Following his graduation, Mikuláš Dzurinda was appointed as an economic analyst at the Transport Research Institute (VÚD) in Žilina,. He worked there till 1988.
He continued his education and completed his post-graduate scientific research from the College of Transport and Communications in Žilina and earned his Candidate of Sciences (CSc.) degree in 1988.
He became the director of an information technology section within the regional directorate of the Czechoslovak Railways (ČSD) in Bratislava in 1988, a post he held till 1990.
The year 1990 also saw his entry into the world of politics. He became one of the founding members of the Christian Democratic Movement (KDH), a conservative political party, thus embarking on his political journey.
The same year, the country held its first democratic general election following which he was elected Deputy Minister of Transportation and Posts of the Slovak Government in 1991. The very next year he became a member of the Slovak parliament (National Council of the Slovak Republic).
In 1993 Czechoslovakia split and an independent Slovakia was established. During this time Mikuláš Dzurinda was working as a KDH Deputy Chairman responsible for economy.
Jozef Moravčík became the Prime Minister in March 1994, and under his administration Dzurinda worked as the Minister of Transportation, Posts and Public Works. However, Moravcik’s tenure came to an end within months in October the same year and following Vladimír Mečiar’s win in the general election in 1994, Dzurinda returned to the opposition benches in the parliament.
Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar proved to be an authoritarian who tried to weaken opposition parties. In response, five opposition parties Christian Democratic Movement (KDH), Democratic Party (DS), Democratic Union (DU), Social Democratic Party of Slovakia (SDSS) and the Green Party of Slovakia (SZS) came together to form the Slovak Democratic Coalition (SDK) in 1997. Mikuláš Dzurinda became its spokesman, and later, its chairman in 1998.
The Slovak Democratic Coalition (SDK) contested the election in 1998 and defeated the government of Vladimír Mečiar at the polls. A new coalition government was formed and Mikuláš Dzurinda became the Prime Minister of Slovakia, assuming office on 30 October 1998.
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He emphasized on strengthening the country’s position in world trade and its international relations with the other countries of the world. He implemented several reforms to build better relations with the European Union (EU). His efforts culminated in Slovakia's entry into the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2000. Several major foreign investors also entered the Slovak market during this time.
He founded a new political party, the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union (SDKÚ) in 2000. He proved to be a good leader and was thus easily re-elected to a second term in 2002.
During his second term he was successful in leading Slovakia to become a member of the EU and NATO in 2004. He had initiated the process for his country’s inclusion to the international organizations shortly after he had assumed office in his first term.
Under his tenure, the budget deficit was reduced to less than 3 percent of the GDP. The country also registered economic growth at a rate higher than 6 percent. This ensured that several foreign investors including car companies such as PSA Peugeot-Citroën and Kia were attracted to the country.
While the country saw many positive changes during his tenure, it also was plagued by a very high rate of unemployment. His party was defeated by SMER in the 2006 parliamentary election and he stepped down as the Prime Minister.