Famous 1st Century Emperors & Kings

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 1 
Julius Caesar
(Roman General and Statesman)
Julius Caesar
78
Birthdate: 0100
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: March 15, 0044

Julius Caesar is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history and played an important role in the events that led to the downfall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He assumed control of the government after a civil war. He was assassinated by rebel senators on the Ides of March, 44 BC.

 2 
Claudius
(4th Roman Emperor Who Ruled from AD 41 to 54)
Claudius
23
Birthdate: August 1, 0010
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Lugdunum
Died: October 13, 0054

Claudius was made the Roman emperor by the Praetorian Guard after the assassination of Caligula, his nephew and predecessor, and ruled from 41 to 54 A.D. He was slightly limp and deaf since childhood, but his reign was marked by financial stability. He was succeeded by his grand-nephew, tyrant Nero.

 3 
Trajan
(Roman Emperor)
Trajan
12
Birthdate: September 18, 0053
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Hispania Baetica
Died: August 8, 0117

Trajan was the Roman emperor from 98 to 117 CE. Remembered as a successful soldier-emperor, he presided over a great military expansion, leading the Roman Empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He was the second of the Five Good Emperors and focused on implementing social welfare policies for the benefit of his citizens.

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 4 
Nero
(Roman Emperor)
Nero
31
Birthdate: December 15, 0037
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Anzio, Italy
Died: June 9, 0068

Nero was the fifth Roman emperor whose rule was associated with tyranny. Five years into his reign, he had his mother Agrippina killed. The Great Fire of Rome, which occurred during his reign, is believed to have been instigated by him for political reasons. He was also responsible for eliminating many Christians from the empire.

 5 
Tiberius
(Roman Emperor from 14 CE to 37 CE)
Tiberius
16
Birthdate: November 16, 0042
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: March 16, 0037
Tiberius, the second Roman emperor, ruled from AD 14 to 37. Though his conquests strengthened the Roman empire, he lacked the will to rule. Following his son Drusus Julius Caesar’s death, Tiberius became aloof. He later gave away his administrative powers to his prefects Sejanus and Naevius Sutorius Macro.
 6 
Caligula
(Roman Emperor From 37 AD to 41 AD)
Caligula
25
Birthdate: August 31, 0012
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Anzio, Italy
Died: January 24, 0041

Caligula, the third Roman emperor, is often described as a cruel man who forced his subjects to worship him as their god. Considered an insane tyrant, Caligula is accused of incest and forcing the audience to enter a sporting arena to be eaten alive by wild beasts during the intermission. His stories are famous in popular culture.

 7 
Vespasian
(Roman Emperor Who Reigned from AD 69 to 79)
Vespasian
10
Birthdate: November 18, 0009
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Falacrine
Died: June 23, 0079
Vespasian, the Roman emperor from 69 to 79 AD, established the Flavian dynasty. He was the first emperor from an equestrian family and a great military leader who was the legate of Legio II Augusta. Nero committed suicide when Vespasian besieged Jerusalem, leading to the Year of the Four Emperors.
 8 
Herod the Great
(King of Judaea from 37 BC to 4 BC)
Herod the Great
12
Birthdate: November 30, 0072
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Edom
Died: 0004 BC

Herod the Great was a client king of Judea. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Herod ordered the execution of all male toddlers in the vicinity of Bethlehem, the incident which came to be known as Massacre of the Innocents. Thus, he is believed to have played a major role in the events leading up to the birth of Jesus.

 9 
Domitian
(Roman Emperor)
Domitian
9
Birthdate: October 24, 0051
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Rome
Died: September 18, 0096
Domitian, son of Vespasian, reigned as the Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the last ruler of the Flavian dynasty and was assassinated by his own court officials. His authoritarian regime witnessed the reduction of the Senate’s powers and the strengthening of the defenses and the Roman economy.
 10 
Titus
(Roman Emperor)
Titus
10
Birthdate: December 30, 0039
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Rome
Died: September 13, 0081

Titus was the ruler of the Roman Empire from 79 to 81 CE. Before ascending the throne, he played a crucial role as a military commander, working alongside his father Vespasian during the First Jewish-Roman War. After becoming the emperor, Titus oversaw the completion of the Colosseum. His life and work are depicted in literature, paintings, and visual arts.

