Famous Swedish Intellectuals & Academics

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 1 
Dag Hammarskjöld
(Secretary-General of the United Nations (1953-61))
Dag Hammarskjöld
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Birthdate: July 29, 1905
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Jönköping, Sweden
Died: September 18, 1961

Dag Hammarskjöld was a Swedish diplomat and economist. In 1953, Hammarskjöld became the youngest person to be appointed as the Secretary-General of the United Nations. He died in airplane crash in 1961. Dag Hammarskjöld became the first person to be honored with a Nobel Peace Prize posthumously.

 2 
Swedenborg
(Swedish Christian Scientist, Philosopher and Theologian Best Known for His Book ‘Heaven and Hell’)
Swedenborg
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Birthdate: January 29, 1688
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: March 29, 1772

Emanuel Swedenborg was a Swedish pluralistic-Christian philosopher, mystic, theologian, and scientist. Swedenborg started hogging the limelight after writing a book on the afterlife titled Heaven and Hell, which released in 1758. A prolific scientist and inventor, Swedenborg experienced spiritual awakening after which he started working on reforming Christianity. He even claimed that he could converse with angels and demons.

 3 
Ernst Cassirer
(Philosopher, University teacher)
Ernst Cassirer
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Birthdate: July 28, 1874
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Wrocław
Died: April 13, 1945

German Jewish philosopher Ernst Cassirer was a major figure of the Weimar intellectual circle. While he initially followed in the path of his mentor Hermann Cohen, he later developed and promoted philosophical idealism and also penned books such as Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. His The Myth of the State dealt with Nazi Germany.

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 4 
Gunnar Myrdal
(Swedish economist & sociologist. who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.)
Gunnar Myrdal
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Birthdate: December 6, 1898
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Skattungbyn, Sweden
Died: May 17, 1987

Son of a building contractor, Nobel Memorial Prize-winning Swedish economist and sociologist Gunnar Myrdal attained a Rockefeller fellowship to the U.S. and also taught as a professor. Through his book An American Dilemma, he explored the socio-economic issues of the African-American community and laid down concepts such as cumulative causation.

 5 
Hans Rosling
(Swedish Physician, Co-Founder and Chairman of the 'Gapminder Foundation')
Hans Rosling
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Birthdate: July 27, 1948
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: February 7, 2017

A Swedish physician, academic, and public speaker, Hans Rosling was the co-founder of Gapminder Foundation, that is known for the development the Trendalyzer software system. He gave several talks/lectures, presented television documentaries like Don’t Panic: The Truth about Population and also co-authored a bestselling book titled Factfulness. Additionally, he was a professor of international health at Karolinska Institute too.

 6 
Nick Bostrom
(Philosopher)
Nick Bostrom
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Birthdate: March 10, 1973
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Helsingborg, Sweden

Nick Bostrom is a Swedish philosopher best known for his work concerning issues like existential risk, human enhancement, the anthropic principle, and risks with super-intelligence. A prolific writer, Bostrom has authored more than 200 books. Nick Bostrom is also an advocate of transhumanism. In 2009, he received the Eugene R. Gannon Award.

 7 
Knut Wicksell
(Economist)
Knut Wicksell
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Birthdate: December 20, 1851
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: May 3, 1926

A prominent name in the field of economics, Knut Wicksell was a Swedish economist known for his pioneering work in monetary theory. His work has influenced numerous economists like James M. Buchanan and John Maynard Keynes and various economic schools of thought like Keynesian and Austrian school. During his career, he also worked as a professor at the Lund University.

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 8 
Fredrik Reinfeldt
(Prime Minister of Sweden 2006 - 2014)
Fredrik Reinfeldt
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Birthdate: August 4, 1965
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Österhaninge, Sweden

Fredrik Reinfeldt is a Swedish lecturer, economist, and former politician. He served as the Prime Minister of Sweden from 6 October 2006 to 3 October 2014. By virtue of his victories in 2006 and 2010, Fredrik Reinfeldt became the only person to lead the Moderate Party to two successive general election victories. 

 9 
Sven Hedin
(Geographer)
Sven Hedin
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Birthdate: February 19, 1865
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: November 26, 1952

Sven Hedin was a Swedish topographer, geographer, photographer, explorer, illustrator, and travel writer. He is best known for making four expeditions to Central Asia. He later shared his experience in a book titled From Pole to Pole. A respected explorer, Hedin was honored with several prestigious awards and medals during his lifetime.

