Famous Indian Scientists

The great scientific theories such as ‘Gravity’ and ‘Relativity’ are the creations of the western world which reached the Indian shores much later.  However, most people don’t know that ‘Science’ in ‘India’ has a glorious history. India holds the reputation of being the birthplace of geniuses such as Aryabhatta. The man is well-known for apparently introducing the world to the digit ‘0(Zero)’, a mammoth contribution to the number theory. Famous physicians such as Charaka and Sushruta had even penned texts on the medicinal uses of plants, which continue to be useful in curing dreaded ailments even today. Other famous Indians who have contributed immensely to the field of science are Ramanujam, Sir C.V Raman, Homi Bhabha, M. Visvesvaraya, and J.C Bose. The discoveries of some of these sharp minds range from theories of mathematics such as Calculus to modern day nuclear physics. The Indian Space Research Organization, popularly known as ‘ISRO’ is considered to be one of the best space agencies in the world. Many scientists of the space agency worked together to make the nation proud with projects such as the ‘Mars Mission’ and the ‘Moon Mission’ etc. The achievements of these intelligent minds have also garnered a lot of appreciation from world over. Explore our extensive collection of biographies of some of the most prominent Indian Scientists, and learn all about their life stories, timelines as well as some interesting facts and trivia pertaining to their lives.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Famous As: Former President of India, Missile Man of India
Birthdate: October 15, 1931
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: July 27, 2015
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, India’s 11th president, had earlier been an aerospace scientist at DRDO and ISRO. Known as the “People’s President” and the “Missile Man of India,” he was instrumental in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests. He died of a cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong.

 2 Vikram Sarabhai

Vikram Sarabhai
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: August 12, 1919
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ahmedabad, India
Died: December 30, 1971

Padma Bhushan- and Padma Vibhushan-winning Indian scientist Vikram Sarabhai was born into the famous Sarabhai family of industrialists who were associated with the Indian Independence Movement. He made major contributions to India’s nuclear power and space research initiatives, developed textile research in India, and helped set up IIM-Ahmedabad.

 3 Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 22, 1887
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Erode
Died: April 26, 1920

A self-taught genius Indian mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan is known for his contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. Born into a humble family, the celebrated mathematician struggled with poverty but still managed to publish first of his papers in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. Later, his collaboration with English mathematician G. H. Hardy proved very productive.

 4 Aryabhata

Birthdate: 0476 AD
Birthplace: Assaka
Died: 0550 AD
Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata pioneered the concept of “zero” and used it in his “place value system.” He had also worked on the approximation of pi and laid down the basic concepts of trigonometry, such as sine and cosine. He also mentioned that the Earth rotates on its axis.

 5 C.V. Raman

C.V. Raman
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: November 7, 1888
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Tiruchirappalli, Madras Province
Died: November 21, 1970
Indian physicist C.V. Raman earned the Nobel Prize in Physics after discovering the Raman effect. He was the first director of the IISc and founded the Indian Academy of Sciences and the Raman Research Institute. He destroyed his Bharat Ratna medal in protest against Jawaharlal Nehru’s policies on science.

 6 Jagadish Chandra Bose

Jagadish Chandra Bose
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: November 30, 1858
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Bikrampur, Bengal Presidency, British India (Now Munshiganj District of Bangladesh)
Died: November 23, 1937

Indian physicist, biologist, and plant physiologist Jagadish Chandra Bose revolutionized science with his research on how plants and animals react to external stimuli. He founded the Bose Institute, made pioneering contribution to the field of radio and microwave optics, and also penned one of the first works of Bengali science fiction.

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 7 Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
Famous As: Statistician
Birthdate: June 29, 1893
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolkata
Died: June 28, 1972

Best known for conceptualizing the Mahalanobis distance, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was a renowned Padma Vibhushan-winning Indian statistician who played a major role in his country’s industrialization policies of the Second Five-Year Plan. He also taught at his alma, Presidency College, and was one of the founders of the Indian Statistical Institute.

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 8 M. S. Swaminathan

M. S. Swaminathan
Famous As: Agricultural Scientist
Birthdate: August 7, 1925
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Kumbakonam

Ramon Magsaysay Award-winning geneticist M. S. Swaminathan is best known for his contribution to the Indian Green Revolution. Featured on Time, he introduced high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice seedlings to Indian farmers. He is also known for his administrative work as part of the Indian civil services.

