Wu Zetian was a Chinese historical figure, who, in different stages of her life, was a concubine, empress consort, empress dowager and empress regent. She was the only woman in the history of China to have called herself “Huangdi”, a title that only the emperors of China had used since the time of Qin Shi Huang. Alternatively known as Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and Tian Hou, she is also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu." She established the short-lived Zhou Dynasty during her regency. Wu Zetian was raised in an affluent family and was able to dedicate herself entirely to education. At the age of 14, she became an imperial concubine of Emperor Taizong of Tang and after his death became the concubine and eventually the wife of his son, Emperor Gaozong of Tang. She had always wielded considerable power in the palace and in the Tang administration. Following her husband’s debilitating stroke in 660, she assumed the role of an administrator of the court, effectively becoming the sovereign of the empire. After the death of her husband, Wu Zetian continued to hold the position until 705 and was regarded as a competent ruler. While she has been criticised for brutality in her ascendency to power and for the tyrannical hold on it afterwards, she was kind to her people, ushering in several economic, social, cultural and political changes. Wu Zetian passed away in 705 and subsequently, the Tang dynasty was restored by her son and successor, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang.