# Famous Indian Mathematicians

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All the inventions and discoveries in the field of mathematics would have meant nothing had it not been for the introduction of zero to mathematics. And do you know who introduced zero to maths? Well, it was an Indian mathematician and genius Brahmagupta. Born in 598 AD, he not just made known the concept of zero in arithmetic but also explained how to find cube and cube root of an integer. But is that all what Indian mathematicians gave to the field of maths? Modestly no! Aryabhatta, one of the earliest Indian mathematicians, first announced to the world that the earth was spherical and that it revolved around the sun. Furthermore, he was the first to state explicitly that a year comprises of 365 days and the first to work on place value system using letters to signify numbers. Other prominent Indian mathematicians include Srinivasa Ramanujan, Satyendra Nath Bose, Bhaskara, and so on. Interestingly, prominent Indian mathematicians have spanned across many centuries, dating back from the Indus Valley civilization and Vedas to modern times. Apart from legendary mathematicians, Indian soil has been home to some of the prodigious mathematic talent such as Shakuntala Devi. Fondly called human computer, she was said to have possessed unbelievable mental calculating skills. Check this section to know in details about famous Indian mathematicians, their life and their contribution to maths.

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**Birthdate: **December 22, 1887

**Sun Sign: **Capricorn

**Birthplace: **Erode

**Died: **April 26, 1920

A self-taught genius Indian mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan is known for his contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. Born into a humble family, the celebrated mathematician struggled with poverty but still managed to publish first of his papers in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. Later, his collaboration with English mathematician G. H. Hardy proved very productive.

2

Aryabhata(5th & 6th Century Indian Mathematician and Astronomer who Calculated the Value of Pi)

**Birthdate: **0476 AD

**Birthplace: **Assaka

**Died: **0550 AD

Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata pioneered the concept of “zero” and used it in his “place value system.” He had also worked on the approximation of pi and laid down the basic concepts of trigonometry, such as sine and cosine. He also mentioned that the Earth rotates on its axis.

**Birthdate: **0598 AD

**Birthplace: **Bhinmal

**Died: **0670 AD

Ancient Indian astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta is best remembered for laying down rules to calculate with zero and for penning the texts *Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta *and *Khaṇḍakhādyaka*. His other achievements include his work on surds and positive and negative numbers. He also devised a formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral.

**Birthdate: **November 4, 1929

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Bangalore

**Died: **April 21, 2013

A child prodigy who was never formally educated, Shakuntala Devi became a mathematical genius earning the title of **Human Computer** for her exceptional calculating abilities. The Indian genius was also an astrologer and a gifted writer who authored books on maths, astrology, homosexuality in India and a crime thriller novel.

5

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar(Astrophysicist Known for his 'Theoritical Studies of the Physical processes of importance to the Structure and Evolution of the Stars')

**Birthdate: **October 19, 1910

**Sun Sign: **Libra

**Birthplace: **Lahore, Pakistan

**Died: **August 21, 1995

Remembered for his varied contribution to astrophysics, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar is perhaps best known for his work on the evolution of massive stars. Today known as *Chandrasekhar limit*, it contributed to final understanding of supernovas, neutron stars, and black holes. A prolific writer, he also did significant work on energy transfer by radiation in stellar atmospheres and convection on solar surface.

**Birthdate: **1114 AD

**Birthplace: **Bijjaragi, Vijayapur, Karnataka

**Died: **1185 AD

Renowned 12th-century mathematician and astronomer Bhāskara II is remembered for producing the first written work with full use of the decimal system. *Siddhānta-Śiromani *remains his most notable work. He also worked on quadratic equations and succeeded Brahmagupta as the head of the Ujjain cosmic observatory.

7

Varāhamihira(6th Century Indian Astrologer, Astronomer and Polymath)

**Birthdate: **0505 AD

**Birthplace: **Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India

**Died: **0587 AD

Best known for his treatise on mathematical astronomy, *Pancha-siddhantika*, Indian philosopher, astronomer, and polymath Varahamihira was well-versed in Western astronomy. He had also penned *Brihat-Samhita* and is believed to have been one of the *Navaratnas*, or *Nine Jewels*, of the court of Indian king Yashodharman Vikramaditya.