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 9 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Famous As: Mathematician, Astrophysicist
Birthdate: October 19, 1910
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Lahore, Pakistan
Died: August 21, 1995

Remembered for his varied contribution to astrophysics, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar is perhaps best known for his work on the evolution of massive stars. Today known as Chandrasekhar limit, it contributed to final understanding of supernovas, neutron stars, and black holes. A prolific writer, he also did significant work on energy transfer by radiation in stellar atmospheres and convection on solar surface.

 10 Homi Bhabha

Homi Bhabha
Famous As: Indian physicist
Birthdate: October 30, 1909
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Mumbai, India
Died: January 24, 1966

Padma Bhushan-winning physicist Homi Bhabha revolutionized the Indian nuclear program singlehandedly. Born into an affluent family, he was educated at Cambridge. Initially geared toward a career in mechanical engineering, he later drifted to physics, eventually contributing to the formation of TIFR. The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is named after him.

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 11 Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose
Birthdate: January 1, 1894
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Kolkata, India
Died: February 4, 1974

Best known for working with Albert Einstein to form Bose–Einstein statistics, Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Bose was a master of quantum mechanics. He played the esraj, loved poetry, and had mastered quite a few languages. The Padma Vibhushan winner was also made a Fellow of The Royal Society.

 12 Brahmagupta

Famous As: Mathematician and Astronomer
Birthdate: 0598 AD
Birthplace: Bhinmal
Died: 0670 AD

Ancient Indian astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta is best remembered for laying down rules to calculate with zero and for penning the texts Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta and Khaṇḍakhādyaka. His other achievements include his work on surds and positive and negative numbers. He also devised a formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral.

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 13 Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi
Famous As: Human Computer
Birthdate: November 4, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Bangalore
Died: April 21, 2013

A child prodigy who was never formally educated, Shakuntala Devi became a mathematical genius earning the title of Human Computer for her exceptional calculating abilities. The Indian genius was also an astrologer and a gifted writer who authored books on maths, astrology, homosexuality in India and a crime thriller novel.

 14 C. N. R. Rao

C. N. R. Rao
Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: June 30, 1934
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Bangalore, Kingdom of Mysore, British India

C. N. R. Rao already had a PhD degree at age 24 and became the youngest lecturer at the IISc. The Padma Shri- and Padma Vibhushan-winning Indian chemist is best known for his research on areas such as surface chemistry, superconductivity, and nano technology. He is a self-confessed technophobe.

 15 Bhāskara II

Bhāskara II
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 1114 AD
Birthplace: Bijjaragi, Vijayapur, Karnataka
Died: 1185 AD

Renowned 12th-century mathematician and astronomer Bhāskara II is remembered for producing the first written work with full use of the decimal system. Siddhānta-Śiromani remains his most notable work. He also worked on quadratic equations and succeeded Brahmagupta as the head of the Ujjain cosmic observatory.

 16 Meghnad Saha

Meghnad Saha
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: October 6, 1893
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Shaoratoli, Dhaka, Bangladesh, British India
Died: February 16, 1956

Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha is best remembered for developing the thermal ionization equation. A grocer’s son, he relied on merit alone to excel in academics and eventually became a professor at the universities of Allahabad and Calcutta. He was also a Lok Sabha MP and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

 17 Prafulla Chandra Ray

Prafulla Chandra Ray
Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: August 2, 1861
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Khulna
Died: June 16, 1944

Indian Bengali chemist Prafulla Chandra Ray founded the country’s first pharma company, Bengal Chemicals. Educated in Calcutta and Edinburgh, he later worked from his home, a room on the first floor of the college where he taught. Knighted for his achievements, he donated generous sums to the Brahmo Samaj initiatives.

 18 Jayant Narlikar

Jayant Narlikar
Famous As: Physicist, Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Scientist, University teacher, Science fiction writer
Birthdate: July 19, 1938
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolhapur

Born to a math professor father and a Sanskrit scholar mother, Astrophysicist and IUCAA professor Jayant Narlikar grew up to collaborate with Sir Fred Hoyle, leading to the conformal gravity theory, also known as the Hoyle-Narlikar theory. He has won the Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan and penned sci-fi novels, too.