 11 
Nerva
(Roman Emperor)
Nerva
5
Birthdate: November 8, 0030
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Narni, Italy
Died: January 27, 0098

Nerva was the Roman emperor from 96 to 98. He was aged 66 when he ascended the throne, after serving other emperors for several decades. Even though he ruled for just 15 months, historians consider him a wise and moderate emperor. He selected Trajan as his heir, thus ensuring a peaceful transition of power after his death.

 12 
Galba
(Roman Emperor)
Galba
5
Birthdate: December 24, 0003
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Terracina, Italy
Died: January 15, 0069
Galba reigned as the Roman emperor from 68 to 69 and was the Year of the Four Emperors’ first emperor. He was the governor of Hispania when the rebellion of Gaius Julius Vindex broke out in Gaul, and he took over the throne after the tyrannical Nero's suicide.
 13 
Otho
(Emperor)
Otho
5
Birthdate: April 28, 0032
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ferentium, Italy
Died: April 16, 0069

Though Otho lost his wife, Poppaea, to Nero, who later married her, he governed Lusitania for 10 years diligently, before he joined a revolt against Nero. He reigned as the Roman emperor for merely 3 months, before committing suicide while fighting the Battle of Bedriacum against Vitellius.

 14 
Hezekiah
(King of Judah)
Hezekiah
6
Birthdate: 0739 BC
Birthplace: Jerusalem, Israel
Died: 0687 BC
Often likened to David, Hezekiah was the ruler of the southern kingdom of Judah. He succeeded his father, Ahaz, at 25. He reformed the Temple and abolished idolatry. His reign witnessed the Assyrians capture Israel and Sennacherib lead the siege of Jerusalem, following which a plague destroyed the Assyrian army.
 15 
Vitellius
(Roman emperor)
Vitellius
10
Birthdate: September 24, 0015
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: December 20, 0069
 16 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(Macedonian Hellenistic King)
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
5
Birthdate: 0215 BC
Birthplace: Greece
Died: 0164 BC

Antiochus IV Epiphanes reigned over the Seleucid Empire as a Hellenistic king from 175 BC to 164 BC. The first successful usurper of the Seleucid Empire, Antiochus' rise to power set an example for aspiring rulers of subsequent generations. His often eccentric behavior, such as appearing unannounced in the public bath houses, earned him the nickname, The Mad One.

 17 
Herod Antipas
5
Birthplace: Judea
Died: 0039 AD

Herod Antipas reigned as the ruler of Galilee and Perea during the first century. He is widely known for his role in events leading up to the executions of Jesus of Nazareth and John the Baptist. It is said that Jesus was initially handed over to Antipas by Pontius Pilate before Antipas decided to send Jesus back to Pilate's court.

 18 
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
(Pharaoh of Egypt (51–47 BC))
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
3
Birthdate: 0062 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: January 13, 0047

The son of pharaoh Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator co-ruled with his sister, Cleopatra VII. Faced with a civil war after he forced his sister to flee to Syria, he later ruled with Arsinoe IV, another sister. He was killed while battling Julius Caesar’s forces in the Alexandrian War.

 19 
Ptolemy XII Auletes
(Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt)
Ptolemy XII Auletes
3
Birthdate: 0117 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0051 AD

Being an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Auletes apparently bribed Julius Caesar, in exchange for a law acknowledging his kingship in Egypt. He was later exiled, but came back to Egypt and killed his daughter, Berenice IV, who ruled in his absence and with the support of the opposition.

 20 
Al-Maʾmūn
(Caliph of Baghdad)
Al-Maʾmūn
3
Birthdate: September 14, 0786
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Baghdad, Iraq
Died: August 9, 0833
 21 
Mithridates VI of Pontus
(King of Pontus from 120 BC to 63 BC)
Mithridates VI of Pontus
2
Birthdate: 0135 AD
Birthplace: Sinop, Turkey
Died: 0063 AD

Mithridates VI of Pontus, also known as Mithridates the Great, came to power as a young boy after his father, Mithridates V, was assassinated by poisoning. However, since Mithridates VI’s mother acted as a regent and favored his brother, Mithridates got them both imprisoned and took over the throne.

