List of famous intellectuals & academics of the 19th century with their biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history.

Famous Intellectuals & Academics Of The 19th Century
Intellectuals are the thinking lot who use their intelligence to demonstrate the different capacities of the human mind. They usually are involved in learning, critical analysis, researching and reasoning. They use their skills in different fields including literature, medicine, law and scientific research. Since times immemorial, the world has been home to several intellectuals and academicians who have utilized their thinking power to articulate a stream of belief which led to the development of theories. When Karl Marx suggested his theories, a school of thought was started and the era began to be known as a Marxist period of thinking. Marxism became a line of belief which is practiced till date. Much like the earlier days, every century has had its share of intellectuals and academicians who have contributed to the world knowledge through their wisdom, thinking and philosophies. In the 19th century, there were several intellectuals and academicians who changed the world with their philosophies. Great intellectuals like Alexander Bain, Alfred Adler, Alfred Russell, Wallace, Arthur Keith, Bernard Berenson and others introduced new theories, philosophies and thinking in various fields to enrich the era’s intellectual and academic history. Their endeavour towards reaching new models and theories assisted in establishing new foundations of belief. Check this section to know about some of the most famous intellectuals and academics of the 19th century.
George BooleGeorge Boole

02 November 1815

08 December 1864

Lincoln

British

Scorpio

Karl MarxKarl Marx

05 May 1818

14 March 1883

Trier

German,Prussian

Taurus

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud

06 May 1856

23 September 1939

Príbor

Austrian

Taurus

Mao ZedongMao Zedong

26 December 1893

09 September 1976

Shaoshan

Chinese

Capricorn

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin

22 April 1870

21 January 1924

Ulyanovsk

Russian

Taurus

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche

15 October 1844

25 August 1900

Röcken-bei-Lützen, Kingdom of Prussia

German

Libra

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis

29 November 1898

22 November 1963

Belfast

Irish,British,Welsh

Sagittarius

Carl JungCarl Jung

26 July 1875

06 June 1961

Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland

Swiss

Leo

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky

07 November 1879

21 August 1940

Kherson Oblast

Soviet Russian,Russian

Scorpio

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy

09 September 1828

20 November 1910

Yasnaya Polyana

Soviet Russian,Russian

Virgo

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau

12 July 1817

06 May 1862

Concord

American

Cancer

Bertrand RussellBertrand Russell

18 May 1872

02 February 1970

Trellech, Monmouthshire, UK

British,Welsh

Taurus

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein

26 April 1889

29 April 1951

Vienna

Austrian

Taurus

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois

23 February 1868

27 August 1963

Great Barrington

Ghanaian

Pisces

John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill

20 May 1806

08 May 1873

Pentonville, London, England

British

Taurus

John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes

05 June 1883

21 April 1946

CambridgeApril

British

Gemini

Jean PiagetJean Piaget

09 August 1896

16 September 1980

Neuchatel

Swiss

Leo

Muhammad IqbalMuhammad Iqbal

09 November 1877

21 April 1938

Sialkot, Punjab, British India

Pakistani

Scorpio

John DeweyJohn Dewey

20 October 1859

01 June 1952

Burlington, Vermont, United States

American

Libra

Emile DurkheimEmile Durkheim

15 April 1858

15 November 1917

Épinal

French

Aries

Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan

05 September 1888

17 April 1975

Thiruttani

Indian

Virgo

Friedrich EngelsFriedrich Engels

28 November 1820

05 August 1895

Barmen, Germany

German

Sagittarius

William JamesWilliam James

11 January 1842

26 August 1910

New York City, New York

American

Capricorn

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

27 August 1770

14 November 1831

Stuttgart, Duchy of Württemberg, Germany

German

Virgo

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus

13 February 1766

23 December 1834

Surrey, England

British

Aquarius

Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger

26 September 1889

26 May 1976

Meßkirch, Baden,, German Empire

German

Libra

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lev_Vygotsky.jpgLev Vygotsky