 19 Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw
Famous As: Business woman
Birthdate: March 23, 1953
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bangalore, Mysore State, India

Biocon founder and chairperson Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw is a self-made billionaire entrepreneur who made it to Forbes’s Power Women 2020 list. Though she initially wished to be a brewer like her father, she later drifted to the biochemical industry. Apart from revolutionizing the Indian biopharma market, she also heads a charitable organization.

 20 Sudha Murty

Sudha Murty
Famous As: Author
Birthdate: August 19, 1950
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Shiggaon, Haveri, Karnataka, India

Known for her humility and simplicity, Indian philanthropist and author Sudha Murty had humble beginnings as a TELCO engineer. She is married to Infosys co-founder Narayan Murty and heads the Infosys Foundation. The Padma Shri winner has penned over 200 titles, such as Dollar Bahu, in both Kannada and English.

 21 Salim Ali

Salim Ali
Famous As: Ornithologist
Birthdate: November 12, 1896
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Died: June 20, 1987

Known as the Birdman of India, legendary ornithologist Salim Ali was the first to conduct bird surveys in India. The Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan winner is best remembered for penning the book The Book of Indian Birds, and for setting up the Bharatpur and Ranganathittu bird sanctuaries.

 22 Rajnath Singh

Rajnath Singh
Famous As: Politician
Birthdate: July 10, 1951
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Chandauli district

The current Indian defense minister Rajnath Singh has previously held other important portfolios, such as home affairs and agriculture. He has also been a BJP president and the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh. Born into a farmer’s family, he worked as a physics lecturer before he joined the RSS.

 23 Bhāskara I

Bhāskara I
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 0600 AD
Birthplace: Parbhani, India
Died: 0680 AD

Legendary 7th-century astronomer Bhāskara I is best known for deciphering Aryabhatta’s work and was the first to use a circle to mean a “zero” in the Indian decimal system. The Mahabhaskariya and the Laghubhaskariya remain two of his best works. He was also an expert in early mathematical astronomy.

 24 Asima Chatterjee

Asima Chatterjee
Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: September 23, 1917
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kolkata, India
Died: November 22, 2006

 25 Yellapragada Subbarow

Yellapragada Subbarow
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: January 12, 1895
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bhimavaram
Died: August 9, 1948

Yellapragada Subbarow was an Indian biochemist who is credited with developing methotrexate, an immune-system suppressant and chemotherapy agent which is widely used to treat autoimmune diseases and cancer. He also helped American plant physiologist Benjamin Duggar discover chlortetracycline, the world's first tetracycline antibiotic.

 26 Udupi Ramachandra Rao

Udupi Ramachandra Rao
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: March 10, 1932
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Udupi district, Karnataka, India
Died: July 24, 2017

 27 Pranav Mistry

Pranav Mistry
Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: May 14, 1981
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Palanpur, Gujarat, India

Currently the President and CEO of Samsung Technology & Advanced Research Labs, Pranav Mistry, is best known for developing SixthSense, a wearable device enabling interactions between the real world and the world of data. Earlier, he had introduced a smartwatch called Samsung Galaxy Gear and a 3D-capturing 360-degree camera called Project Beyond; his other inventions being Mouseless, Quickies, Blinkbot etc.  

 28 Janaki Ammal

Janaki Ammal
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: 1897 AD
Birthplace: Thalassery
Died: 1984 AD

Janaki Ammal was an Indian botanist whose work concerning phytogeography, cytogenetics, and plant breeding earned her India's fourth-highest honor, the Padma Shri, in 1977. She is credited with improving India’s indigenous sugarcane varieties. She also helped analyze sugarcane's geographical distribution across India.

 29 Varahamihira

Famous As: Astronomer
Birthdate: 0505 AD
Birthplace: Avanti Region, Malwa, India
Died: 0587 AD

Best known for his treatise on mathematical astronomy, Pancha-siddhantika, Indian philosopher, astronomer, and polymath Varahamihira was well-versed in Western astronomy. He had also penned Brihat-Samhita and is believed to have been one of the Navaratnas, or Nine Jewels, of the court of Indian king Yashodharman Vikramaditya.