 10 
Carl-Henric Svanberg
(Entrepreneur, Engineer, Economist)
Carl-Henric Svanberg
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Birthdate: May 29, 1952
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Porjus

Since 2012, Swedish businessman Carl-Henric Svanberg has led AB Volvo, the global trucks and construction equipment manufacturer, as its chairman. Previously he worked as the chairman of British oil and gas company BP plc and CEO of the Swedish telecommunication company Ericsson. Still earlier, as CEO, he led the Assa Abloy Group to become a global leader in its industry.

 11 
Tomas Tranströmer
(Swedish Poet, Psychologist ,Translator and Winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Literature)
Tomas Tranströmer
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Birthdate: April 15, 1931
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: March 26, 2015

Nobel Prize-winning Swedish poet Tomas Tranströmer was raised by his mother after his parents split. He initially worked as a psychologist. Known for books such as 17 dikter, he specialized in modernist imagery and metaphors. A skilled pianist, he played with his left hand after his right side was paralyzed.

 12 
Sara Danius
(Literary Critic)
Sara Danius
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Birthdate: April 5, 1962
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Täby, Sweden
Died: October 12, 2019

Sara Danius was a Swedish professor of literary studies and essayist. She is best remembered for writing about the relationship between society and literature and dealt with authors like Gustave Flaubert, Thomas Mann, and Marcel Proust. Over the course of her illustrious career, Sara Danius was honored with several prestigious awards like Gerard Bonnier's Essay Prize and Lena Nyman Prize.

 13 
Alva Myrdal
(Swedish Politician and Sociologist & Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982)
Alva Myrdal
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Birthdate: January 31, 1902
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: February 1, 1986

Alva Myrdal was a Swedish politician, diplomat, and sociologist. She played a major role during the disarmament movement in Sweden, for which she was honored with the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. She also chaired the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute after playing a key role in its creation. Throughout her career, Myrdal was honored with many prestigious awards.

 14 
Arvid Carlsson
(Neuropharmacologist)
Arvid Carlsson
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Birthdate: January 25, 1923
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: June 29, 2018

Swedish pharmacologist Arvid Carlsson’s research work establishing dopamine as a significant neurotransmitter in the brain resulted in the development of drugs for Parkinson’s disease. In the year 2000, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work. During his career, he was also awarded the Wolf Prize in Medicine, the Japan Prize and Italy's Feltrinelli Prize.

 15 
Ivar Jacobson
(Computer scientist, Engineer, Inventor)
Ivar Jacobson
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Birthdate: September 2, 1939
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Ystad

Swedish computer scientist and software engineer, Ivar Jacobson is known for the development of Unified Modelling Language (UML), Rational Unified Process (RUP) and Objectory. Previously he worked for Ericsson and in 2004 founded his current company Ivar Jacobson International. He is also an author who has published numerous books and papers. Additionally, he has also delivered talks at various conferences.

 16 
Anders Retzius
(Professor)
Anders Retzius
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Birthdate: October 13, 1796
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Lund, Sweden
Died: April 18, 1860

Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius is best remembered for his ground-breaking research on craniometry, or the human skull. He was associated with the Karolinska Medic-Kirurgiska Institutet in Stockholm. A Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences member, he was also the father of renowned Swedish physican Gustaf Retzius.

 17 
Gad Anders Rausing
(Industrialist)
Gad Anders Rausing
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Birthdate: May 19, 1922
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Bromma, Sweden
Died: January 20, 2000

Gad Anders Rausing was a Swedish archaeologist and industrialist. Alongside his brother Hans Anders Rausing, Gad is credited with popularizing the food packaging company Tetra Pak, which was founded by his father Ruben Rausing. Gad Rausing, who had a lifelong passion for archaeology, taught at Lund University's Institute of Archaeology. Gad Anders Rausing also authored several books on archaeology. 

 18 
Bertil Gotthard Ohlin
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Birthdate: April 23, 1899
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Klippan, Scania
Died: August 3, 1979

Bertil Gotthard Ohlin was a Swedish economist best known for developing what became known as the Heckscher–Ohlin model together with Eli Heckscher. He had a long career as a professor of economics at the Stockholm School of Economics. Along with British economist James Meade, he was jointly awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1977. 

 19 
Rudolf Kjellén
(Political Scientist)
Rudolf Kjellén
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Birthdate: June 13, 1864
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Torsö, Sweden
Died: November 14, 1922

Rudolf Kjellén was a Swedish politician, geographer, and political scientist. Apart from coining the term geopolitics, Kjellén is also credited with laying the foundations for the German Geopolitik. Rudolf Kjellén also served as a professor of political sciences and statistics at the University of Gothenburg. 

