17th Century Leaders

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 1 
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(Military Leader)
Tokugawa Ieyasu
15
Birthdate: January 31, 1543
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Okazaki Castle, Mikawa (now Okazaki, Japan)
Died: June 1, 1616

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He is considered one of the three "Great Unifiers" of Japan. He was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, a minor local warlord. He grew up to be an ambitious young man with exemplary leadership qualities and eventually founded the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. 

 2 
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
(English Soldier and Statesman Who helped Defeat the 'Monmouth Rebellion' in 1685 )
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
12
Birthdate: May 26, 1650
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Ash, Musbury
Died: June 16, 1722
 3 
Louis XIV of France
(King of France (1643-1715))
Louis XIV of France
14
Birthdate: September 5, 1638
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Died: September 1, 1715

Louis XIV of France reigned as the King of France from 1643 to 1715. Louis XIV is the longest-reigning monarch of a sovereign country in the history of Europe. Under his rule, France often asserted its military prowess and emerged as the most dominant European monarchy. His life inspired several films, such as The Taking of Power by Louis XIV.

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 4 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
(King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632)
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
3
Birthdate: December 9, 1594
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: November 6, 1632

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden reigned as the King of Sweden from 30 October 1611 until his death on 6 November 1632, at the age of 37. He is credited with transforming Sweden into a great European power. Considered one of the greatest modern military commanders, Gustavus Adolphus turned Sweden into one of Europe's primary military forces during the Thirty Years' War.

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 5 
Oliver Cromwell
(English Statesman)
Oliver Cromwell
26
Birthdate: April 25, 1599
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, Kingdom of England
Died: September 3, 1658
The Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Oliver Cromwell was a military leader and a devoted Puritan who belonged to an affluent landowning family. During the English Civil War, Cromwell fought against King Charles I and caused the deaths of at least 3,000 soldiers and civilians.
 6 
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
(1st Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire (1674-80))
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
39
Birthdate: February 19, 1630
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Maharashtra, India
Died: April 3, 1680

Shivaji was an Indian warrior-king. He is credited with founding the Maratha Empire, which became a force to reckon with during the 18th century. He is also credited with creating his own navy. Considered one of the most important Indian kings and a hero of the Hindus, Shivaji's life and work have inspired several works of art, including films.

 7 
Kösem Sultan
(Ottoman sultana)
Kösem Sultan
11
Birthdate: 1589 AD
Birthplace: Tinos, Republic of Venice (currently the territory of Greece)
Died: September 2, 1651
 8 
Samuel Pepys
(Member of Parliament)
Samuel Pepys
6
Birthdate: February 23, 1633
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: London, England
Died: May 26, 1703
 9 
Robert Walpole
(Prime Minister of Great Britain (1721-42))
Robert Walpole
6
Birthdate: August 26, 1676
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Houghton, Norfolk, England
Died: March 18, 1745
 10 
Henry Morgan
(Privateer, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica)
Henry Morgan
7
Birthdate: January 24, 1635
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Llanrumney, Glamorgan
Died: August 25, 1688

Henry Morgan was a Welsh privateer who later served as lieutenant governor of Jamaica. He is best remembered for raiding settlements on the Spanish Main. From the wealth acquired through his raids, Morgan became a plantation owner, buying three large sugar plantations in the Caribbean. His life and career inspired several films, such as Captain Blood and Morgan, the Pirate.

 11 
Cardinal Richelieu
(French Clergyman and First Minister of State (1624 - 1642))
Cardinal Richelieu
12
Birthdate: September 9, 1585
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: December 4, 1642

Cardinal Richelieu was a French clergyman and statesman who was active in the early 17th century. He held powerful positions in both the Catholic Church and French government and served as the chief minister to Louis XIII of France in 1624. He helped the French maintain their dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. 

 12 
Roger Williams
(Theologian)
Roger Williams
4
Birthdate: December 12, 1603
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: London, England
Died: 1683 AD

Roger Williams was a 17th-century Puritan minister and theologian. He founded Providence Plantations, which later became the US state of Rhode Island. He advocated for fair dealings with Native Americans and believed in religious freedom. He disapproved of perpetual chattel slavery. After being expelled by the Puritan leaders, he founded the First Baptist Church in America. 

 13 
Johan de Witt
(Mathematician, Politician)
Johan de Witt
3
Birthdate: September 24, 1625
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Dordrecht
Died: August 20, 1672
 14 
Albrecht von Wallenstein
(Bohemian Statesman and Military Leader Best Remembered For His Role in 'The Thirty Years' War')
Albrecht von Wallenstein
5
Birthdate: September 24, 1583
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Heřmanice, Czechia
Died: February 25, 1634

Albrecht von Wallenstein was a Bohemian statesman and military leader best remembered for his role in the Thirty Years' War. During the war, he served as the supreme commander of the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.  By the time of his death, Wallenstein was one of the most influential and richest men in the Holy Roman Empire.

 15 
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
(French Royal, Statesman and Regent of France (1715 - 1723))
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
3
Birthdate: August 2, 1674
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Saint-Cloud, France
Died: December 2, 1723

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was the regent of the Kingdom of France from 1715 to 1723. He was the son of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. He was named the regent of France for Louis XV, who succeeded to the throne at the age of five. Philippe died months after Louis attained majority.

 16 
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
(German-English Army Officer, Admiral, Scientist and Colonial Governor)
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
3
Birthdate: December 17, 1619
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Prague, Czechia
Died: November 29, 1682

Prince Rupert of the Rhine was a German-English admiral, army officer, colonial governor, and scientist. Renowned for his energy and quick-thinking, Rupert made long-lasting and impressive contributions to the doctrine and development of the Royal Navy. He is also credited with shaping modern Canada's political geography. 

 17 
John III Sobieski
(Military leader, Politician)
John III Sobieski
3
Birthdate: August 17, 1629
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Olesko
Died: June 17, 1696

Well-educated and well-traveled, John III Sobieski initially joined the Swedes as a soldier, in opposing Polish ruler John Casimir. He then switched to the Polish side. He gradually rose through the ranks to become a grand marshal and a grand-hetman, and eventually became the king of Poland.

 18 
Charles Evans Hughes
3
Birthdate: April 11, 1862
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Glens Falls, New York, U.S.
Died: August 27, 1948
 19 
Richard Cromwell
(Statesman)
Richard Cromwell
4
Birthdate: October 4, 1626
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Died: July 12, 1712
 20 
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
(Former Secretary of State of England (1596 - 1612))
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
3
Birthdate: June 1, 1563
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Westminster, London, England
Died: May 24, 1612

Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury was a British statesman best remembered for his contribution during the Union of the Crowns. One of the main discoverers of the infamous Gunpowder Plot, Robert Cecil served as the Lord High Treasurer from 1608 to 1612. From 1596 to 1612, he served as the Secretary of State of England.

 21 
Prince Eugene of Savoy
(Austrian Army Commander)
Prince Eugene of Savoy
3
Birthdate: October 18, 1663
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: April 21, 1736

Prince Eugene of Savoy was a field marshal who served in the army of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty and of the Holy Roman Empire. One of the most influential military commanders of his generation, Prince Eugene served three Holy Roman emperors in a career spanning 60 years. Consequently, he played important roles in many battles, including the Battle of Turin.

 22 
Maurice de Saxe
2
Birthdate: October 28, 1696
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Goslar, Germany
Died: November 20, 1750
 23 
Date Masamune
(Regional Ruler of Japan’s Azuchi–Momoyama Period Through Early Edo Period)
Date Masamune
3
Birthdate: September 5, 1567
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Yonezawa, Yamagata, Japan
Died: June 27, 1636
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: July 18, 1552
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: January 20, 1612

Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the King of the Romans and as the King in Germany between 1576 and 1612. Best remembered as an intellectual aficionado of occult arts, Rudolf is often seen as the founding father of the Scientific Revolution. He devoted his time to astrology and alchemy in an attempt to find the Philosopher's Stone.

 25 
James Oglethorpe
(Founder of the colony of Georgia)
James Oglethorpe
3
Birthdate: December 22, 1696
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Surrey
Died: June 30, 1785

Remembered as the founder of the British colony of Georgia in the US, James Oglethorpe was a renowned British soldier, MP, and social reformer. Educated at Oxford, he initially fought for the Austrian army against the Turks. As an MP, he brought in prison reforms. He was also the governor of Georgia.

 26 
Michiel de Ruyter
4
Birthdate: March 24, 1607
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Vlissingen, Netherlands
Died: April 29, 1676

Michiel de Ruyter was a Dutch admiral best remembered for his achievements during the Anglo-Dutch Wars. An important member of the Dutch Navy during his time, De Ruyter is widely considered one of the most talented admirals of all time. Regarded as a Dutch folk hero, Michiel de Ruyter's life and career inspired the 2015 Dutch film, Michiel de Ruyter.

Malhar Rao Holkar
4
Birthdate: March 16, 1693
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Jejuri
Died: April 20, 1766
 28 
Augustus II the Strong
(Elector of Saxony)
Augustus II the Strong
4
Birthdate: May 12, 1670
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dresden, Germany
Died: February 1, 1733
Michael I of Russia
3
Birthdate: July 12, 1596
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: July 12, 1645
 30 
Nanny of the Maroons
(Resistance fighter)
Nanny of the Maroons
4
Birthdate: 1686 AD
Birthplace: Ghana
Died: 1755 AD

Nanny of the Maroons was a Jamaican resistance fighter best remembered as the leader of the Jamaican Maroons. She led a community called Windward Maroons which fought a war against the British authorities in what came to be known as the First Maroon War. In 1975, she was declared Jamaica's only female national hero by the government of Jamaica. 