9

S. R. Ranganathan(Indian Mathematician and Librarian Known for His Development of 'Colon Classification')

**Birthdate: **August 9, 1892

**Sun Sign: **Leo

**Birthplace: **Sirkazhi, Tamil Nadu, India

**Died: **September 27, 1972

S. R. Ranganathan was an Indian librarian and mathematician. Ranganathan is best remembered for developing the* colon classification*, a system of library classification, which is currently used in research libraries all over the world. In India, he is considered the father of library science, information science, and documentation. His birthday is observed as *National Librarian's Day* in his home country.

10

Bhāskara I(Indian Mathematician Who Helped to Disseminate the Mathematical Work of 'Aryabhata')

**Birthdate: **0600 AD

**Birthplace: **Parbhani, India

**Died: **0680 AD

Legendary 7th-century astronomer Bhāskara I is best known for deciphering Aryabhatta’s work and was the first to use a circle to mean a “zero” in the Indian decimal system. The *Mahabhaskariya* and the *Laghubhaskariya *remain two of his best works. He was also an expert in early mathematical astronomy.

**Birthdate: **October 11, 1924

**Sun Sign: **Libra

**Birthplace: **Kanpur

**Died: **October 16, 1983

Harish-Chandra was an Indian American physicist and mathematician whose contributions to representation theory made him one of the most prominent mathematicians of the 20th century. Over the course of his illustrious career, Harish-Chandra was honored with several prestigious awards, such as the *Frank Nelson Cole Prize* and *Srinivasa Ramanujan Medal. *In 1977, he received India's third-highest civilian award, *Padma Bhushan.*

**Birthdate: **June 27, 1806

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Madras Presidency

**Died: **March 18, 1871

Augustus De Morgan was a British logician and mathematician. He is best remembered for formulating *De Morgan's laws* which are widely applied in solving mathematical equations. He also came up with the term *mathematical induction,* a mathematical proof technique.

**Birthdate: **1340 AD

**Birthplace: **Kerala

**Died: **1425 AD

Fifteenth-century Indian astronomer and mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama is largely remembered as the man who established the Kerala School of mathematics. Of his most notable works are his discovery of the power series and his research on the infinite series. He was known as *Golavid*, or the *Master of Spherics*.

**Birthdate: **0870 AD

**Birthplace: **India

**Died: **0930 AD

Tenth century Indian mathematician, philosopher and Sanskrit scholar Śrīdhara Ācāryya is chiefly known for his two mathematical treaties;* Patiganita *(the science of arithmetic) and *Trisatika* (also called *Patiganitasara *). In *Bījaganita*, his treaties on algebra, he provided practical algebraic applications and also a formula for solving quadratic equations. Other scholarly treaties attributed to him are* Navasatī*, *Bṛhatpati,* Ganitasara and Ganitapanchavimashi.

15

Hemachandra(scholar, poet, mathematician, philosopher, yogi, grammarian)

**Birthdate: **1088 AD

**Birthplace: **Dhandhuka, India

**Died: **1173 AD

Hemachandra was an Indian Jain mathematician, poet, scholar, and polymath. He played an important role as King Kumarapala's advisor during the latter's reign during which Gujarat became a center of culture. Hemachandra's influence over the king helped establish Jainism as the official religion of Gujarat. He also played a significant role in banning animal slaughter in Gujarat.

**Birthdate: **January 2, 1940

**Sun Sign: **Capricorn

**Birthplace: **Chennai, India

S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan is an Indian American mathematician whose contributions to probability theory have earned him several prestigious awards including the* National Medal of Science* in 2010. He is also renowned for coming up with a unified theory of large deviations. He is currently serving as a professor at the *Courant Institute.*

17

Raj Chandra Bose(Mathematician and Statistician best known for his work in design theory, finite geometry and the theory of error-correcting codes)

**Birthdate: **June 19, 1901

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh, India

**Died: **October 31, 1987

Raj Chandra Bose was an Indian-American statistician and mathematician best remembered for his work in finite geometry, design theory, and the theory of error-correcting codes. He is also credited with inventing the notions of association scheme, partial geometry, and strongly regular graph.