 20 
Lisbeth Palme
(Psychologist)
Lisbeth Palme
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Birthdate: March 14, 1931
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: October 18, 2018

Wife of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme, Lisbeth Palme was also a children's psychologist in her own right, serving as the chairwoman of the Swedish UNICEF committee for about twelve long years and as its international chairwoman for one term. A witness to her husband’s assassination, she later identified the murderer, but experts believe he identified the wrong man.

 21 
Vilhelm Moberg
(Best Known for His 'The Emigrants' Series of Novels about Swedish Emigrants to America)
Vilhelm Moberg
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Birthdate: August 20, 1898
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Moshultamåla, Sweden
Died: August 8, 1973

Vilhelm Moberg was a Swedish author and historian who is internationally known for his works on Swedish emigration to the USA in the 19th century. Moberg took it upon himself to give voice to the poor and illiterate, writing several books on the subject including The Earth is Ours trilogy and the Emigrant series. Largely self-educated, he also wrote several non-frictions including two volumes on Swedish history.

 22 
Johan Vilhelm Snellman
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Birthdate: May 12, 1806
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: July 4, 1881

Finnish statesman Johan Vilhelm Snellman was a major figure of the Fennoman movement that was geared toward establishing Finnish as a national language, replacing Swedish. He had been both a professor and a senator, and has switched the Finnish monetary standard from rubles to marks.

 23 
Ishtiaq Ahmed
(Political scientist)
Ishtiaq Ahmed
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Birthdate: February 24, 1947
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Lahore, Pakistan

Ishtiaq Ahmed is a Swedish author and political scientist. He is best known for his association with Stockholm University where he serves as Professor Emeritus of Political Science. At the University of Stockholm, Ishtiaq Ahmed taught a range of subjects including political theory.

 24 
Eli Filip Heckscher
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Birthdate: November 24, 1879
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: December 23, 1952

Eli Filip Heckscher was a Swedish economic historian and economist best remembered for co-developing the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem alongside Bertil Ohlin. Referred to as the father of Swedish economic history, Heckscher also made an immense contribution to the establishment of political opinion in Sweden. In 1932, Eli Filip Heckscher was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

 25 
Torbern Olof Bergman
(Chemist and naturalist)
Torbern Olof Bergman
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Birthdate: March 20, 1735
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Katrineberg, Sweden
Died: July 8, 1784

Torbern Olof Bergman was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He is best remembered for his 1775 work Dissertation on Elective Attractions, which contains the largest chemical affinity tables. He also contributed immensely to the development of quantitative analysis. Torbern Olof Bergman also taught physics and mathematics at the University of Uppsala.

 26 
Eric von Rosen
(Explorer, Ethnographer)
Eric von Rosen
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Birthdate: June 2, 1879
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Skeppsholm church parish
Died: April 25, 1948

Eric von Rosen was a Swedish explorer and ethnographer. An important figure in the Swedish upper class, Rosen gifted the newly independent state of Finland an aircraft in 1918, which signified the dawn of the Finnish Air Force. Eric von Rosen is also credited with popularizing the swastika in Sweden as he used the symbol as a personal owner's mark.  

 27 
Gustav Cassel
(Economist)
Gustav Cassel
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Birthdate: October 20, 1866
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: January 14, 1945

Gustav Cassel was a Swedish economist who traveled around the world to lecture at universities. He also discussed economic theories with heads of government, financiers, and governors. In the late-1910s, Cassel was commissioned by the League of Nations to write statements on the monetary problems of the world. Gustav Cassel is also credited with teaching future economists like Bertil Ohlin.

 28 
Torsten Hägerstrand
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Birthdate: October 11, 1916
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Moheda, Sweden
Died: May 4, 2004

Known for his seminal work on cultural diffusion, time-space geography and human migration, Swedish geographer Torsten Hägerstrand was a noted academic attached to the prestigious Lunds University of Sweden. Hailed for introducing humanistic approach to geography, he paid close attention to ideas like embodiment and emotion, which in turn helped to develop critical geography, promoting social justice and liberation. 

 29 
Bo Rothstein
(Political scientist, Founder of Quality of Government Institute)
Bo Rothstein
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Birthdate: June 12, 1954
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Malmö, Sweden

Bo Rothstein is a Swedish political scientist best known for his service as a professor in several prestigious institutions such as Uppsala University and University of Gothenburg. Over the years, Bo Rothstein has also been a visiting scholar at Harvard University, Cornell University, the University of Washington, and Stanford University among other universities.