 31 
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
(Economist, Politician)
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
5
Birthdate: August 29, 1619
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Reims
Died: September 6, 1683

Born into a merchant family in France, Jean-Baptiste Colbert grew up to hold various administrative posts. Patronized by Cardinal Mazarin, he became affluent and later became one of the most efficient administrators during the regime of Louis XIV. He also established the French merchant navy.

 32 
Hong Taiji
(Emperor)
Hong Taiji
3
Birthdate: November 28, 1592
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Manchuria, China
Died: September 21, 1643

Hong Taiji reigned as the khan of the Later Jin from 1626 to 1636. He is credited with establishing the Qing dynasty and reigned as its emperor from 1636 to 1643. He also played a major role in consolidating the empire founded by his father Nurhaci. Over the years, Hong Taiji has been portrayed in many TV series and films.

 33 
Jan van Riebeeck
(Dutch Colonial Administrator)
Jan van Riebeeck
4
Birthdate: April 21, 1619
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Culemborg
Died: January 18, 1677

Jan van Riebeeck was a Dutch colonial administrator and navigator. He is credited with founding the Dutch Cape Colony and Cape Town. Jan van Riebeeck is of historical and cultural importance to South Africa as many South Africans consider him the founding father of their country. Several South African villages and towns have streets named after Van Riebeeck.

 34 
Robert Catesby
(Conspirator)
Robert Catesby
6
Birthdate: March 3, 1572
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Lapworth, England
Died: November 8, 1605
Christian IV of Denmark
3
Birthdate: April 12, 1577
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød, Denmark
Died: February 28, 1648
 36 
Koxinga
(Ming Loyalist General and Former Ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning (1661 - 1662))
Koxinga
3
Birthdate: August 27, 1624
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Hirado, Hizen Province, Japan
Died: June 23, 1662

Koxinga was a Ming loyalist who opposed and resisted the Manchu invasion of China. In 1661, he established the House of Koxinga after defeating the Dutch military camp in Taiwan. He then ruled the Kingdom of Tungning from 1661 to 1662. Today, Koxinga is considered a deity in coastal China and is worshiped in places like Taiwan and Southeast Asia.

 37 
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
(British Politician, Courtier and Master of the Horse (1616 - 1628))
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
4
Birthdate: August 28, 1592
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Brooksby, Leicestershire, England
Died: August 23, 1628

Rumored to be a possible lover of the English king James I, statesman George Villiers, was a royal favorite but later grew unpopular with people for his inefficiency and faulty foreign policies. He practically ruled England in the initial years of Charles I’s reign and was eventually assassinated by an army officer.

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
4
Birthdate: July 13, 1608
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Graz
Died: April 2, 1657

Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III is largely held responsible for ending the Thirty Years’ War in 1648 with 2 peace treaties known as the Peace of Westphalia. He also conspired against Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein when he was denied control of the imperial army. He was also instrumental in the Peace of Prague.

 39 
Daniel Morgan
(Politician)
Daniel Morgan
4
Birthdate: July 6, 1736
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States
Died: July 6, 1802
 40 
Powhatan
(Native American Leader)
Powhatan
3
Birthdate: June 17, 1545
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Virginia, United States
Died: March 31, 1618
 41 
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(Hetman of Zaporizhian Host (1648 –1657))
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
3
Birthdate: 1595 AD
Birthplace: Subotiv, Ukraine
Died: August 6, 1657
Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne
2
Birthdate: September 11, 1611
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Sedan, France
Died: July 27, 1675
 43 
Yŏngjo
(Korean King)
Yŏngjo
4
Birthdate: October 31, 1694
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Gyeonghuigung, Seoul, South Korea
Died: April 22, 1776
 44 
Myles Standish
(Colonist)
Myles Standish
4
Birthdate: 1584 AD
Birthplace: Lancashire, United Kingdom
Died: October 3, 1656
 45 
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman emperor)
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: July 26, 1678
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: April 17, 1711

Emperor Leopold I’s eldest son, Joseph I became the king of Hungary at the tender age of 9 and the king of Romans at 11. Though he strengthened Austria’s financial situation, bringing the Viennese city bank under the state, he failed to retain the Spanish crown for the Habsburg Monarchy.

 46 
Metacom
(Tribal Leader)
Metacom
3
Birthdate: 1638 AD
Birthplace: Massachusetts, United States
Died: August 12, 1676
Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
3
Birthdate: May 24, 1671
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy
Died: July 9, 1737
 48 
Edward Braddock
(military personnel)
Edward Braddock
3
Birthdate: 1695
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Perthshire
Died: July 13, 1755
 49 
William Laud
(Archbishop of Canterbury (1633–1645))
William Laud
3
Birthdate: October 7, 1573
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Reading, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom
Died: January 10, 1645
 50 
Thomas Fairfax
(Political leader)
Thomas Fairfax
3
Birthdate: January 17, 1612
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Denton Hall, Wharfedale
Died: November 12, 1671