Felipe VI of Spain is the current King of Spain, reigning since 2014. He ascended the throne upon the abdication of his father, Juan Carlos I. His mother is Queen Sofía. As the king, he is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces as well. He also serves as the honorary president of several associations and foundations.
Ferdinand II of Aragon reigned as the King of Aragon from 1479 until his death in 1516. He sponsored Christopher Columbus' first voyage and therefore is credited with playing a key role in the discovery of the New World. He has been depicted in several films, including Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, 1492: Conquest of Paradise, and Assassin's Creed.
Queen Letizia of Spain was initially a journalist for EFE and ABC and then worked as an anchor for Televisión Española and CNN+. She had covered events such as the 9/11 attacks. She is married to King Felipe VI of Spain and was previously married to a high-school teacher.
Catherine of Aragon was one of the most popular English royal consorts of all time. A patron of Renaissance humanism, she gained widespread admiration for starting a program for the relief of the poor. A woman who was ahead of her time, Catherine commissioned The Education of a Christian Woman, a controversial book promoting women's right to education.
Charles II of Spain reigned as the king of Spain from 1665 to 1700. He was the last king from the House of Habsburg to rule the Spanish Empire. Despite suffering from many illnesses throughout his life, Charles proved to be a reasonably influential king. The town of Charleroi and the Caroline Islands in modern Belgium were named after Charles.
Theodosius I, or Theodosius the Great, ruled as the Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He made Christianity the state religion of his empire and constructed architectural marvels, such as the Column of Theodosius, the Golden Gate, and the Theodosian Walls, in Constantinople. He ended conflicts with the Goths and barred pagan rituals in the Olympics.
Philip IV of Spain was the king of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and the king of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. He was a fine horseman and a keen hunter but was considered a weak ruler with excessive dependence on the ministers. Even though the Spanish empire expanded considerably during his reign, he was not a popular king.
Philip III of Spain was the king of Spain from 1598 to 1621. He also reigned over Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia as Philip II. He was the son of Philip II of Spain and Anna of Austria. He was believed to be a weak man, who relied too much on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma.
Alfonso XIII began ruling as the king of Spain under the regency of his mother, María Cristina. His strategy of rotating governments led to 33 governments in 21 years. Known as El Africano for his support to those who wished to colonialize African countries, he eventually had to leave Spain.
Older brother of Napoleon, Joseph Bonaparte, had been the king of Naples and Spain. After Napoleon’s fall, he was exiled to New Jersey, U.S. Later, in Europe, he lived a lavish life at Point Breeze, surrounded by all the wealth he had inherited, along with a classy collection of paintings.
Ferdinand VII of Spain reigned as the king of Spain during the 19th century. Widely regarded as despotic and incompetent, Ferdinand is often criticized by historians and scholars for having failed to disallow the disintegration of the Spanish territories in the Americas. Thus, he is often blamed for the termination of the Spanish rule in the Americas.
Spanish princess Anne of Austria was also an archduchess of the House of Habsburg. She later became the queen of France, as King Louis XIII’s wife, and also ruled as the regent for her son, Louis XIV. She is one of main characters in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas.
Charles III succeeded his heir-less half-brother, King Ferdinand VI, to the throne of Spain. Apart from rejuvenating the areas of scientific research and agriculture, Charles also reduced the powers of the Church. He was also known for his signature Bourbon nose, his cynicism, and his sharp tongue.
Isabella II was the queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She took to the throne shortly before turning 3, according to a Pragmatic Sanction issued by her father before her birth. Her uncles’ resistance caused the Carlist Wars. Spain became a constitutional monarchy under her mother’s regency.
Magnus Maximus, a British General, rose to power as Roman Emperor of Western Roman Empire usurping the throne from Emperor Gratian in 383. The following year, he became emperor in Britannia and Gaul. In 388, he fought the Battle of Poetovio against the Eastern Roman Empire, but was defeated by Emperor Theodosius I and later captured and killed at Aquileia.
King Ferdinand III of Castile, the son of Alfonso IX of León, inherited Castile from his mother’s side but had to counter his father’s resistance to finally unite Castile and León. He also conquered Muslim regions such as Córdoba and Jaén (1246), while Granada turned into his vassal.
Alfonso X had served as the king of Castile and Leon in the 13th century. A patron of scholars, he readily participated in editing and writing their treatises. Apart from encouraging law and science, he also penned Galician poetry and established the Siete partidas law code, inspired by Roman law.
Brunhilda was queen of Austrasia, which was part of Francia. The daughter of Visigothic king Athanagild, she was also one of the most powerful fighters of Merovingian age. Her conflict with Fredegund, the queen consort of Chilperic I, ended in her death by being torn apart by four horses.
María Cristina De Habsburgo-Lorena is better known as the Spanish king Alfonso XII’s queen consort, who acted as the queen regent after her husband’s death and before her son came of age to rule on his own. Her regency was the longest in the history of Spanish royalty.
Peter of Castile was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal and a member of the main branch of the House of Ivrea. He began his reign when he was almost 16 years old and became notorious as a vicious and cruel ruler.
Isabella of Portugal was Holy Roman Empress and Queen consort of Italy by her marriage to Emperor Charles V. She also served as the Queen consort of Spain, Queen of the Romans, and Lady of the Netherlands from 1526 to 1539. Due to Emperor Charles V's constant travels, she was the regent of Spain and under her regency Spain was quite prosperous .
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou is a member of the Bourbons, a Spanish royal family, which formerly ruled many countries, including France. A direct descendant of Louis XIV of France, Louis Alphonse is a pretender to the French throne. However, the rival pretenders argue that Louis is ineligible for the throne as he is a Spanish citizen.