Famous 19th Century Revolutionaries

Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Revolutionaries, including B. R. Ambedkar, Leon Trotsky, Chiang Kai-shek, Jose Rizal and Pancho Villa.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Revolutionaries

 1 
Rani Lakshmibai
(Queen of Jhansi State)

Rani Lakshmibai
4
Birthdate: November 19, 1828
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Varanasi, India
Died: June 18, 1858

Remembered for her heroics against the British, the Indian Joan of Arc Rani Lakshmibai remains an icon of the 1857 Indian Rebellion. The wife of Maharaja Gangadhar Rao, she is known for leading the fight against the British after her husband’s death. She also inspired the legendary lines Khoob Ladi Mardani.

 2 
Mahatma Gandhi
(Indian Freedom Fighter who Employed Non-violent Resistance & Known as 'Father of the Nation')

Mahatma Gandhi
9
Birthdate: October 2, 1869
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Porbandar, India
Died: January 30, 1948

An Indian lawyer and anti-colonial nationalist, Mahatma Gandhi was a major figure in India’s fight for independence from British rule. He is renowned for his employment of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience methods. Despite his popularity, he had numerous detractors as well and was assassinated in 1948. He is widely considered the Father of the Nation in India.

 3 
Paul Revere
(Silversmith, Revolutionary)

Paul Revere
8
Birthdate: January 1, 1735
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Died: May 10, 1818
Paul Revere was a silversmith from Boston and a Patriot in the American Revolution who is remembered for alerting his fellow Patriots, during a midnight ride, about the approaching British forces prior to the battles of Lexington and Concord. He remains immortalized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem Paul Revere's Ride.
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 4 
Pancho Villa
(Governor of Chihuahua (1913-14))

Pancho Villa
5
Birthdate: June 5, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: La Coyotada, Mexico
Died: July 20, 1923
Military leader Pancho Villa was a significant figure of the Mexican Revolution. He supported the ouster of dictator Porfirio Diaz and later fought to remove Victoriano Huerta from power. He also allied with Emiliano Zapata and fought against Venustiano Carranza. He remains immortalized in many films and novels.

Jose Rizal
9
Birthdate: June 19, 1861
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Calamba, Laguna
Died: December 30, 1896

Jose Rizal was a Filipino polymath and nationalist. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal turned towards writing and inspired the Philippine Revolution through his writings. The revolution eventually led to Philippine independence and Rizal became a national hero. His life has inspired several biographical films and TV series.

 6 
Rosa Luxemburg
(Revolutionary Socialist, Marxist Philosopher & Anti-War Activist)

Rosa Luxemburg
9
Birthdate: March 5, 1871
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Zamosc, Poland
Died: January 15, 1919
Polish Marxist and socialist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg was a member of parties such as the SPD, the USPD, and the KPD. Luxemburg was an anti-war activist and taught economics and Marxism at SPD's Berlin training center. She was assassinated by the Freikorps troops during the German Revolution

 7 
Emiliano Zapata
(Revolutionary)

Emiliano Zapata
4
Birthdate: August 8, 1879
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Anenecuilco, Mexico
Died: April 10, 1919
Emiliano Zapata was a key figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920 and led the agrarian movement known as Zapatismo. As the leader of the Liberation Army of the South, he contributed to the fall of Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz and later fought against Venustiano Carranza.
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 8 
Tecumseh
(Native American Leader, Shawnee chief)

Tecumseh
7
Birthdate: August 8, 1879, 1768
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Ohio, United States
Died: October 5, 1813

Tecumseh was a Shawnee chief, diplomat, orator, and warrior. He is best known for promoting resistance to the United States' expansion onto Native American lands. He also promoted tribal unity and is credited with forming a Native American confederacy. He died trying to unite Native Americans and is considered an iconic folk hero in Canadian, Indigenous, and American history.

 9 
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(Italian General Who Contributed to Italian Unification and the Creation of the Kingdom of Italy)

Giuseppe Garibaldi
4
Birthdate: July 4, 1807
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nice, France
Died: June 2, 1882

Italian general, patriot, and republican Giuseppe Garibaldi is remembered for the role he played in the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland." A highly proficient military general, he also led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf of Victor Emmanuel II. He died in 1882.

 10 
Friedrich Engels
(German Philosopher Who Developed 'Marxism' Together With Karl Max)

Friedrich Engels
4
Birthdate: November 28, 1820
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Barmen, Germany
Died: August 5, 1895

Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, political scientist, and revolutionary socialist. Along with Karl Marx, Engels helped develop Marxism, which has had a profound impact on fields like philosophy and anthropology. Engels is credited with helping Marx publish Das Kapital, a foundational theoretical work in politics, economics, and materialist philosophy. He also co-authored influential political documents like The Communist Manifesto.

 11 
Vladimir Lenin
(1st & Founding head of government of Soviet Russia (1917-1924) and Soviet Union (1922-24))

Vladimir Lenin
2
Birthdate: April 22, 1870
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ulyanovsk, Russia
Died: January 21, 1924

Vladimir Lenin played a key role in the history of Russian politics by developing a political ideology called Leninism. During and after his lifetime, Lenin had a massive influence over international communist movement. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and significant personalities of the 20th century.

 12 
Benito Juarez
(Lawyer, Politician)

Benito Juarez
4
Birthdate: March 21, 1806
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: San Pablo Guelatao, Mexico
Died: July 18, 1872

Benito Juarez was a Mexican lawyer and politician. He served as the 26th president of Mexico from 1858 to 1872, becoming the first president of Mexico who was of indigenous origin. He died of a heart attack in 1872. To date,  he is revered as "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." 

 13 

Jose Marti
4
Birthdate: January 28, 1853
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Died: May 19, 1895

Son of Spanish immigrants, Jose Marti spent his childhood in a strife-torn Cuba and attended high school on financial aid. Marti’s poems, essays, and articles were laced with his patriotic vigor to free Cuba from the Spanish rule. He died battling on the field at Dos Ríos.

 14 
Éamon de Valera
(Former President of Ireland)

Éamon de Valera
6
Birthdate: October 14, 1882
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: New York City
Died: August 29, 1975

Irish statesman Éamon de Valera served as the 3rd President of Ireland from 1959 to 1973. An influential political leader in 20th-century Ireland, he played a key role in introducing the Constitution of Ireland. Prior to becoming the president, he served as Taoiseach on three different occasions. He was an austere, stern, and unbending figure.

 15 
Louis Riel
(Politician)

Louis Riel
5
Birthdate: October 22, 1844
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Red River Colony, Canada
Died: November 16, 1885

Louis Riel was a Canadian politician. He is credited with founding the province of Manitoba. He holds a significant place in the history of the Métis people as he served as their political leader in pre-Manitoba Northwest Territories. Louis Riel is regarded as a folk hero by the Métis and other Canadian minorities for his efforts to defend their rights.

 16 
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(Revolutionary & Part of the Lal Bal Pal Triumvirate)

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
7
Birthdate: July 23, 1856
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India
Died: September 1, 1920
Indian nationalist and freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also known as Lokmanya Tilak, promoted the concept of Swaraj, or self-rule. He was part of the freedom-fighter trio know as Lal Bal Pal, along with fellow Indian National Congress members Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal.

 17 
Andres Bonifacio
(Filipino Revolutionary)

Andres Bonifacio
9
Birthdate: November 30, 1863
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Tondo
Died: May 10, 1897
Andrés Bonifacio, or the “Father of the Philippine Revolution,” established the Katipunan, the Philippine independence movement against the Spanish colonial reign. He also worked with La Liga Filipina. He is considered the first president of the Philippines though he was never officially the president. He was eventually executed for treason. 

