Famous 18th Century British Mathematicians

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 1 
Charles Babbage
(Father of the computer)
Charles Babbage
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Birthdate: December 26, 1791
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: London, England
Died: October 18, 1871
Charles Babbage, or the “father of the computer,” invented the prototype of the world’s first mechanical calculator, the Difference Engine. With the help of mathematician Ada Lovelace, he also created the Analytical Engine, the first general-purpose computer and a precursor of the modern computer, with its looping and sequential mechanism.
 2 
Isaac Newton
(Formulated the Laws of Motion & Universal Gravitation)
Isaac Newton
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Birthdate: January 4, 1643
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Lincolnshire, England
Died: March 31, 1727

One of the most influential and popular scientists of all time, Sir Isaac Newton played a prominent role in our understanding of natural phenomena. He formulated the law of universal gravitation and laws of motion. He also developed the Newtonian telescope among other devices. Apart from science, Newton was also intrigued by religion, occult, and alchemy.

 3 
Edmond Halley
(Mathematician known for Calculating the Orbit of a Comet & Was the Second Astronomer Royal in Britain)
Edmond Halley
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Birthdate: November 8, 1656
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Haggerston, London, England
Died: January 14, 1742

Edmond Halley was an English astronomer and mathematician who was mainly concerned with practical applications of science. He abandoned college education to travel to St. Helena. He published catalogue of 341 southern stars with telescopically determined locations. Known for his wide range of interest, he helped Newton to publish his magnum opus,  Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. He used Newton's Law of Motion to compute periodicty of Halley’s Comet.

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 4 
Mary Somerville
(Mathematician, Linguist, Translator, Astronomer, Scientist)
Mary Somerville
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Birthdate: December 26, 1780
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Jedburgh
Died: November 28, 1872

One of the two pioneering female honorary members of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mary Somerville was a 19th-century polymath and science writer. Though she specialized in math and astronomy, she was also well-versed in botany and geology. The Connection of the Physical Sciences remains her most notable work.

 5 
Thomas Bayes
(Former Statistician who is known for formulating a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem)
Thomas Bayes
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Birthdate: 1701 AD
Birthplace: London, England
Died: April 7, 1761
 6 
David Brewster
(Scientist)
David Brewster
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Birthdate: December 11, 1781
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Jedburgh, Scotland
Died: February 10, 1868

David Brewster was a British scientist, inventor, and author. He conducted many experiments in physical optics, especially concerned with the study of the polarization of light. Fellow scientist William Whewell dubbed him the "father of modern experimental optics." He was also a pioneer in photography and invented an improved stereoscope. He wrote numerous works of popular science as well. 

 7 
William Whewell
(Economist, Physicist, Historian, Philosopher, Writer, University teacher, Mathematician)
William Whewell
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Birthdate: May 24, 1794
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lancaster
Died: March 6, 1866

William Whewell was an English polymath, scientist, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. He worked in a wide range of fields, publishing works in the disciplines of physics, mechanics, geology, economics, and astronomy. He also wrote poetry, sermons, and theological tracts. He is credited with coining the terms linguistics, physicist, consilience, scientist, catastrophism, and uniformitarianism.

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 8 
Brook Taylor
(Mathematician)
Brook Taylor
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Birthdate: August 18, 1685
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Edmonton
Died: December 29, 1731
 9 
William Playfair
(Economist, Mathematician, Engineer, Statistician)
William Playfair
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Birthdate: September 22, 1759
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Dundee
Died: February 11, 1823

Scottish engineer and political economist William Playfair is best-remembered as the inventor of statistical graphs and secret agent for Great Britain during its war with France. He published the first data graphs in his book The Commercial and Political Atlas. He used line, area and bar charts to represent the economy of 18th Century England and introduced the pie chart.

 10 
George Green
(Mathematician)
George Green
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Birthdate: July 14, 1793
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Sneinton, Nottinghamshire, England
Died: May 31, 1841

With one year of formal schooling, George Green was entirely self-taught until the age of forty, when he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. By then, he had published his first book, propagating what are now known as Green’s theorem and Green’s functions. A fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, he also established Green's identities, Green's law, and Green's matrix.

 11 
Colin Maclaurin
(Edinburgh)
Colin Maclaurin
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Birthdate: February 1, 1698
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Argyll
Died: June 14, 1746

Colin Maclaurin was a Scottish mathematician best remembered for his contributions to algebra and geometry. A child prodigy, Maclaurin became one of the youngest professors in history when he became a professor of mathematics at the age of 19. Colin Maclaurin also contributed immensely to the study of elliptic integrals and is credited with discovering the Euler–Maclaurin formula.

