Famous 19th Century Revolutionaries

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Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Revolutionaries, including B. R. Ambedkar, Leon Trotsky, Chiang Kai-shek, Jose Rizal and Pancho Villa.
Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Revolutionaries
 1 
Mahatma Gandhi
(Indian Freedom Fighter who Employed Non-violent Resistance & Known as 'Father of the Nation')
Mahatma Gandhi
14
Birthdate: October 2, 1869
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Porbandar, India
Died: January 30, 1948

An Indian lawyer and anti-colonial nationalist, Mahatma Gandhi was a major figure in India’s fight for independence from British rule. He is renowned for his employment of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience methods. Despite his popularity, he had numerous detractors as well and was assassinated in 1948. He is widely considered the Father of the Nation in India.

 2 
Joseph Stalin
(Soviet Political Leader & Dictator Who Led the Soviet Union from 1922 Until His Death in 1953)
Joseph Stalin
8
Birthdate: December 18, 1878
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Gori, Georgia
Died: March 5, 1953

Controversial Russian dictator, Joseph Stalin, ruled the Soviet Union for around 25 years from 1929 to 1953 and is credited for making it a prominent industrial and military power of the world. During the Second World War, his army defeated the Nazis too. However, his regime was also one of terror and brutality where numerous Soviet citizens lost their lives.

 3 
Pancho Villa
(Governor of Chihuahua from 1913 to 1914)
Pancho Villa
7
Birthdate: June 5, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: La Coyotada, Mexico
Died: July 20, 1923
Military leader Pancho Villa was a significant figure of the Mexican Revolution. He supported the ouster of dictator Porfirio Diaz and later fought to remove Victoriano Huerta from power. He also allied with Emiliano Zapata and fought against Venustiano Carranza. He remains immortalized in many films and novels.
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 4 
Jose Rizal
(Filipino Nationalist and Writer Who is Considered One of the Greatest Heroes of the Philippines)
Jose Rizal
11
Birthdate: June 19, 1861
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Calamba, Laguna
Died: December 30, 1896

Jose Rizal was a Filipino polymath and nationalist. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal turned towards writing and inspired the Philippine Revolution through his writings. The revolution eventually led to Philippine independence and Rizal became a national hero. His life has inspired several biographical films and TV series.

 5 
Rosa Luxemburg
(Revolutionary Socialist, Marxist Philosopher & Anti-War Activist)
Rosa Luxemburg
9
Birthdate: March 5, 1871
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Zamosc, Poland
Died: January 15, 1919
Polish Marxist and socialist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg was a member of parties such as the SPD, the USPD, and the KPD. Luxemburg was an anti-war activist and taught economics and Marxism at SPD's Berlin training center. She was assassinated by the Freikorps troops during the German Revolution
 6 
Emiliano Zapata
(Leading Figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920)
Emiliano Zapata
6
Birthdate: August 8, 1879
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Anenecuilco, Mexico
Died: April 10, 1919
Emiliano Zapata was a key figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920 and led the agrarian movement known as Zapatismo. As the leader of the Liberation Army of the South, he contributed to the fall of Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz and later fought against Venustiano Carranza.
 7 
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(Italian General Who Contributed to Italian Unification and the Creation of the Kingdom of Italy)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
6
Birthdate: July 4, 1807
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nice, France
Died: June 2, 1882

Italian general, patriot, and republican Giuseppe Garibaldi is remembered for the role he played in the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland." A highly proficient military general, he also led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf of Victor Emmanuel II. He died in 1882.

 8 
Vladimir Lenin
(Russian Revolutionary & Politician Who Served as the First Head of Government of Soviet Russia)
Vladimir Lenin
4
Birthdate: April 22, 1870
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ulyanovsk, Russia
Died: January 21, 1924

Vladimir Lenin played a key role in the history of Russian politics by developing a political ideology called Leninism. During and after his lifetime, Lenin had a massive influence over international communist movement. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and significant personalities of the 20th century.

 9 
Benito Juarez
(Lawyer, Politician)
Benito Juarez
4
Birthdate: March 21, 1806
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: San Pablo Guelatao, Mexico
Died: July 18, 1872

Benito Juarez was a Mexican lawyer and politician. He served as the 26th president of Mexico from 1858 to 1872, becoming the first president of Mexico who was of indigenous origin. He died of a heart attack in 1872. To date,  he is revered as "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." 