 30 
Ulf Hannerz
(Anthropologist)
Ulf Hannerz
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Birthdate: June 9, 1942
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Malmö, Sweden

Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz is not just associated with the Stockholm University as a professor but was also named to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Interestingly, he had initially soared to fame as a child participant on the game show The 10,000 Kronor Question, which he eventually won.

 31 
Johan Gunnar Andersson
(Archaeologist)
Johan Gunnar Andersson
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Birthdate: July 3, 1874
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Närke, Sweden
Died: October 29, 1960

Swedish geologist and archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson was one of the pioneers of the study on prehistoric China. He discovered the origins of what later came to be known as the Yangshao culture. The Vega Medal winner also penned works such as Children of the Yellow Earth.

Caspar Berthelsen Bartholin
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Birthdate: February 12, 1585
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Malmö Municipality, Sweden
Died: July 13, 1629

Danish physician Caspar Berthelsen Bartholin, or Caspar Bartholin the Elder, is best known for his work on anatomy, Anatomicae Institutiones Corporis Humani. He also made pioneering research on the olfactory nerve. However, he is incorrectly attributed with the discovery of the Bartholin’s gland, which his grandson, Caspar Bartholin the Younger, had discovered.

 33 
Erik Gustaf Geijer
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Birthdate: January 12, 1783
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Ransäter, Sweden
Died: April 23, 1847

One of the founding members of the Swedish Geatish Society, which tried to arouse nationalism through historical study, Erik Gustaf Geijer was a historian, philosopher, poet, political and social theorist all rolled into one. A professor of history at the Uppsala University, he had authored number of books and wrote music for many of his poems, chamber works, choirs etc.

 34 
Erik Robert Lindahl
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Birthdate: November 21, 1891
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: January 6, 1960

Swedish economist Erik Robert Lindahl, of the Stockholm school of economics, is known for the development of sequence analysis in economics and the benefit principle in taxation. During his career, he worked at the Universities of Lund, Gothenburg and Uppsala; became the International Economic Association President and also served as an advisor to the Swedish government and the central bank.

 35 
Hedi Fried
(Writer and Psychologist)
Hedi Fried
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Birthdate: June 15, 1924
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Sighetu Marmației, Romania

Hedi Fried is a Swedish-Romanian psychologist and author. She is best known as a Holocaust survivor, having passed through Bergen-Belsen as well as Auschwitz before reaching Sweden in July 1945. Over the years, Hédi Fried has been honored with several awards such as the Seraphim Medal, Natur & Kultur Culture Award, and Olof Palme Prize.

 36 
Axel Hägerström
(Philosopher)
Axel Hägerström
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Birthdate: September 6, 1868
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Vireda, Sweden
Died: July 7, 1939

Axel Hägerström was a Swedish philosopher best remembered as the founder of the positivistic Uppsala school of philosophy, the Swedish equivalent of the Anglo-American Analytical Philosophy. Axel Hägerström is also credited with mentoring other philosophers like Alf Ross and Karl Olivecrona.

 37 
Johannes Magnus
(Theologian)
Johannes Magnus
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Birthdate: March 19, 1488
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Linköping, Sweden
Died: March 22, 1544

Sixteenth-century Catholic archbishop Johannes Magnus was also a talented historian. He served as the papal emissary to Scandinavia. The brother of Swedish writer Olaus Magnus, he too penned historical works such as Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus. He was exiled as a follow-up to the Reformation.

 38 
Oscar Montelius
(Archaeologist)
Oscar Montelius
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Birthdate: September 9, 1843
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: November 4, 1921

Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius is best remembered for his pioneering research on prehistoric chronology, especially that of the Bronze Age. He was associated with the Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm, as a professor and as a museum director. He had also won honors such as the Anders Retzius Medal.

 39 
Lennart Hellsing
(Former writer who was a finalist in 2010 for the biennial, international Hans Christian Andersen Award)
Lennart Hellsing
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Birthdate: June 5, 1919
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Västanfors, Sweden
Died: November 25, 2015

Swedish writer Lennart Hellsing, best known for his children’s books, was considered a master of nonsense writing and humor. He not only received the Samfundet De Nio Grand Prize but was also a finalist for the Hans Christian Andersen Award. He was married to Swedish actor Yvonne Lombard.

