Peter Paul Rubens is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. He lived during the Dutch Golden Age. His style of art emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He painted altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings and also drew cartoons for the Flemish tapestry workshops. He was a classically educated humanist scholar as well.
Diego Velázquez was a Spanish painter who served as the most important artist in King Philip IV's court. The leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age, Velázquez's work served as a model for impressionist and realist painters of the 19th century. In the 20th century, personalities like Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso re-interpreted some of Velázquez's most iconic images.
Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who started painting at an early age before going on to become the leading court painter in England. Although he is best remembered for painting the aristocracy, van Dyck also painted biblical and mythological subjects. In 1632, Anthony van Dyck received a knighthood from Charles I.
Born to a schoolteacher and part-time painter father, Dutch painter Carel Fabritius learned painting from Rembrandt. A pioneer of the 17th-century Delft movement, he died in the deadly 1654 Delft gunpowder magazine explosion that ravaged most of the city and almost all his works. The Goldfinch remains his best-known work.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo was a Spanish Baroque painter. He is most famous for his religious works. He also produced numerous paintings of contemporary women and children, especially of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars. He had many followers and pupils and was one of the founders of the Academia de Bellas Artes (Academy of Art).
Italian Baroque painter Guido Reni was a major figure of the Bolognese School. His subjects were predominantly mythological and religious figures. Initially inspired by Annibale Carracci, he later deviated to lighter colors and free brushwork. His iconic works include the fresco Aurora and the composition Atalanta and Hippomenes.
Born to a tailor, Annibale Carracci set up a painters’ studio named Accademia degli Incamminati with his brother and cousin, thus establishing the famous Carracci family of painters. A significant figure of the Baroque movement, he is remembered for his iconic works such as Domine, Quo Vadis?
Francisco de Zurbarán was a Spanish painter known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs. He was also famous for his still-lifes. His forceful use of the chiaroscuro style of painting gained him the nickname "Spanish Caravaggio." He was much respected during his lifetime and was appointed painter to King Philip IV.
Charles Le Brun was a French physiognomist, painter, and art theorist. He served as the director of many popular art schools of his time. He also served as the court painter to Louis the Great, who called him the greatest French artist. An influential artist of 17th-century France, Charles Le Brun's works are still preserved in the popular Louvre Museum.
Baroque painter and poet Salvator Rosa was born near Naples, to a land surveyor father, who wanted him to become a priest or a lawyer. However, Rosa deviated to art. Initially devoted to landscapes, he later focused on religious art. He is remembered as a pioneer of the Neapolitan school.
Jusepe de Ribera was a Spanish-Valencian Tenebrist painter and printmaker. He was also called Lo Spagnoletto ("the Little Spaniard") by his contemporaries. Little is known about his early life, though it is believed he studied at the Academy of Saint Luke. He spent several years of his career in Italy and was a leading painter in Naples.
David Teniers the Younger was a Flemish Baroque painter, draughtsman, printmaker, staffage painter, miniaturist painter, copyist, and art curator. A prolific and versatile artist, Teniers was considered an innovator in a variety of genres such as genre painting, history painting, portrait, landscape painting, and still life. Today, he is remembered as the most important Flemish genre painter of his generation.
Flemish painter Jacob Jordaens was a major part of the Flemish Baroque movement. He is best remembered for his works such as Allegory of Fertility and known for his signature use of warm colors and scenes inspired by proverbs, mythology, allegories. He also designed many tapestries.
Born into slavery, Juan de Pareja began his artistic career assisting his master, painter Diego Velázquez, in his workshop, painting Portrait of Agustín Moreto while in slavery. Freed in 1650, which came into effect four years later, he continued to work as an independent painter, very soon developing his own style, creating masterpieces like The Calling of Saint Matthew.
Spanish painter Juan Sánchez Cotán is regarded as one of the pioneers of Baroque realism. He is best known for his still lifes, also known as bodegones, which showed a signature illusion of depth and volume using light and shadow. His subjects ranged from fruits and vegetables to birds.
Spanish Baroque painter and the president of the Sevilla Academy, Juan de Nisa Valdés Leal is remembered for his masterpieces such as St. Andrew, Vanitas, and La Vírgen de los Plateros. Though initially characterized by his use of vibrant colors, he later dealt with macabre themes and violence.
Jan van der Heyden was a Dutch painter, draughtsman, glass painter, and printmaker. One of the first Dutch exponents of painting townscapes, Jan van der Heyden was among the most prominent painters of the Dutch Golden Age. He was also an inventor and engineer who made major contributions to firefighting technology. He is credited with writing the first firefighting manual.
One of the co-founders of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, Eustache Le Sueur was also one of its first professors. He is best remembered for his religious art that showcased the French Baroque style. Born to a wood sculptor father, he was later trained in painting under Simon Vouet.
Renowned Spanish Baroque painter Juan Carreño de Miranda had been the court painter of King Charles II. His frescos and oil paintings of religious scenes, such as Founding of the Trinitarian Order, depict a balanced combination of light and shadow. His portraits of the royal family are rich in their accuracy.
Born in Mexico, Baroque painter Cristóbal de Villalpando created masterpieces that still adorn Mexican cathedrals. Much of his work, such as Triumph of the Eucharist, was influenced by Peter Paul Rubens and his techniques of brushwork and color. He also drew from Mannerism and created a distinct local Mexican style.
The son of Portuguese sculptor Faustino Coello, Spanish Baroque painter Claudio Coello is regarded as the last of the great masters of the 17th-century Madrid school. His Adoration of the Holy Eucharist, which adorns the El Escorial, is one of his masterpieces. He was patronized by Charles II.
One of the first artists who employed the techniques of the Italian new realism, Spanish Baroque painter Francisco Ribalta specialized in painting religious subjects. He was also the pioneer of tenebroso, or paintings focusing on darkness, in Spain. His masterpieces include Christ Embracing St. Bernard and Nailing to the Cross.
Ciro Ferri was a 17th-century Italian Baroque sculptor and painter. He was the chief pupil and successor of prominent painter cum architect Pietro da Cortona. Alongside his mentor, he worked in the extensive fresco decorations of the Quirinal Palace and the Pitti Palace. He was a member of the Accademia di San Luca and trained numerous pupils.
Bertholet Flemalle was a Liège Baroque painter who studied under Gerard Douffet and Henri Trippet. He is credited with carrying out elaborate decorative work at the Palace of Versailles. He also served at the Royal Academy of Paris as a professor after being appointed by Louis XIV. Bertholet Flemalle is credited with teaching future painters like Gerard de Lairesse.
Regarded as an important force behind the development of the Baroque style in Europe, Gerhard Dagly worked mainly in lacquer. Entrusted with decorating the palace by Frederick I, the King of Prussia, he copied Oriental prototype to create a style of his own, a work that helped to make chinoiserie popular in France, leaving significant impact on the European craftsmanship.