 12 
William Jones
(Philologist)
William Jones
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Birthdate: September 28, 1746
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: London, England
Died: April 27, 1794
 13 
Richard Price
(Moral Philosopher and Mathematician Best Known for Editing, Publishing and Developing 'Bayes–Price Theorem')
Richard Price
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Birthdate: February 23, 1723
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Llangeinor, Wales
Died: April 19, 1791
 14 
James Ivory
(Mathematician)
James Ivory
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Birthdate: February 17, 1765
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Dundee, Scotland
Died: September 21, 1842

James Ivory was a British mathematician and astronomer best remembered for developing Ivory's Theorem. In 1814, he was honored with the prestigious Copley Medal for publishing several important memoirs.

 15 
John Arbuthnot
(Physician)
John Arbuthnot
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Birthdate: April 29, 1667
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kincardineshire
Died: February 27, 1735
 16 
Dugald Stewart
(Philosopher)
Dugald Stewart
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Birthdate: November 22, 1753
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Edinburgh,Scotland
Died: June 11, 1828

Dugald Stewart was a Scottish mathematician and philosopher best remembered for his efforts to popularize the works of Adam Smith and Francis Hutcheson. Considered one of the most prominent personalities of the Scottish Enlightenment, Stewart played a major role in explaining the Scottish Common Sense Realism. Among his students were Sir Walter Scott, Sir Archibald Alison, and Sir James Mackintosh. 

 17 
William Hopkins
(Mathematician, Geologist)
William Hopkins
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Birthdate: February 2, 1793
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kingston on Soar
Died: October 13, 1866

William Hopkins was an English geologist and mathematician. He is remembered for serving as a private tutor of prospective undergraduate Cambridge mathematicians, which earned him the nickname senior-wrangler maker. Hopkins also played first-class cricket and was associated with Cambridge University Cricket Club. He had an unfortunate end to his life as he spent his final years in a lunatic asylum.

 18 
John Playfair
(Mathematician)
John Playfair
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Birthdate: March 10, 1748
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Angus council, United Kingdom
Died: July 20, 1819
 19 
William George Horner
(Mathematician)
William George Horner
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Birthdate: June 9, 1786
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Bristol, England
Died: September 22, 1837
Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope
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Birthdate: August 3, 1753
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: London, England
Died: December 15, 1816
 21 
John Machin
(Mathematician)
John Machin
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Birthdate: 1686 AD
Birthplace: England, United Kingdom
Died: June 9, 1751
 22 
Jesse Ramsden
(Mathematician)
Jesse Ramsden
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Birthdate: October 6, 1735
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Salterhebble, Halifax, England
Died: November 5, 1800
 23 
Peter Barlow
(Mathematician)
Peter Barlow
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Birthdate: October 13, 1776
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Norwich, England
Died: March 1, 1862
 24 
John Hadley
(Mathematician)
John Hadley
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Birthdate: April 16, 1682
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bloomsbury, London, England
Died: February 14, 1744
 25 
Edward Waring
(Mathematician)
Edward Waring
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Birthdate: 1736 AD
Birthplace: Shrewsbury Old Heath, Shropshire, England, United Kingdom
Died: August 15, 1798
 26 
Benjamin Robins
(Engineer and mathematician)
Benjamin Robins
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Birthdate: 1707 AD
Birthplace: Bath, England
Died: July 20, 1751
 27 
John Keill
(Mathematician)
John Keill
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Birthdate: December 1, 1671
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Died: August 31, 1721

John Keill was a Scottish natural philosopher, mathematician, and cryptographer. He is best remembered for his work Examination of Dr. Burnet's Theory of the Earth, which earned him fame in the English academic community. In 1711, John Keill started serving as a decipherer under Anne, Queen of Great Britain and was instrumental in explaining several old manuscripts to the sovereign.

 28 
William Wales
(Mathematician)
William Wales
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Birthdate: 1734
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Warmfield cum Heath, England
Died: December 29, 1798
 29 
Nathaniel Bliss
(Astronomer)
Nathaniel Bliss
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Birthdate: November 28, 1700
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Bisley, England
Died: September 2, 1764
 30 
Eaton Hodgkinson
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Birthdate: February 26, 1789
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: England
Died: June 18, 1861
 31 
Alexander Wilson
(Astronomer)
Alexander Wilson
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Birthdate: 1714 AD
Died: October 16, 1786

Apart from being a renowned astronomer, Alexander Wilson was also a qualified surgeon and once co-owned a type-founding business, too. He pioneered the use of kites in meteorological research and also co-founded the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He has a lunar crater named after him.

 32 
John Landen
(Mathematician)
John Landen
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Birthdate: January 23, 1719
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Peakirk, England
Died: January 15, 1790