A very famous Chinese proverb goes, “A nation's treasure is in its scholars." And rightly so! No matter how absurd or farfetched it might sound, there is little denying the power that erudite exert on a country's fate and fortune. The more scholars a country has, the more advanced it is likely to be. A country's intellectuals and academics are not only responsible for its path-breaking advances, but also inspiring generations, becoming the voice of its vox populi, and steering the country towards growth and expansion. Over the years, history has chronicled a gamut of famous intellectuals and academics who have inspired the world for better and for worse. They are a bunch of visionaries and innovators who defined the contours of humanity’s future and shaped the world with their intellect and wisdom. Let us explore the timelines, life stories and interesting trivia & facts related in the biographies of some of the greatest intellectuals & academics that Austria has ever produced.
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856
Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein
26 April 1889

Viktor FranklViktor Frankl
26 March 1905

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler
07 February 1870

Joseph SchumpeterJoseph Schumpeter
08 February 1883

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises
29 September 1881
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist
Martin BuberMartin Buber
08 February 1878

Anna FreudAnna Freud
03 December 1895
Founder of psychoanalytic child psychology

Friedrich von HayekFriedrich von Hayek
08 May 1899
Edmund HusserlEdmund Husserl
08 April 1859
Mathematician, Philosopher, University teacher

Herbert von KarajanHerbert von Karajan
05 April 1908
Conductor, Music director
Joy AdamsonJoy Adamson
20 January 1910

Ivan IllichIvan Illich
04 September 1926
Writer, Historian, Educationist, Philosopher,

Paul FeyerabendPaul Feyerabend
13 January 1924
Philosopher, University teacher

Bruno BettelheimBruno Bettelheim
28 August 1903
Writer, Psychologist, University teacher,

Melanie KleinMelanie Klein
30 March 1882
Hans KelsenHans Kelsen
11 October 1881
Lawyer, Judge, Philosopher, Educationist,

Otto RankOtto Rank
22 April 1884

Peter L. BergerPeter L. Berger
17 March 1929
Sociologist, Theologian, University teacher

Otto WeiningerOtto Weininger
03 April 1880
Philosopher, Writer, Psychologist
Ludwig von BertalanffyLudwig von Bertalanffy
19 September 1901
Biologist, University teacher

Paul WatzlawickPaul Watzlawick
25 July 1921
Philosopher, Psychologist, Psychotherapist,
Christoph SchönbornChristoph Schönborn
22 January 1945
Catholic priest, Theologian, Writer, University

Carl MengerCarl Menger
23 February 1840
Economist, University teacher

Ernst GombrichErnst Gombrich
30 March 1909
Art Historian
Josef BreuerJosef Breuer
15 January 1842
Physician, Psychologist, University teacher,

Richard von Krafft-EbingRichard von Krafft-Ebing
14 August 1840
Psychologist, Psychiatrist, Physician, University
Otto NeurathOtto Neurath
10 December 1882
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist, Graphic

Otto F. KernbergOtto F. Kernberg
10 September 1928
Psychiatrist, Psychanalyst, University teacher,

Georg LugerGeorg Luger
06 March 1849
Inventor, Entrepreneur
Nikolaus HarnoncourtNikolaus Harnoncourt
06 December 1929
Conductor, Musician, Choir director, Viol player,

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Valentin InzkoValentin Inzko
22 May 1949
Linguist, Diplomat
Oskar MorgensternOskar Morgenstern
24 January 1902

Ingeborg BachmannIngeborg Bachmann
25 June 1926
Poet, Writer, Journalist, Screenwriter,

Karl BöhmKarl Böhm
28 August 1894
Conductor, Music director

Friedrich von WieserFriedrich von Wieser
10 July 1851
Jacob L. MorenoJacob L. Moreno
18 May 1889
Richard von MisesRichard von Mises
19 April 1883
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher, Engineer,

Jean AméryJean Améry
31 October 1912
Writer, Philosopher

Eric WolfEric Wolf
01 February 1923
Anthropologist, University teacher

Pietro VerriPietro Verri
12 December 1728
Erik von Kuehnelt-LeddihnErik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn
31 July 1909
Philosopher, University teacher, Journalist,

Alexius MeinongAlexius Meinong
17 July 1853

Othmar SpannOthmar Spann
01 October 1878
Economist, Philosopher, University teacher,

Rudolf HilferdingRudolf Hilferding
10 August 1877
Economist, Politician, Writer

Fritz HeiderFritz Heider
19 February 1896
Psychologist, Translator, University teacher,
Otto BauerOtto Bauer
05 September 1881

Rudolf DreikursRudolf Dreikurs
08 February 1897
Nikolai TrubetzkoyNikolai Trubetzkoy
16 April 1890
Russian linguist

Erich LeinsdorfErich Leinsdorf
04 February 1912

Leopold KohrLeopold Kohr
05 October 1909
Julius PokornyJulius Pokorny
12 June 1887

Gottfried HaberlerGottfried Haberler
20 July 1900
Eugen EhrlichEugen Ehrlich
14 September 1862

Theodor ReikTheodor Reik
12 May 1888
Psychologist, Psychanalyst

Eugen von Böhm-BawerkEugen von Böhm-Bawerk
12 February 1851

Friedrich August von HayekFriedrich August von Hayek
08 May 1899

Alfred SchutzAlfred Schutz
13 April 1899
Paul Felix LazarsfeldPaul Felix Lazarsfeld
13 February 1901

Joseph A. SchumpeterJoseph A. Schumpeter
08 February 1883