## 1 Aryabhata

**Birthdate:**0476 AD

**Birthplace:**Assaka

**Died:**0550 AD

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Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata pioneered the concept of “zero” and used it in his “place value system.” He had also worked on the approximation of pi and laid down the basic concepts of trigonometry, such as sine and cosine. He also mentioned that the Earth rotates on its axis.

Renowned 12th-century mathematician and astronomer Bhāskara II is remembered for producing the first written work with full use of the decimal system. *Siddhānta-Śiromani *remains his most notable work. He also worked on quadratic equations and succeeded Brahmagupta as the head of the Ujjain cosmic observatory.

Ancient Indian astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta is best remembered for laying down rules to calculate with zero and for penning the texts *Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta *and *Khaṇḍakhādyaka*. His other achievements include his work on surds and positive and negative numbers. He also devised a formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral.

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Born to a math professor father and a Sanskrit scholar mother, Astrophysicist and **IUCAA **professor Jayant Narlikar grew up to collaborate with Sir Fred Hoyle, leading to the *conformal gravity theory*, also known as the *Hoyle-Narlikar theory*. He has won the **Padma Bhushan **and **Padma Vibhushan **and penned sci-fi novels, too.

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Legendary 7th-century astronomer Bhāskara I is best known for deciphering Aryabhatta’s work and was the first to use a circle to mean a “zero” in the Indian decimal system. The *Mahabhaskariya* and the *Laghubhaskariya *remain two of his best works. He was also an expert in early mathematical astronomy.

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Best known for his treatise on mathematical astronomy, *Pancha-siddhantika*, Indian philosopher, astronomer, and polymath Varahamihira was well-versed in Western astronomy. He had also penned *Brihat-Samhita* and is believed to have been one of the *Navaratnas*, or *Nine Jewels*, of the court of Indian king Yashodharman Vikramaditya.

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Eleventh-century Indian mathematician and astronomer Shripati is best remembered for his writings on astral science, such as *Dhikotidakarana* and *Siddhantasekhara*. His works covered areas such as algebra, horoscopic astrology, and math, but he gained fame mostly for his astrological works, such as the text *Jyotisaratnamala*.

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