2 Claudius Ptolemy(Astronomer, Cartographer & Mathematician)
3 Plutarch(Philosopher, Biographer)
Plutarch was a Greek philosopher, essayist, biographer, and historian. He also served as the priest at the Temple of Apollo. He is best remembered for his work Parallel Lives, a series of 48 biographies of noteworthy men. His writings had a huge influence on French and English literature. Writers like Shakespeare were influenced by his works.
4 Cicero(One of Rome's Greatest Orators of Politics and Prose Stylists)
Josephus was a Romano-Jewish historian. He played a major role during the First Jewish–Roman War, where he fought against the Romans as head of Jewish forces. However, he surrendered to Roman forces in 67 CE. As a historian, Josephus' works provide the first-known source for stories considered Biblical history. These stories include the narration of the Siege of Masada.
Livy was a Roman historian. His seminal work, Ab Urbe Condita, covers the history of Rome through several centuries. A respected figure in society, he was on friendly terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He wrote during the reign of Emperor Augustus, who was reportedly his friend. Livy was married and had at least two children.
8 Pliny the Elder(Philosopher, Writer)
Pliny the Elder was a Roman natural philosopher, author, and army and naval commander of the Roman Empire. His work Naturalis Historia became an editorial model for the present-day encyclopedias. Today, his statue greets the visitors of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in his hometown, Como.
Plotinus was a Hellenistic philosopher whose writings on metaphysics have inspired centuries of Jewish, Christian, Pagan, and Gnostic mystics and metaphysicians. His philosophy also had a major influence on the evolution of Christian theology. Plotinus' ideas influenced medieval Islam as well as a group of philosophers and theologians at the University of Cambridge which was known as the Cambridge Platonists.
Lucretius was a Roman philosopher and poet. He is credited with originating the three-age system, which was formalized by C. J. Thomsen in 1836. His only known work De rerum natura, a philosophical poem, influenced several Augustan poets, including Virgil. The poem also played a prominent role in the development of atomism.
12 Cato the Elder(Historian)
Known for writing the first authentic history of Rome in Latin, Cato disliked luxury and was against the Hellenic culture that the Scipio family propagated. His role in the destruction of Carthage is of major significance. The Roman statesman gained many enemies for his stern actions as a censor.
Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria was perhaps the first to use allegory to fuse Jewish scriptures with Greek philosophy. Though not much is known about his life, it is believed Philo was a lover of theater, boxing contests, and lavish dinners. His written works showcase the development of Hellenistic Judaism.
14 Apollonius of Tyana(Philosopher)
Apollonius of Tyana was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher best remembered through Philostratus' work, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, which was written more than a century after his death. Apollonius is said to have had extra-sensory perception and is even compared with Pythagoras and Jesus Christ. Apollonius of Tyana has even influenced contemporary literature and films among other works of art.
Tacitus was a Roman politician and historian. He is widely considered one of the greatest Roman historians of all time. Tacitus is best remembered for his fascinating insights into the psychology of politics, especially power politics.
16 Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite(Theologian)
Appian was a Greek historian who flourished during the monarchy of Antoninus Pius, Trajan, and Hadrian. Appian, who held Roman citizenship, is best remembered for his principal surviving work Roman History. The work is considered important and valuable for its description of the Roman Empire, especially during the civil wars.
21 Herodian(Civil servant)
23 Quintus Fabius Pictor(Historiographer)
24 Velleius Paterculus(Historian)
26 Valerius Maximus(Writer)
27 Priscus(Diplomat, Historian)
28 Marcus Cornelius Fronto(Advocate)
29 Aelius Donatus(Grammarian)
30 John Argyropoulos(Philosopher)
31 George Sphrantzes(Historian)
32 Joannes Zonaras(Byzantine historian)
33 Antiochus Of Ascalon(Philosopher)
34 Sextus Pompeius Festus(Grammarian)
35 Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger(Military General)
36 Peregrinus Proteus(Philosopher)
37 Ahmed Cevdet Pasha(Scholar)
38 Kâtip Çelebi(Polymath)
39 Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus(Historian)
Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus was a Gallo-Roman historian who lived during the reign of the emperor Augustus. He hailed from the Celtic Vocontii tribe in Narbonese Gaul. He is believed to have been a polymath and wrote books on the natural history of animals and plants. His best-known work is the Philippic Histories, preserved only in excerpts today.