 18 
Peter Kropotkin
(Anarchist, Socialist & Historian)

Peter Kropotkin
3
Birthdate: December 9, 1842
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: February 8, 1921

Russian philosopher Peter Kropotkin was a passionate advocate of anarcho-communism. He was also an activist, revolutionary, economist, and sociologist. He was arrested and imprisoned for his activism in 1874. However, he managed to escape and lived in exile for over 40 years in different countries across Europe. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. 

 19 
Chief Joseph
(Nez Perce leader)

Chief Joseph
4
Birthdate: March 3, 1840
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Wallowa River
Died: September 21, 1904

Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé tribe of Native Americans, had initially agreed to the U.S. demand of them moving into a reservation in Idaho. However, fearing retaliation after his men killed a few whites, he attempted an escape to Canada, leading his people through an arduous trek.

 20 
Apolinario Mabini
(Revolutionary leader)

Apolinario Mabini
3
Birthdate: July 23, 1864
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Talaga, Philippines
Died: May 13, 1903

 21 
Mikhail Bakunin
(Philosopher)

Mikhail Bakunin
3
Birthdate: May 30, 1814
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Russia
Died: July 1, 1876

Mikhail Bakunin was a Russian socialist and anarchist. He is credited with founding an anarchist school of thought called collectivist anarchism. Regarded as one of the most influential personalities of anarchism, Mikhail Bakunin has had a major influence on thinkers like Peter Kropotkin, Herbert Marcuse, Errico Malatesta, Neil Postman, E. P. Thompson, and A. S. Neill.    

 22 
Patrick Pearse
(Barrister and a Leader of the Easter Rising in 1916)

Patrick Pearse
3
Birthdate: November 10, 1879
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Died: May 3, 1916

Patrick Pearse was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, and revolutionary. He was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Opinionated with radical views, he decided as a boy that he would dedicate his life to Irish freedom. A relentless idealist, he was executed after the Easter Rising and was immortalized as a symbol of the rebellion.

 23 
Chiang Kai-shek
(President of the Republic of China)

Chiang Kai-shek
20
Birthdate: October 31, 1887
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Xikou
Died: April 5, 1975

Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese revolutionary who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and later on in Taiwan until his death. He is credited with successfully leading the Northern Expedition against the Beiyang government, achieving Chinese unification. He was involved in a civil war with Communist Party of China, which he lost in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan.

 24 
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya
(Deputy Minister of Education in the Government of the Soviet Union 1929 – 1938)

Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya
3
Birthdate: February 26, 1869
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: February 27, 1939

 25 
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
(Independence Activist, Reformer)

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
18
Birthdate: May 28, 1883
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Bhagur
Died: February 26, 1966

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian politician and independence activist. He formulated the Hindu nationalist philosophy of Hindutva and was a leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha. He was known for his strong oratory skills and was an eloquent writer. He was initially charged as a co-conspirator in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was later acquitted.

 26 

Constance Markievicz
3
Birthdate: February 4, 1868
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: London, England, United Kingdom
Died: July 15, 1927

Irish revolutionary political leader and suffragist Constance Markievicz scripted history by becoming the first woman to be elected as a cabinet minister in Europe and also the first female to be elected to the British Parliament. Sentenced to death for her role in the Easter Rising, she was later granted amnesty.

 27 
Lala Lajpat Rai
(Freedom Fighter & Part of Lal Bal Pal Triumvirate)

Lala Lajpat Rai
4
Birthdate: January 28, 1865
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Dhudike, India
Died: November 17, 1928

Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian politician who played a major role in the Indian Independence movement. He is credited with inspiring many young men, including Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekhar Azad, to join the freedom struggle through journalistic writings and activism. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari

 28 
Mangal Pandey
(Revolutionary)

Mangal Pandey
5
Birthdate: July 19, 1827
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nagwa, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died: April 8, 1857
Indian soldier Mangal Pandey was a significant figure in the Indian rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, or First War of Independence. Pandey was a sepoy of the British East India Company’s 34th BNI Regiment. His life inspired the Bollywood movie Mangal Pandey: The Rising