17 November 1896

11 June 1934

Orsha

Russian

Scorpio

Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer

27 April 1820

08 December 1903

Derby, Derbyshire, England

British

Taurus

Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti

12 May 1895

17 February 1986

Madanapalle

Indian

Taurus

Auguste ComteAuguste Comte

19 January 1798

05 September 1857

Montpellier, France

French

Capricorn

Alexis de TocquevilleAlexis de Tocqueville

29 July 1805

16 April 1859

Paris, France

French

Leo

Walter BenjaminWalter Benjamin

15 July 1892

27 September 1940

Berlin, German Empire

German

Cancer

Alfred Russel WallaceAlfred Russel Wallace

08 January 1823

07 November 1913

Llanbadoc

British

Capricorn

Rosa LuxemburgRosa Luxemburg

05 March 1871

15 January 1919

Zamos'c'

German,Polish

Pisces

Rudolf SteinerRudolf Steiner

25 February 1861

30 March 1925

Donji Kraljevec, Croatia

Croatian

Pisces

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler

07 February 1870

28 May 1937

Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus

Austrian

Aquarius

Rudolf VirchowRudolf Virchow

13 October 1821

05 September 1902

Schivelbein, Pomerania, Kingdom of Prussia

German

Libra

Zora Neale HurstonZora Neale Hurston

07 January 1891

28 January 1960

Notasulga

American

Capricorn

Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar

26 September 1820

29 July 1891

Paschim Midnapore District, West Bengal, India

Indian

Libra

George SantayanaGeorge Santayana

16 December 1863

26 September 1952

Madrid

Spanish,American

Sagittarius

Franz BoasFranz Boas

09 July 1858

21 December 1942

Minden, Westphalia, Germany

American

Cancer

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises

29 September 1881

10 October 1973

Lviv

Austrian

Libra

Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin

30 May 1814

01 July 1876

Russia

Soviet Russian,Russian

Gemini

Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman

03 July 1860

17 August 1935

Hartford, Connecticut

American

Cancer

 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin

09 December 1842

08 February 1921

Moscow, Russian Empire

Russian

Sagittarius

Khalil GibranKhalil Gibran

06 January 1883

10 April 1931

Bsharri, Lebanon

Lebanese

Capricorn

Henri BergsonHenri Bergson

18 October 1859

04 January 1941

Paris

French

Libra

Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall

26 July 1842

13 July 1924

Bermondsey

British

Leo

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead

15 February 1861

30 December 1947

Ramsgate, Kent, England

British,American

Aquarius

Richard Francis BurtonRichard Francis Burton

19 March 1821

20 October 1890

Torquay

British

Pisces

Reinhold NiebuhrReinhold Niebuhr

21 June 1892

01 June 1971

Wright City, Missouri

American

Gemini

Karl BarthKarl Barth

10 May 1886

10 December 1968

Basel, Switzerland

Swiss

Taurus

Pierre Teilhard de ChardinPierre Teilhard de Chardin

01 May 1881

10 April 1955

Orcines

French

Taurus

Paul TillichPaul Tillich

20 August 1886

22 October 1965

Starzeddel, Brandenburg, Germany

German,American

Leo

Sir Syed Ahmad KhanSir Syed Ahmad Khan

17 October 1817

27 March 1898

Delhi

Indian

Libra

Martin BuberMartin Buber

08 February 1878

13 June 1965

Vienna

Austrian,Israeli

Aquarius

Will DurantWill Durant

05 November 1885

07 November 1981

North Adams, Massachusetts

American

Scorpio

Anna FreudAnna Freud

03 December 1895

09 October 1982

Vienna

Austrian

Sagittarius

Henry GeorgeHenry George

02 September 1839

29 October 1897

Philadelphia

American

Virgo

Edith SteinEdith Stein

12 October 1891

09 August 1942

Wrocław

German

Libra

Douglas MawsonDouglas Mawson

05 May 1882

14 October 1958

Shipley

Australian

Taurus

vNikos Kazantzakis

18 February 1883

25 October 1957

Heraklion

Greek