 10 
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(Indian Independence Activist and One Third of the 'Lal Bal Pal' Triumvirate)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
7
Birthdate: July 23, 1856
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Maharashtra, India
Died: September 1, 1920
Indian nationalist and freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also known as Lokmanya Tilak, promoted the concept of Swaraj, or self-rule. He was part of the freedom-fighter trio know as Lal Bal Pal, along with fellow Indian National Congress members Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal.
 11 
Louis Riel
(Canadian Political Leader and Founder of the Province of 'Manitoba')
Louis Riel
5
Birthdate: October 22, 1844
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Red River Colony, Canada
Died: November 16, 1885

Louis Riel was a Canadian politician. He is credited with founding the province of Manitoba. He holds a significant place in the history of the Métis people as he served as their political leader in pre-Manitoba Northwest Territories. Louis Riel is regarded as a folk hero by the Métis and other Canadian minorities for his efforts to defend their rights.

 12 
Peter Kropotkin
(Anarchist, Socialist & Historian)
Peter Kropotkin
3
Birthdate: December 9, 1842
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: February 8, 1921

Russian philosopher Peter Kropotkin was a passionate advocate of anarcho-communism. He was also an activist, revolutionary, economist, and sociologist. He was arrested and imprisoned for his activism in 1874. However, he managed to escape and lived in exile for over 40 years in different countries across Europe. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. 

 13 
Éamon de Valera
(Former President of Ireland)
Éamon de Valera
6
Birthdate: October 14, 1882
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: New York City
Died: August 29, 1975

Irish statesman Éamon de Valera served as the 3rd President of Ireland from 1959 to 1973. An influential political leader in 20th-century Ireland, he played a key role in introducing the Constitution of Ireland. Prior to becoming the president, he served as Taoiseach on three different occasions. He was an austere, stern, and unbending figure.

 14 
Andres Bonifacio
(Filipino Revolutionary)
Andres Bonifacio
9
Birthdate: November 30, 1863
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Tondo
Died: May 10, 1897
Andrés Bonifacio, or the “Father of the Philippine Revolution,” established the Katipunan, the Philippine independence movement against the Spanish colonial reign. He also worked with La Liga Filipina. He is considered the first president of the Philippines though he was never officially the president. He was eventually executed for treason. 
 15 
Chief Joseph
(Nez Perce leader)
Chief Joseph
4
Birthdate: March 3, 1840
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Wallowa River
Died: September 21, 1904

Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé tribe of Native Americans, had initially agreed to the U.S. demand of them moving into a reservation in Idaho. However, fearing retaliation after his men killed a few whites, he attempted an escape to Canada, leading his people through an arduous trek.

 16 
Apolinario Mabini
(Filipino Revolutionary and the 1st Prime Minister of the Philippines)
Apolinario Mabini
3
Birthdate: July 23, 1864
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Talaga, Tanauan, Philippines
Died: May 13, 1903

The 1st prime minister of the Philippines, Apolinario Mabini led the Philippine Revolution and helped in drafting the Malolos Constitution. Born into a family of illiterate peasants, he became a lawyer, before joining the forces of revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo. He spent most of his later years in exile, targeted by the US.

 17 
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
(Independence Activist, Reformer)
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
18
Birthdate: May 28, 1883
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Bhagur
Died: February 26, 1966

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian politician and independence activist. He formulated the Hindu nationalist philosophy of Hindutva and was a leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha. He was known for his strong oratory skills and was an eloquent writer. He was initially charged as a co-conspirator in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was later acquitted.

 18 
Friedrich Engels
(German Philosopher Who Developed 'Marxism' Together With Karl Max)
Friedrich Engels
4
Birthdate: November 28, 1820
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Barmen, Germany
Died: August 5, 1895

Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, political scientist, and revolutionary socialist. Along with Karl Marx, Engels helped develop Marxism, which has had a profound impact on fields like philosophy and anthropology. Engels is credited with helping Marx publish Das Kapital, a foundational theoretical work in politics, economics, and materialist philosophy. He also co-authored influential political documents like The Communist Manifesto.

