A very famous Chinese proverb goes, “A nation's treasure is in its scholars." And rightly so! No matter how absurd or farfetched it might sound, there is little denying the power that erudite exert on a country's fate and fortune. The more scholars a country has, the more advanced it is likely to be. A country's intellectuals and academics are not only responsible for its path-breaking advances, but also inspiring generations, becoming the voice of its vox populi, and steering the country towards growth and expansion. Over the years, history has chronicled a gamut of famous intellectuals and academics who have inspired the world for better and for worse. They are a bunch of visionaries and innovators who defined the contours of humanity’s future and shaped the world with their intellect and wisdom. Let us explore the timelines, life stories and interesting trivia & facts related in the biographies of some of the greatest intellectuals & academics that Austria has ever produced.
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856
Neurologist
Viktor FranklViktor Frankl
26 March 1905
Psychiatrist

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein
26 April 1889
Philosopher

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler
07 February 1870
 

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises
29 September 1881
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist

Anna FreudAnna Freud
03 December 1895
Founder of psychoanalytic child psychology
Joseph SchumpeterJoseph Schumpeter
08 February 1883
Economist

Edmund HusserlEdmund Husserl
08 April 1859
Philosopher

Martin BuberMartin Buber
08 February 1878
Philosopher
Friedrich von HayekFriedrich von Hayek
08 May 1899
Economist

Herbert von KarajanHerbert von Karajan
05 April 1908
Conductor, Music director
Ivan IllichIvan Illich
04 September 1926
Writer, Historian, Educationist, Philosopher,

Joy AdamsonJoy Adamson
20 January 1910
Naturalist

Paul FeyerabendPaul Feyerabend
13 January 1924
Philosopher, University teacher

Melanie KleinMelanie Klein
30 March 1882
Psychanalyst

Josef BreuerJosef Breuer
15 January 1842
Physician, Psychologist, University teacher,
Bruno BettelheimBruno Bettelheim
28 August 1903
Writer, Psychologist, University teacher,

Otto RankOtto Rank
22 April 1884
Psychologist

Hans KelsenHans Kelsen
11 October 1881
Lawyer, Judge, Philosopher, Educationist,

Otto WeiningerOtto Weininger
03 April 1880
Philosopher, Writer, Psychologist
Carl MengerCarl Menger
23 February 1840
Economist, University teacher

Ernst GombrichErnst Gombrich
30 March 1909
Art Historian
Peter L. BergerPeter L. Berger
17 March 1929
Sociologist, Theologian, University teacher

Ludwig von BertalanffyLudwig von Bertalanffy
19 September 1901
Biologist, University teacher

Georg LugerGeorg Luger
06 March 1849
Inventor, Entrepreneur
Paul WatzlawickPaul Watzlawick
25 July 1921
Philosopher, Psychologist, Psychotherapist,

Valentin InzkoValentin Inzko
22 May 1949
Linguist, Diplomat
Richard von Krafft-EbingRichard von Krafft-Ebing
14 August 1840
Psychologist, Psychiatrist, Physician, University

Ingeborg BachmannIngeborg Bachmann
25 June 1926
Poet, Writer, Journalist, Screenwriter,

Otto NeurathOtto Neurath
10 December 1882
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist, Graphic
Otto F. KernbergOtto F. Kernberg
10 September 1928
Psychiatrist, Psychanalyst, University teacher,

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Richard von MisesRichard von Mises
19 April 1883
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher, Engineer,
Christoph SchönbornChristoph Schönborn
22 January 1945
Catholic priest, Theologian, Writer, University

Nikolaus HarnoncourtNikolaus Harnoncourt
06 December 1929
Conductor, Musician, Choir director, Viol player,

Karl BöhmKarl Böhm
28 August 1894
Conductor, Music director

Oskar MorgensternOskar Morgenstern
24 January 1902
Economist
Jean AméryJean Améry
31 October 1912
Writer, Philosopher
Rudolf HilferdingRudolf Hilferding
10 August 1877
Economist, Politician, Writer

Erik von Kuehnelt-LeddihnErik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn
31 July 1909
Philosopher, University teacher, Journalist,

Eric WolfEric Wolf
01 February 1923
Anthropologist

Jacob L. MorenoJacob L. Moreno
18 May 1889
Psychiatrist
Eugen von Böhm-BawerkEugen von Böhm-Bawerk
12 February 1851
Economist

Friedrich von WieserFriedrich von Wieser
10 July 1851
Economist

Alexius MeinongAlexius Meinong
17 July 1853
Philosopher

Nikolai TrubetzkoyNikolai Trubetzkoy
16 April 1890
Russian linguist

Fritz HeiderFritz Heider
19 February 1896
Psychologist, Translator, University teacher,
Othmar SpannOthmar Spann
01 October 1878
Economist, Philosopher, University teacher,

Otto BauerOtto Bauer
05 September 1881
Politician
Rudolf DreikursRudolf Dreikurs
08 February 1897
Psychiatrist

Leopold KohrLeopold Kohr
05 October 1909
Economist

Erich LeinsdorfErich Leinsdorf
04 February 1912
Conductor
Friedrich von HügelFriedrich von Hügel
05 May 1852
Writer

Julius PokornyJulius Pokorny
12 June 1887
Linguist
Gottfried HaberlerGottfried Haberler
20 July 1900
Economist

Eugen EhrlichEugen Ehrlich
14 September 1862
Sociologist

Theodor ReikTheodor Reik
12 May 1888
Psychologist, Psychanalyst

Pietro VerriPietro Verri
12 December 1728
Economist

Christian von EhrenfelsChristian von Ehrenfels
20 June 1859
Philosopher
Robert LowieRobert Lowie
12 June 1883
Anthropologist

Ernst KrisErnst Kris
26 April 1900
Psychoanalyst

Alfred SchutzAlfred Schutz
13 April 1899
Philosopher

Theodor GomperzTheodor Gomperz
29 March 1832
Philosopher
Friedrich August von HayekFriedrich August von Hayek
08 May 1899
 

Richard ThurnwaldRichard Thurnwald
18 September 1869
Anthropologist
Stefan Thomas PossonyStefan Thomas Possony
15 March 1913
Economist

August Wilhelm AmbrosAugust Wilhelm Ambros
17 November 1816
Composer

Alfred HolderAlfred Holder
04 April 1840
Librarian
Heinrich FriedjungHeinrich Friedjung
18 January 1851
Historian

Alfred von ArnethAlfred von Arneth
10 July 1819
Historian
Gustav RatzenhoferGustav Ratzenhofer
04 July 1842
Officer

Paul Felix LazarsfeldPaul Felix Lazarsfeld
13 February 1901
Sociologist

Joseph A. SchumpeterJoseph A. Schumpeter
08 February 1883
Economist