Aquarius

Miguel de UnamunoMiguel de Unamuno

29 September 1864

31 December 1936

Bilbao

Spanish

Libra

Mahadev Govind RanadeMahadev Govind Ranade

18 January 1842

16 January 1901

Niphad

Indian

Capricorn

Marie StopesMarie Stopes

15 October 1880

02 October 1958

Edinburgh

British

Libra

William Desmond TaylorWilliam Desmond Taylor

26 April 1872

01 February 1922

Carlow

Irish,American

Taurus

Gunnar MyrdalGunnar Myrdal

06 December 1898

17 May 1987

Gagnef

Swedish

Sagittarius

John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell

24 March 1834

23 September 1902

Mount Morris

American

Aries

Emil KraepelinEmil Kraepelin

15 February 1856

07 October 1926

Neustrelitz

German

Aquarius

Alfred KorzybskiAlfred Korzybski

03 July 1879

01 March 1950

Warsaw

Polish

Cancer

William BeveridgeWilliam Beveridge

05 March 1879

16 March 1963

Rangpur City

British

Pisces

Henry AdamsHenry Adams

16 February 1838

27 March 1918

Boston, Massachusetts

American

Aquarius

Lillian Moller GilbrethLillian Moller Gilbreth

24 May 1878

02 January 1972

Oakland

American

Gemini

Immanuel VelikovskyImmanuel Velikovsky

10 June 1895

17 November 1979

Vitebsk

Israeli

Gemini

Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky

11 November 1821

09 February 1881

Moscow

Soviet Russian,Russian

Scorpio

Alexander HerzenAlexander Herzen

06 April 1812

21 January 1870

Moscow

Russian

Aries

V. Gordon ChildeV. Gordon Childe

14 April 1892

19 October 1957

Sydney

Australian

Aries

J. F. C. FullerJ. F. C. Fuller

01 September 1878

10 February 1966

Chichester, West Sussex, England

British

Virgo

Debendranath TagoreDebendranath Tagore

15 May 1817

19 January 1905

Kolkata

Indian

Taurus

Bernard BerensonBernard Berenson

26 June 1865

06 October 1959

Butrimonys, Lithuania

American

Cancer

Alfred KroeberAlfred L. Kroeber

11 June 1876

05 October 1960

Hoboken, New Jersey

American

Gemini

Nicholas Murray ButlerNicholas Murray Butler

02 April 1862

07 December 1947

Elizabeth

American

Aries

Ľudovít ŠtúrĽudovít Štúr

28 October 1815

12 January 1856

Uhrovec

Hungarian

Scorpio

Sven HedinSven Hedin

19 February 1865

26 November 1952

Stockholm, Sweden

Swedish

Aquarius

Milan Rastislav ŠtefánikMilan Rastislav Štefánik

21 July 1880

04 May 1919

Košariská

Slovak

Cancer

Inge LehmannInge Lehmann

13 May 1888

21 February 1993

Østerbro, Denmark

Danish

Taurus

Alexander BainAlexander Bain

01 October 1811

02 January 1877

Watten

Scottish

Libra

Carl Ortwin Sauer Carl O. Sauer

24 December 1889

18 July 1975

Warrenton, Missouri, US

American

Capricorn

Piero SraffaPiero Sraffa

05 August 1898

03 September 1983

Turin, Italy

Italian

Leo

Ragnar FrischRagnar Frisch

03 March 1895

31 January 1973

Oslo

Norwegian

Pisces

Albert ClaudeAlbert Claude

24 August 1899

22 May 1983

Longlier, Neufchâteau, Belgium

Belgian

Virgo

Élisée ReclusElisee Reclus

15 March 1830

04 July 1905

Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France

French

Pisces

Frederic PassyFrédéric Passy

20 May 1822

12 June 1912

Paris

French

Taurus

Emily Greene BalchEmily Greene Balch

08 January 1867

09 January 1961

Boston

American

Capricorn

William Morris DavisWilliam Morris Davis

12 February 1850

05 February 1934

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

American

Aquarius

F. H. BradleyF. H. Bradley

30 January 1846

18 September 1924

Clapham

British

Aquarius

Carlos Saavedra LamasCarlos Saavedra Lamas

01 November 1878

05 May 1959

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Argentine

Scorpio

Nikolay PrzhevalskyNikolay Przhevalsky

12 April 1839

01 November 1888

Smolensk, Russia

Russian

Aries

Soren KierkegaardSoren Kierkegaard

05 May 1813

11 November 1855

Copenhagen

Danish

Taurus

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