 19 
Patrick Pearse
(Barrister and a Leader of the Easter Rising in 1916)
Patrick Pearse
3
Birthdate: November 10, 1879
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Died: May 3, 1916

Patrick Pearse was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, and revolutionary. He was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Opinionated with radical views, he decided as a boy that he would dedicate his life to Irish freedom. A relentless idealist, he was executed after the Easter Rising and was immortalized as a symbol of the rebellion.

 20 
Chiang Kai-shek
(President of the Republic of China)
Chiang Kai-shek
20
Birthdate: October 31, 1887
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Xikou
Died: April 5, 1975

Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese revolutionary who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and later on in Taiwan until his death. He is credited with successfully leading the Northern Expedition against the Beiyang government, achieving Chinese unification. He was involved in a civil war with Communist Party of China, which he lost in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan.

 21 
Mangal Pandey
(Indian Soldier Who Played an Important Role During the Time of the Indian Rebellion of 1857)
Mangal Pandey
5
Birthdate: July 19, 1827
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nagwa, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died: April 8, 1857
Indian soldier Mangal Pandey was a significant figure in the Indian rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, or First War of Independence. Pandey was a sepoy of the British East India Company’s 34th BNI Regiment. His life inspired the Bollywood movie Mangal Pandey: The Rising
 22 
Constance Markievicz
3
Birthdate: February 4, 1868
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: London, England, United Kingdom
Died: July 15, 1927

Irish revolutionary political leader and suffragist Constance Markievicz scripted history by becoming the first woman to be elected as a cabinet minister in Europe and also the first female to be elected to the British Parliament. Sentenced to death for her role in the Easter Rising, she was later granted amnesty.

 23 
Manuela Sáenz
(South American Revolutionary and Spy)
Manuela Sáenz
3
Birthdate: December 27, 1795
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Quito, Ecuador
Died: November 23, 1856

Manuela Sáenz was an Ecuadorian revolutionary who supported women's rights. She received the Order of the Sun, honoring her services in the revolution. Today, she is widely regarded as a feminist symbol of the 19th century. In 2007, the Ecuadorian government honored her with the rank of General.

 24 
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya
(Deputy Minister of Education in the Government of the Soviet Union 1929 – 1938)
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya
3
Birthdate: February 26, 1869
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: February 27, 1939
 25 
Usman dan Fodio
(Fulani Scholar, Sunni Islamic Teacher, Revolutionary, and Founder and First Caliph of Sokoto Caliphate )
Usman dan Fodio
3
Birthdate: December 15, 1754
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Gobir, Nigeria
Died: April 20, 1817
 26 
Mikhail Bakunin
(Philosopher)
Mikhail Bakunin
3
Birthdate: May 30, 1814
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Russia
Died: July 1, 1876

Mikhail Bakunin was a Russian socialist and anarchist. He is credited with founding an anarchist school of thought called collectivist anarchism. Regarded as one of the most influential personalities of anarchism, Mikhail Bakunin has had a major influence on thinkers like Peter Kropotkin, Herbert Marcuse, Errico Malatesta, Neil Postman, E. P. Thompson, and A. S. Neill.    

 27 
Francisco I. Madero
(37th President of Mexico)
Francisco I. Madero
3
Birthdate: October 30, 1873
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Parras de la Fuente, Mexico
Died: February 22, 1913

Apart from being the president of Mexico, Francisco I. Madero was also a social reformist. Born into an affluent landowning family, Madero grew up to challenge the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and was one of the initiators of the Mexican Revolution. He was assassinated in a right-wing coup.

 28 
Birsa Munda
(Tribal Leader Who Revolted Against the British Rule)
Birsa Munda
4
Birthdate: November 15, 1875
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Ulihatu, Khunti, India
Died: June 9, 1900

In spite of his short life, which ended at age 24, Birsa Munda is remembered for spearheading the tribal movement against the British. He also made the British introduce new laws for the protection of the tribal land rights. He died in prison while undergoing trials.

 29 
Talaat Pasha
(The Grand Vizier of Turkey during World War I)
Talaat Pasha
3
Birthdate: September 1, 1874
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kardzali, Bulgaria
Died: March 15, 1921

Turkish politician Talaat Pasha, who chaired the Union and Progress Party during its one-party dictatorship, later became the Grand Vizier, or prime minister, of Turkey. He had also been Turkey’s minister of the interior and finance. A convicted war criminal, he was assassinated by an Armenian in Germany, where he had escaped.

 30 
Felix Dzerzhinsky
(Bolshevik Revolutionary and Official Who Led the First Two Soviet State-Security Organizations, the 'Cheka' and the 'OGPU')
Felix Dzerzhinsky
3
Birthdate: September 11, 1877
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Minsk, Belarus
Died: July 20, 1926

Bolshevik revolutionary Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, also known as Iron Felix, was born into a Polish noble family. Though Lenin considered him a hero, he often disagreed with Lenin’s views. He had been the director of Cheka. He died of a heart attack after finishing a 2-hour speech.

 31 
Sybil Ludington
(American Revolutionary War Heroine)
Sybil Ludington
9
Birthdate: April 5, 1761
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Ludingtonville, New York, United States
Died: February 26, 1839

Born to a militia officer, Sybil Ludington later made history with her fearless resistance to the British during the American Revolutionary War. Most of her statues today find her perched on a horse, in a tribute to her night-long horseback ride to inform American soldiers of an impending British attack.

 32 
Francisco de Miranda
(Venezuelan Revolutionary and Military Leader)
Francisco de Miranda
3
Birthdate: March 28, 1750
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Caracas, Venezuela
Died: July 14, 1816

Francisco de Miranda was a Venezuelan revolutionary and military leader. He is considered a predecessor of Simón Bolívar, who liberated much of South America during the Spanish American wars of independence. Miranda is best remembered for his role in three major political movements of his time: the French Revolution, the American Revolutionary War, and the Spanish American Wars of Independence. 

 33 
Alexei Rykov
(Russian Bolshevik Revolutionary and Premier of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1930)
Alexei Rykov
3
Birthdate: February 25, 1881
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saratov, Russia
Died: March 15, 1938

Alexei Rykov was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as the  Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union in the 1920s. A key player in the 1905 Russian Revolution, he often came into political conflict with Vladimir Lenin. He oversaw the implementation of the "War Communism" economic policy during the Russian Civil War.

 34 
Yakov Yurovsky
(Soviet Era Executioner)
Yakov Yurovsky
3
Birthdate: June 19, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tomsk, Siberia, Russian Empire
Died: 1938 AD

Yakov Yurovsky was a Russian Old Bolshevik. Also a Soviet Revolutionary, he acted as the chief executioner of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family on the night of 17 July 1918. A watchmaker by trade, he was a Chekist for a short time. In his later life, he allegedly expressed remorse over his role in the executions.

 35 
Hong Xiuquan
(Taiping Heavenly King from 1851 to 1864)
Hong Xiuquan
3
Birthdate: January 1, 1814
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Huadu District, Guangzhou, China
Died: June 1, 1864

Hong Xiuquan was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary best remembered for leading the Taiping Rebellion against the much-feared and powerful Qing Dynasty. Credited with establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan later served as an inspiration to the Communists under Mao Zedong. In 1959, China established a small museum to honor his legacy.  

 36 
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(Indian Political Leader and a Social Reformer During the Indian Independence Movement)
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
3
Birthdate: May 9, 1866
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kothluk, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
Died: February 19, 1915
 37 
Robert Emmet
(Revolutionary Leader)
Robert Emmet
3
Birthdate: March 4, 1778
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Died: September 20, 1803
 38 
James Wilkinson
(American Soldier and 1st Governor of Louisiana Territory (1805 - 1807))
James Wilkinson
3
Birthdate: March 24, 1757
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Charles County, Maryland, United States
Died: December 28, 1825

James Wilkinson served the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and also revealed Aaron Burr’s conspiracy to the U.S. government. While he worked against the Spanish people as part of the U.S. army, he was later revealed to be a Spanish spy, also known as Number Thirteen.

 39 
Julius Martov
(Russian Revolutionary and Prominent Menshevik Leader)
Julius Martov
3
Birthdate: November 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Constantinople, Turkey
Died: April 4, 1923

Russian revolutionary and politician Julius Martov was a prominent leader of the Mensheviks. A close associate of Vladimir Lenin since his initial political career, he later clashed with Lenin’s ideology of limiting party membership to an exclusive group. He spent his finals years in Berlin as an editor of Socialist Courier.