**Birthdate: **May 20, 1966

**Sun Sign: **Taurus

**Birthplace: **Allahabad

Manindra Agrawal is an Indian computer scientist and mathematician whose creation of the *AKS primality test *earned him the *Fulkerson Prize* as well as the *Gödel Prize*. He also won the first *Infosys Prize for Mathematics* for his contributions in the field of mathematics. He is currently serving as the deputy director at the prestigious* Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.*

**Birthdate: **April 5, 1967

**Sun Sign: **Aries

**Birthplace: **India

Mahan Mj is an Indian monk and mathematician who is currently teaching mathematics at the prestigious *Tata Institute of Fundamental Research*. Renowned for his work in geometric group theory, hyperbolic geometry, complex geometry, and low-dimensional topology, Mahan Mj has received several awards, such as the *Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award *and the 2015* Infosys Prize.*

**Birthdate: **June 14, 1444

**Sun Sign: **Gemini

**Birthplace: **Tirur

**Died: **1544 AD

A major figure of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics, Nilakantha Somayaji, or Keļallur Comatiri, is best remembered for his contribution to the infinite series. He also penned treatises such as *Tantrasamgraha* and *Aryabhatiya-bhashya* and was a polymath, well-versed in most branches of the Indian philosophy.

**Birthdate: **November 21, 1920

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Andhra Pradesh, India

**Died: **April 13, 2017

**Birthdate: **July 20, 1937

**Sun Sign: **Cancer

**Birthplace: **Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

S. Ramanan is a mathematician whose contributions to the field of algebraic geometry have established him as one of India's most prominent mathematicians. Ramanan is also known for his work in differential geometry and his published work on universal connections has helped B Simons and SS Chern introduce the* Chern-Simons invariant*, which has played a significant role in theoretical physics.

**Birthdate: **February 13, 1878

**Sun Sign: **Aquarius

**Birthplace: **Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

**Died: **December 23, 1947

Ziauddin Ahmad was an Indian mathematician, logician, educationist, scholar, natural philosopher, and politician. He played a prominent role in educating the Muslims at a time when the Muslim community was in dire straits amidst the worsening political situation in the Indian subcontinent. He also played a significant role in developing the *Aligarh Muslim University.*

**Birthdate: **November 11, 1904

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Madras Presidency, India

**Died: **May 8, 1960

J. H. C. Whitehead was a British mathematician credited with co-founding homotopy theory. He also made significant contributions to the field of differential topology. He also contributed immensely during the* Second World War*, working on operations research for submarine warfare.

Raghunath Dhondo Karve was an Indian social reformer and professor of mathematics. A pioneer in initiating birth control in Mumbai, Raghunath Dhondo Karve began the first Indian birth control clinic in 1921. He played an important role as a reformer, promoting women's empowerment and gender equality in an otherwise patriarchal society.

R. P. Paranjpe was an Indian mathematician and librarian. He became the first Indian to achieve the title of *Senior Wrangler*, which is regarded as the *greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain.* In 1907, he also became the first librarian of Fergusson College's *Indian Mathematical Society* (IMS).

Ramchundra was a British-Indian mathematician whose work impressed renowned mathematician Augustus De Morgan, so much so that Morgan promoted Ramchundra's book titled *Treatise on Problems of Maxima and Minima *in order to bring his work to the notice of the scientific community in Europe.

**Birthdate: **November 15, 1876

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Ballia, Uttar Pradesh, India

**Died: **March 9, 1935

Ganesh Prasad was an Indian mathematician who played an influential role in developing the culture of mathematical research in the Indian subcontinent. Several mathematicians consider him the *Father of Mathematical Research in India*. He also played a significant role in the improvement of primary education in rural India.

**Birthdate: **1019 AD

**Birthplace: **India

**Died: **1066 AD

Eleventh-century Indian mathematician and astronomer Shripati is best remembered for his writings on astral science, such as *Dhikotidakarana* and *Siddhantasekhara*. His works covered areas such as algebra, horoscopic astrology, and math, but he gained fame mostly for his astrological works, such as the text *Jyotisaratnamala*.

**Birthdate: **November 1, 1821

**Sun Sign: **Scorpio

**Birthplace: **Pune, Maharashtra, India

Bapudeva Sastri was an Indian scholar renowned for his work in mathematics and Sanskrit. He is credited with translating the *Siddhānta Shiromani,* a 12th-century treatise written by Bhaskaracharya on mathematics. He was also responsible for publishing the translated version of the treatise in 1891.