 40 
Georg Stiernhielm
(Civil servant)
Georg Stiernhielm
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Birthdate: August 7, 1598
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Vika, Sweden
Died: April 22, 1672

Swedish civil servant and author Georg Stiernhielm is regarded as the father of Swedish poetry. Best known for his epic poem Hercules, he had also penned works on philology and history and was a mathematician, too. He also laid stress on the use of Swedish words, eliminating foreign words from his vocabulary.

 41 
Nils Edén
(Historian)
Nils Edén
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Birthdate: August 25, 1871
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Piteå, Sweden
Died: June 16, 1945

Nils Edén was a Swedish politician and historian. He is best remembered for serving as the Prime Minister of Sweden from 19 October 1917 to 10 March 1920. Along with Hjalmar Branting, Nils Edén helped Sweden transit from a democratic monarchy to a parliamentary democracy with equal female and male suffrage.

 42 
Olof Celsius
(Botanist)
Olof Celsius
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Birthdate: July 19, 1670
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: June 24, 1756

Olof Celsius was a Swedish philologist, botanist, runologist, and clergyman. He also served as a professor at the famous Uppsala University. Olof Celsius is credited with mentoring future scientist and botanist, Carl Linnaeus. In 1739, Celsius was inducted into the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.   

 43 
Olof von Dalin
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Birthdate: August 29, 1708
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Vinberg, Sweden
Died: August 12, 1763

Swedish author and historian Olof von Dalin is remembered for his pioneering contribution in bringing in Enlightenment into Swedish culture. He anonymously wrote the first literary periodical of Sweden, Then swänska Argus. His best-known works include the allegory The Tale About the Horse and the folk ballad The Hat Ballad.

 44 
Erland Nordenskiöld
(Archeologist)
Erland Nordenskiöld
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Birthdate: July 19, 1877
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: July 5, 1932

Erland Nordenskiöld was a Swedish anthropologist and archeologist best remembered for his research which focused on the prehistory and ethnography of South America. He also made immense contributions to the ethnographic section of the Göteborg Museum. Erland Nordenskiöld was honored with the Royal Academy of Letters' Loubat Prize in 1912. 

 45 
Herbert Tingsten
(Political Sientist)
Herbert Tingsten
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Birthdate: March 17, 1896
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Järfälla Municipality, Sweden
Died: December 26, 1973

Herbert Tingsten was a Swedish writer, newspaper publisher, and political scientist. From 1935 to 1946, he served at Stockholm University as a professor of political science. From 1946 to 1959, he served as the executive editor of Dagens Nyheter, a daily newspaper. Renowned for his intuition, Tingsten anticipated issues such as apartheid in South Africa and the rise of fascism. 

 46 
Oscar Levertin
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Birthdate: July 17, 1862
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Valdemarsvik Municipality, Sweden
Died: September 22, 1906

Oscar Levertin was one of the finest poets and literary historians of his country and one of most prominent figures of the Swedish Romantic movement. His best-known works include Kung Salomo och Morolf and the short-story volume Rococonoveller. He was also the University of Stockholm’s first chair of literary history.

 47 
Thomas Thorild
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Birthdate: April 18, 1759
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bohuslän, Sweden
Died: October 1, 1808

Thomas Thorild was a Swedish poet, philosopher, critic, and feminist. He is best remembered for promoting women's rights and gender equality. Thorild was popular among women not only for his ideas of gender equality but also for his good looks. Thomas Thorild also served as a librarian and professor at the University of Greifswald.

 48 
Poul Helgesen
(Historian)
Poul Helgesen
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Birthdate: 1485 AD
Birthplace: Varberg, Sweden
Died: 1534 AD

Poul Helgesen was a Danish historian and humanist. He was also an industrious author whose best known work is the unfinished Skibby Chronicle. Poul Helgesen also served as a teacher of theology in Denmark.  

 49 
Harald Hjärne
(Historian)
Harald Hjärne
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Birthdate: May 2, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Sweden
Died: January 6, 1922

Harald Hjärne was a Swedish historian best remembered for his association with Uppsala University where he held one of the chairs of history from 1889 to 1913. From 1903 to 1922, Harald Hjärne also served as one of the most important members of the Swedish Academy.

 50 
Axel Brusewitz
(Professor)
Axel Brusewitz
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Birthdate: June 9, 1881
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Vichtis, Finland
Died: September 27, 1950

Axel Brusewitz was a Swedish professor who taught political science in Uppsala. A specialist in constitutional history, Brusewitz wrote influential works about the Swedish constitution of 1809. Axel Brusewitz is also credited with mentoring other prominent political scientists like Gunnar Heckscher and Herbert Tingsten.