 29 
Mikhail Kalinin
(Mayor of Saint Petersburg)

Mikhail Kalinin
3
Birthdate: November 19, 1875
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Russia
Died: June 3, 1946

Mikhail Kalinin was a Soviet politician and an Old Bolshevik revolutionary. From 1919 to 1946, Kalinin served as head of state of the Soviet Union. After Kalinin's death, three major cities of the Soviet Union were named or renamed in his honor.

 30 
Manuela Sáenz
(Revolutionary)

Manuela Sáenz
3
Birthdate: December 27, 1795
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Quito, Ecuador
Died: November 23, 1856

Manuela Sáenz was an Ecuadorian revolutionary who supported women's rights. She received the Order of the Sun, honoring her services in the revolution. Today, she is widely regarded as a feminist symbol of the 19th century. In 2007, the Ecuadorian government honored her with the rank of General.

 31 
Denmark Vesey
(Carpenters)

Denmark Vesey
9
Birthdate: 1767 AD
Birthplace: Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Died: July 2, 1822

Sold as a slave in childhood, Denmark Vesey adopted the surname of his master. He later purchased his freedom with the money he had won in a lottery. Earning a living as a carpenter, he simultaneously launched a slave rebellion and planned a coup but was eventually hanged to death.

 32 
Francisco I. Madero
(Revolutionary)

Francisco I. Madero
3
Birthdate: October 30, 1873
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Parras de la Fuente, Mexico
Died: February 22, 1913

Apart from being the president of Mexico, Francisco I. Madero was also a social reformist. Born into an affluent landowning family, Madero grew up to challenge the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and was one of the initiators of the Mexican Revolution. He was assassinated in a right-wing coup.

 33 
Birsa Munda
(Tribal Leader Who Revolted Against the British Rule)

Birsa Munda
4
Birthdate: November 15, 1875
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Ulihatu, Khunti, India
Died: June 9, 1900

In spite of his short life, which ended at age 24, Birsa Munda is remembered for spearheading the tribal movement against the British. He also made the British introduce new laws for the protection of the tribal land rights. He died in prison while undergoing trials.

 34 

Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky
3
Birthdate: September 11, 1877
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Minsk, Belarus
Died: July 20, 1926

Bolshevik revolutionary Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, also known as Iron Felix, was born into a Polish noble family. Though Lenin considered him a hero, he often disagreed with Lenin’s views. He had been the director of Cheka. He died of a heart attack after finishing a 2-hour speech.

 35 
Osceola
(Seminole leader)

Osceola
6
Birthdate: 1804 AD
Birthplace: Talisi, Mississippi Territory, US
Died: January 30, 1838

Osceola led the Seminole tribe of Native Americans in their resistance against the U.S. attempt of moving them out of Florida and into the land west of Mississippi. He was eventually deceived by a fake truce attempt, captured, and transported to Fort Moultrie, where he passed away.

 36 
Sybil Ludington
(American Revolutionary)

Sybil Ludington
9
Birthdate: April 5, 1761
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kent, New York
Died: February 26, 1839

Born to a militia officer, Sybil Ludington later made history with her fearless resistance to the British during the American Revolutionary War. Most of her statues today find her perched on a horse, in a tribute to her night-long horseback ride to inform American soldiers of an impending British attack.

 37 
Alexei Rykov
(Premier of the Soviet Union (1924-30))

Alexei Rykov
3
Birthdate: February 25, 1881
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Saratov, Russia
Died: March 15, 1938

Alexei Rykov was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as the  Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union in the 1920s. A key player in the 1905 Russian Revolution, he often came into political conflict with Vladimir Lenin. He oversaw the implementation of the "War Communism" economic policy during the Russian Civil War.

