died: March 3, 1707

Aurangzeb reigned over most part of the Indian subcontinent for 49 years as the sixth Mughal emperor. He helped the Mughal Empire reach its greatest extent and helped India become the biggest manufacturing power and the world's largest economy. He was known for his religious piety and led a very simple life..

 43 
Charles IV of Spain
(Former King of Spain (1788 - 1808))
Charles IV of Spain
5
Birthdate: November 11, 1748
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Portici, Italy
Died: January 20, 1819
Charles IV of Spain reigned as the king of Spain from 1788 to 1808. His reign turned out to be a turning point in the history of Spain for various reasons. His reign is often criticized for allowing Spain to enter a series of unpropitious alliances, which eventually led to his abdication. 
 44 
Frederick William II of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1786 - 1797))
Frederick William II of Prussia
3
Birthdate: September 25, 1744
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Berlin Palace, Berlin
Died: November 16, 1797

Though he wasn’t a politically experienced ruler, Frederick William II’s reign as the king of Prussia proved to be beneficial for the country in terms of expansion. However, his excesses and his affinity for Protestantism made him unpopular. He patronized art and culture and even played the cello.

 45 
William I of the Netherlands
(King of the Netherlands (1815 - 1840))
William I of the Netherlands
4
Birthdate: August 24, 1772
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: The Hague, Netherlands
Died: December 12, 1843

William I of the Netherlands reigned as the king of the Netherlands from 1815 to 1840. Before declaring himself King of the Netherlands, William I had an influential career in the military. In 1790, he was made the Dutch States Army's general of infantry where he served under his father William V, who served as Captain-General. 

Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France
3
Birthdate: October 22, 1781
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Palace of Versailles, France
Died: June 4, 1789
 47 
Frederick I of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1701 - 1713))
Frederick I of Prussia
3
Birthdate: June 11, 1676
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Königsberg, Germany
Died: February 25, 1713

Frederick I of Prussia reigned as the King of Prussia from 1701 until his death in 1713. He crowned himself in 1701 in Königsberg and proclaimed himself King in Prussia. A patron of learning and arts, Frederick I is credited with founding the Academy of Arts in 1696 as well as the Academy of Sciences in 1700.

 48 
Agustín de Iturbide
(Emperor of Mexico (1822 - 1823))
Agustín de Iturbide
3
Birthdate: September 27, 1783
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Morelia, Mexico
Died: July 19, 1824

Agustín de Iturbide was a Mexican politician and army general who played a key role during the Mexican War of Independence. During the war, Agustín built a successful military and political coalition that brought the entire Mexico City under its control on 27 September 1821, thus playing an important role in gaining independence for Mexico.

 49 
Charles III of Spain
(Former King of Spain (1759 - 1788))
Charles III of Spain
5
Birthdate: January 20, 1716
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Madrid, Spain
Died: December 14, 1788

Charles III succeeded his heir-less half-brother, King Ferdinand VI, to the throne of Spain. Apart from rejuvenating the areas of scientific research and agriculture, Charles also reduced the powers of the Church. He was also known for his signature Bourbon nose, his cynicism, and his sharp tongue.

 50 
Louis Bonaparte
(Former King of Holland (1806 - 1810))
Louis Bonaparte
3
Birthdate: September 2, 1778
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Ajaccio, France
Died: July 25, 1846

Louis Bonaparte reigned over the Kingdom of Holland from 1806 to 1810. The younger brother of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis followed in the footsteps of his brother and served in the French Army. He was later made the new king of Holland by Napoleon. However, Louis' wilfulness forced Napoleon to annex Holland into the French Empire and Louis fled into exile.