 22 
Tigranes the Great
3
Birthdate: 0140 BC
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0055 BC
King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo
3
Birthplace: South Korea
 24 
Ptolemy Philadelphus
2
Birthdate: 0036 AD
Birthplace: Antioch, Turkey
Died: 0029 AD
 25 
Kanishka
(King)
Kanishka
3
Birthdate: 0078 AD
Birthplace: Peshawar, Pakistan
Died: 0144 AD
 26 
Onesimus
(Empire)
Onesimus
2
Birthplace: Phrygia
Died: 0095 AD
 27 
Herod Agrippa II
(Last ruler from the Herodian dynasty)
Herod Agrippa II
2
Birthdate: 0027 AD
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: 0100 AD
 28 
Juba II
(King of Numidia)
Juba II
2
Birthdate: 0048 AD
Birthplace: Numidia
Died: 0023 AD
 29 
Emperor Guangwu of Han
(Emperor of Han dynasty)
Emperor Guangwu of Han
2
Birthdate: January 15, 0005
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Luoyang, China
Died: March 29, 0057
Ptolemy of Mauretania
2
Birthdate: 0009 AD
Birthplace: Cherchell, Algeria
Died: 0040 AD
Ptolemy XIV Theos Philopator II
2
Birthdate: 0061 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0044 AD
 32 
Emperor Shōmu
1
Birthdate: 0701 AD
Birthplace: Yamato, Japan
Died: June 4, 0756
 33 
Hyrcanus II
(Priest)
Hyrcanus II
1
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0030 AD
 34 
Emperor Xuan of Han
1
Birthdate: 0091 AD
Birthplace: Chang'an, China
Died: 0048 AD
 35 
Cunobeline
1
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0041 AD
 36 
Juba I of Numidia
1
Birthdate: 0085 AD
Birthplace: Annaba, Algeria
Died: 0046 AD
 37 
Gondophares
1
Birthdate: 0000
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0046 AD
 38 
Emperor Ming of Han
1
Birthdate: June 15, 0028
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Luoyang, China
Died: September 5, 0075
 39 
Nabis
(Ruler of Sparta)
Nabis
1
Birthdate: 0230 AD
Birthplace: Sparta
Died: 0192 AD
 40 
Emperor Yuan of Han
1
Birthdate: 0075 AD
Birthplace: Chang'an, China
Died: July 8, 0033
 41 
Trưng sisters
0
Birthplace: China
Ptolemy IX Lathyros
1
Birthdate: February 18, 0142
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: November 30, 0081
Mithridates II of Parthia
1
Birthplace: Parthia, Iran
Died: 0091 BC
 44 
Ptolemy X Alexander I
(King of Egypt (reigned 107–88 BCE))
Ptolemy X Alexander I
1
Birthdate: 0140 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0088 AD
 45 
Maroboduus
(king of Marcomanni)
Maroboduus
1
Birthdate: 0030 AD
Birthplace: Germany
Died: 0037 AD
 46 
Emperor Ping of Han
1
Birthdate: 0009 AD
Birthplace: Dingzhou, Baoding, China
Died: February 3, 0006
 47 
Dinh Bo Linh
(Emperor)
Dinh Bo Linh
1
Birthdate: March 22, 0929
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Gia Viễn District, Vietnam
Died: 0979 AD
 48 
Aristobulus II
(King of Judaea and High Priest of Judaea)
Aristobulus II
2
Birthdate: 0100 BC
Birthplace: Israel
Died: 0049 BC

Aristobulus II reigned as the King of Judaea from 66 to 63 BCE. He also served as the Jewish High Priest of Judaea during his reign. Aristobulus II succeeded his mother Salome Alexandra to the throne after defeating his brother John Hyrcanus II. He was the last of the Maccabean kings of Judaea.

 49 
Emperor Zhang of Han
(Emperor of Han dynasty)
Emperor Zhang of Han
1
Birthdate: 0057 AD
Birthplace: China
Died: 0088 AD
 50 
Olaf Guthfrithson
1
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0941 AD