 38 
Francisco de Miranda
(Former military leader and revolutionary)

Francisco de Miranda
3
Birthdate: March 28, 1750
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Caracas, Venezuela
Died: July 14, 1816

 39 
Alexandra Kollontai
(Russian Revolutionary and Diplomat & First Woman in History to Become an Official Member of a Governing Cabinet)

Alexandra Kollontai
3
Birthdate: March 31, 1872
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: March 9, 1952

Alexandra Kollontai was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and diplomat. She served as the People's Commissar for Welfare in Lenin’s government. A powerful figure, she became the first woman in history to become an official member of a governing cabinet. She was also one of the few women to play a prominent role during the Russian Revolution. 

Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst
3
Birthdate: September 22, 1880
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Old Trafford, Manchester, England
Died: February 13, 1958

Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst was a British suffragette who co-founded the Women's Social and Political Union. From 1912 to 1913, Pankhurst directed the organization's militant actions from France. After the war, Christabel Pankhurst settled down in the United States of America where she served as an evangelist for the Second Coming movement.

 41 
Yakov Yurovsky
(Soviet Era Executioner)

Yakov Yurovsky
3
Birthdate: June 19, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tomsk, Siberia, Russian Empire
Died: 1938 AD

Yakov Yurovsky was a Russian Old Bolshevik. Also a Soviet Revolutionary, he acted as the chief executioner of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family on the night of 17 July 1918. A watchmaker by trade, he was a Chekist for a short time. In his later life, he allegedly expressed remorse over his role in the executions.

 42 
Hong Xiuquan
(Revolutionary)

Hong Xiuquan
3
Birthdate: January 1, 1814
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Hua County, Guangdong, Qing China
Died: June 1, 1864

Hong Xiuquan was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary best remembered for leading the Taiping Rebellion against the much-feared and powerful Qing Dynasty. Credited with establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan later served as an inspiration to the Communists under Mao Zedong. In 1959, China established a small museum to honor his legacy.  

 43 
Robert Emmet
(Revolutionary Leader)

Robert Emmet
3
Birthdate: March 4, 1778
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Died: September 20, 1803

 44 
Julius Martov
(Politician)

Julius Martov
3
Birthdate: November 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Constantinople, Turkey
Died: April 4, 1923

 45 

James Wilkinson
3
Birthdate: March 24, 1757
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Charles County, Maryland, United States
Died: December 28, 1825

James Wilkinson served the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and also revealed Aaron Burr’s conspiracy to the U.S. government. While he worked against the Spanish people as part of the U.S. army, he was later revealed to be a Spanish spy, also known as Number Thirteen.

 46 

Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy
1
Birthdate: November 24, 1806
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Died: February 22, 1847

 47 
Omar Mukhtar
(Ruler of Zawiyat Ayn Kalk)

Omar Mukhtar
3
Birthdate: August 20, 1858
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Zawiyat Zanzur, Libya
Died: September 16, 1931

 48 
Begum Hazrat Mahal
(Wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah)

Begum Hazrat Mahal
3
Birthdate: 1820 AD
Birthplace: Faizabad
Died: April 7, 1879

Also known as Begum of Awadh, Begum Hazrat Mahal was the second wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. She is remembered for rebelling against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Following her husband’s exile, she took over affairs in the state of Awadh. However, she was forced by the British to abandon Awadh.

 49 
Juan Seguín
(Political Leader)

Juan Seguín
3
Birthdate: October 27, 1806
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Texas, United States
Died: August 27, 1890

Tejano revolutionary Juan Seguín was a significant part of the revolution for the independence of Texas. The son of one of the drafters of the Mexican constitution, he grew up to become the mayor of San Antonio and also led the Republic of Texas as an elected senator.

 50 
Vasil Levski
(Revolutionary)

Vasil Levski
3
Birthdate: July 18, 1837
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Karlovo, Bulgaria
Died: February 18, 1873