 30 Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar

Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Famous As: Father of research laboratories
Birthdate: February 21, 1894
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Bhera
Died: January 1, 1955

Known as the father of research laboratories, Indian physical chemist Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was a BHU professor. An avid poet, he also penned the kulgeet of the university. He was the first chairman of UGC, headed CSIR, and played a key role in setting up many R&D labs in India.

 31 Raghunath Anant Mashelkar

Raghunath Anant Mashelkar
Famous As: Engineer, Scientist
Birthdate: January 1, 1943
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Goa

Deeply connected with Indian innovation movement, Raghunath Anant Mashelkar is especially known for his contributions to transport phenomena. Throughout his career, he had held important positions, including the post of the Director General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. He also chaired many important national committees, investigating diverse issues like drug regulatory system and national auto fuel policy.

 32 Abdul Qadeer Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan
Famous As: Nuclear Physicist, Metallurgical Engineer
Birthdate: April 1, 1936
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Died: October 10, 2021

Pakistani engineer Abdul Qadeer Khan was a major figure in the development of his country’s nuclear plans. His research also focused on uranium enrichment. He was later apparently involved in transfer of nuclear technology to Iran, among other countries, but was pardoned by then-president Pervez Musharraf.

 33 Birbal Sahni

Birbal Sahni
Famous As: Palaeobotanist
Birthdate: 1891 AD
Birthplace: Saharanpur district
Died: April 10, 1949

Birbal Sahni was a pioneer of palaeobotanical research in India. The founder of the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, he also taught botany at BHU and Lucknow University. He was also interested in music and tennis, and loved collecting coins. He was a Fellow of The Royal Society, too.

 34 Raja Ramanna

Raja Ramanna
Famous As: Physicist, Politician
Birthdate: January 28, 1925
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tumkur
Died: September 24, 2004

Raja Ramanna was an Indian nuclear physicist, remembered for his role in the development of India’s nuclear weapons program. Beginning his career under Homi Bhabha, he eventually served as the director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, overseeing India’s first nuclear weapons test in 1974.  Meanwhile he also served as the secretary for defense research and later headed Atomic Energy Commission.

 35 Siddhartha Mukherjee

Siddhartha Mukherjee
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: July 21, 1970
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New Delhi, India

Best known as the author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book The Emperor of All Maladies and the New York Times bestseller The Gene, Siddhartha Mukherjee is an Indian-American oncologist and a Columbia University professor. He is also a former Rhodes scholar, a Padma Shri winner, and a Stanford alumnus.

 36 Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan

Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: October 24, 1940
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Ernakulam, India

Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan is an Indian space scientist who supervised the development of several scientific satellites including the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites IRS-1A and IRS-1B and the Indian National Satellite (INSAT-2) while serving as the director of ISRO Satellite Centre. He served as the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for nine years from 1994 to 2003.

 37 Harish-Chandra

Famous As: mathematician, physicist, university teacher
Birthdate: October 11, 1924
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kanpur
Died: October 16, 1983

Harish-Chandra was an Indian American physicist and mathematician whose contributions to representation theory made him one of the most prominent mathematicians of the 20th century. Over the course of his illustrious career, Harish-Chandra was honored with several prestigious awards, such as the Frank Nelson Cole Prize and Srinivasa Ramanujan Medal. In 1977, he received India's third-highest civilian award, Padma Bhushan.

 38 E. C. George Sudarshan

E. C. George Sudarshan
Famous As: Physicist, University teacher
Birthdate: September 16, 1931
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kottayam district

Padma Vibhushan winner and nine-time Nobel Prize nominee theoretical physicist E. C. George Sudarshan was born in India but moved to the U.S. to study at the University of Rochester. He later joined Harvard and made ground-breaking discoveries in topics such as quantum optics, tachyons, and the quantum Zeno effect.

 39 Narinder Singh Kapany

Narinder Singh Kapany
Famous As: physicist, scientist, university teacher
Birthdate: October 12, 1926
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Faridkot, Punjab

The pioneer of fiber optics, Indian-American physicist Narinder Singh Kapany had over 100 patents in his name. He was the first to send images through fiber optics and also worked on areas such as laser technology and solar energy. He and his wife also established the California-based Sikh Foundation.

 40 Vandana Shiva

Vandana Shiva
Famous As: Philosopher, Physicist, Writer, University teacher
Birthdate: November 5, 1952
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Dehradun

Indian environmental activist and physicist Vandana Shiva is known for her anti-GMO campaigns. The Gandhi of grain is the founder of RFSTN, which promotes sustainable agriculture, and is against globalization. She developed an interest in environmentalism after witnessing a forest at her hometown being cleared for a project.

 41 S. R. Ranganathan

S. R. Ranganathan
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: August 12, 1892
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sirkazhi, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: September 27, 1972

S. R. Ranganathan was an Indian librarian and mathematician. Ranganathan is best remembered for developing the colon classification, a system of library classification, which is currently used in research libraries all over the world. In India, he is considered the father of library science, information science, and documentation. His birthday is observed as National Librarian's Day in his home country.

 42 Panini

Famous As: Linguist
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Shalatula

 43 Anil Kakodkar

Anil Kakodkar
Famous As: Engineer
Birthdate: November 11, 1943
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Barwani

Anil Kakodkar is an Indian mechanical engineer and nuclear physicist who served as the director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) from 1996 to 2000. He is one of the core members of the team which conducted Pokharan II nuclear tests. Over the course of his career, Kakodkar has received several prestigious awards, such as the Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan.

 44 Tessy Thomas

Tessy Thomas
Famous As: aerospace engineer, engineer, scientist
Birthdate: March 31, 1963
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Alappuzha

Tessy Thomas is an Indian scientist who became the first-ever woman to head an Indian missile project when she served as project director for Agni-IV. For her immense contribution to the field of missile technology, Tessy Thomas was honored with the prestigious Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award.

 45 Mylswamy Annadurai

Mylswamy Annadurai
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: July 2, 1958
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kothavadi, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India

Aerospace engineer and scientist Mylswamy Annadurai, also known as the Moon Man of India, had humble beginnings in his native village, Kodhawady, in southern India. He later grew up to be a key member of ISRO and contributed immensely to Indian space programs such as Chandrayaan-1 and Mangalyaan.

 46 Madhava of Sangamagrama

Madhava of Sangamagrama
Famous As: mathematician, astronomer
Birthdate: 1350 AD
Birthplace: Kerala
Died: 1425 AD

Fifteenth-century Indian astronomer and mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama is largely remembered as the man who established the Kerala School of mathematics. Of his most notable works are his discovery of the power series and his research on the infinite series. He was known as Golavid, or the Master of Spherics.

 47 Augustus De Morgan

Augustus De Morgan
Famous As: British mathematician
Birthdate: June 27, 1806
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Madras Presidency
Died: March 18, 1871

Augustus De Morgan was a British logician and mathematician. He is best remembered for formulating De Morgan's laws which are widely applied in solving mathematical equations. He also came up with the term mathematical induction, a mathematical proof technique. 

 48 Vijay P. Bhatkar

Vijay P. Bhatkar
Famous As: Computer scientist
Birthdate: October 11, 1946
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Akola district

Vijay P. Bhatkar is an Indian educationalist and computer scientist. One of the pioneers of India's IT industry, Bhatkar is renowned for initiating the development of Param supercomputers. Over the course of his career, Bhatkar has been honored with many prestigious awards, such as the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan.

 49 Ashoke Sen

Ashoke Sen
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: July 15, 1956
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolkata

Ashoke Sen is an Indian theoretical physicist whose immense contribution to string theory has earned him accolades and respect around the world. The recipient of several prestigious awards like the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan, Sen also serves as a professor at several prestigious institutions like the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Korea Institute for Advanced Study.

 50 Shridhara

Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 0870 AD
Birthplace: India
Died: 0930 AD

Tenth century Indian mathematician, philosopher and Sanskrit scholar Śrīdhara Ācāryya is chiefly known for his two mathematical treaties; Patiganita (the science of arithmetic) and Trisatika (also called Patiganitasara ). In Bījaganita, his treaties on algebra, he provided practical algebraic applications and also a formula for solving quadratic equations.  Other scholarly treaties attributed to him are Navasatī, Bṛhatpati, Ganitasara and Ganitapanchavimashi.