 40 
Omar Mukhtar
(Ruler of Zawiyat Ayn Kalk)
Omar Mukhtar
3
Birthdate: August 20, 1858
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Zawiyat Zanzur, Libya
Died: September 16, 1931
 41 
Alexandra Kollontai
(Russian Revolutionary and Diplomat & First Woman in History to Become an Official Member of a Governing Cabinet)
Alexandra Kollontai
3
Birthdate: March 31, 1872
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: March 9, 1952

Alexandra Kollontai was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and diplomat. She served as the People's Commissar for Welfare in Lenin’s government. A powerful figure, she became the first woman in history to become an official member of a governing cabinet. She was also one of the few women to play a prominent role during the Russian Revolution. 

 42 
Begum Hazrat Mahal
(Wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah)
Begum Hazrat Mahal
3
Birthdate: 1820 AD
Birthplace: Faizabad
Died: April 7, 1879

Also known as Begum of Awadh, Begum Hazrat Mahal was the second wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. She is remembered for rebelling against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Following her husband’s exile, she took over affairs in the state of Awadh. However, she was forced by the British to abandon Awadh.

 43 
Juan Seguín
(Former Mayor of San Antonio (1834 - 1835, 1841 - 1842))
Juan Seguín
3
Birthdate: October 27, 1806
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Texas, United States
Died: August 27, 1890

Tejano revolutionary Juan Seguín was a significant part of the revolution for the independence of Texas. The son of one of the drafters of the Mexican constitution, he grew up to become the mayor of San Antonio and also led the Republic of Texas as an elected senator.

 44 
Symon Petlura
(Politician and Journalist)
Symon Petlura
3
Birthdate: May 22, 1879
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Poltava, Ukraine
Died: May 25, 1926
 45 
Vasil Levski
(Bulgarian Revolutionary & Freedom Fighter Who was Executed by the Ottoman Authorities)
Vasil Levski
3
Birthdate: July 18, 1837
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Karlovo, Bulgaria
Died: February 18, 1873

Vasil Levski was a Bulgarian revolutionary who is considered a national hero in Bulgaria. Nicknamed the Apostle of Freedom, Vasil Levski strategized a revolutionary movement to free Bulgaria from the Ottoman rule. In a nationwide television poll conducted in 2007, Levski was voted as the greatest Bulgarian of all time.

 46 
Buenaventura Durruti
(Anarcho-syndicalist, Anarchist, Trade unionist)
Buenaventura Durruti
3
Birthdate: July 14, 1896
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: León
Died: November 20, 1936
 47 
Karađorđe
(Serbian Revolutionary and Freedom Fighter)
Karađorđe
3
Birthdate: November 16, 1768
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Viševac, Serbia
Died: July 26, 1817

Karađorđe was a Serbian revolutionary and freedom fighter. An important figure during the First Serbian Uprising, Karađorđe is best remembered for leading Serbia's fight for independence from the Ottoman Empire in the early 1800s. He is also credited with founding the Karađorđević dynasty. 

 48 
Tantia Tope
(One of the Best and Most Effective Rebel Generals in the Indian Struggle for Independence)
Tantia Tope
3
Birthdate: 1814 AD
Birthplace: Yeola, Pune, India
Died: April 18, 1859

Best remembered for leading the Indian Rebellion of 1857, tribal leader Tantia Tope used guerilla tactics in his fights against the British. In spite of no formal military training, he also managed to seize Gwalior temporarily with Rani Lakshmibai. He was later hanged to death by the British.

 49 
Maxim Litvinov
(Russian Revolutionary and Former Soviet Ambassador to the United States (1941 - 1943))
Maxim Litvinov
3
Birthdate: July 17, 1876
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Białystok, Poland
Died: December 31, 1951

Soviet diplomat Maksim Litvinov believed in disarmament and was behind the adoption of the Kellogg–Briand Pact and the Litvinov Protocol. He had also been the Soviet Ambassador to the US and later served as the deputy commissar for foreign affairs. He was the grandfather of Russian-American author Pavel Litvinov.

 50 
Carl Schurz
(13th United States Secretary of the Interior (1877 - 1881))
Carl Schurz
3
Birthdate: March 2, 1829
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Erftstadt, Germany
Died: May 14, 1906

Carl Schurz was a German-born American statesman, reformer, and journalist. After immigrating to the USA during the German revolutions of 1848–49, Schurz became an important member of the Republican Party. He also helped found the Liberal Republican Party which was organized to oppose the reelection of Ulysses S. Grant.