Died At Age: 72
Born in: Rumbeke, Roeselare, Belgium
Famous as: Composer
Died on: December 7, 1562
place of death: Venice, Italy
Founder/Co-Founder: Venetian School
Who was Adrian Willaert?
Adrian Willaert was a renowned Netherlandish composer of the Renaissance era and one of the most influential composers of the period. He is especially remembered for founding the Venetian School, and for his famous polyphonic Franco-Flemish style which became very popular during that time. Being one of the most versatile composers of his time, Willaert wrote music in almost every style and form. Having invented the antiphonal style, which eventually led to growth of the polychoral style, Willaert had also composed as well as performed numerous psalms. He also published ‘Solmi spezzati’ which was the antiphonal settings of the psalms. As much as he was renowned as a composer, he is remembered as a teacher too. Cipriano de Rore, Andrea Gabrielli, and Costanzo Porta were some of his famous pupils. De Rore especially went on to become a highly respected composer in his own right. The Venetian School which Willaert founded, flourished during the era. It also made several innovations, including contemporary development of monody and opera in Florence. Several other significant and renowned musicians of that time, such as Claudio Merulo and Giovanni Croce were also members of the Venetian School.
Childhood & Early Life
Adrian Willaert was born at Rumbeke near Roeslare in the year 1490. There is not much known about his childhood and parents.
According to Gioseffo Zarlino, a renowned music theorist and composer, as well as a student of Willaert, Adrian Willaert initially wanted to study law for which he went to Paris. But then he started developing an interest in music, after which he left law and switched to music. He met the famous French composer, Jean Mouton with whom he studied for some time.
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After having completed his musical studies, Adrian Willaert went to Rome, where he entered the service of the Duke Alfonso d’ Este I. For the next three years, the Duke’s brother Ippolito d’Este, employed him.
In 1527, he was named the choir director of St. Mark’s in Venice, by the Archbishop of Milan; this marked a significant turning point in his professional life. He served in this post for quite a long time during which he also trained some highly talented composers.
Willaert composed works of both secular and religious nature. They included all major musical forms of the era like Masses, motets, and chansons. He also grafted northern polyphone into an Italian form, as well as wrote simple native forms like the villanesca.
Since he was the choirmaster of the second most important church in Italy, the scared works he composed are considered to be the most significant among all. Many composers came to study under him, not just from Italy, but from all over Europe. His standards, however, were very high, not just for singing but also for compositions.
Having acquired several influential contacts and friends from all over Europe during his previous employments with the dukes, he was able to spread his reputation far and wide. This also led to the importation of foreign musicians into Northern Italy. Along with sacred music, he also wrote many madrigals, a musical composition of secular nature which used to be quite popular during the Renaissance era. Because of these compositions, he is regarded as a Flemish madrigal composer of the first rank.
Adrian Willaert founded the Venetian school, which became one of the most important musical bodies of that era. Having become well-known as a composer and a teacher, he started attracting more and more musicians from all over the world who wanted to study under him. His students, who included famous composers such as Cipriano de Rore and Giovanni Gabriell, also used to follow his style. They composed work in polyphony as well, which led them to becoming a part of the wider music scene.
His students followed his teaching styles and his compositions, and later they became the core of the Venetian school. Later, their works also marked the beginning of what is popularly known as the Baroque era.
The Venetian School
The death of Pope Leo X in 1521 and the Sack of Rome in 1527 led to the gradual decay of the dominant musical establishments of Rome. Many musicians started moving elsewhere. Also, because of the existence of the splendid Basilica San Marco di Venezia with its unique and incredibly spacious architecture, the development of a musical style that could exploit the sound-delay to an advantage was felt as necessary. Since the Venetian polychoral style was already developing, slowly the idea of the Venetian School emerged. Along with Adrian Willaert, a few other musicians were also involved in its foundations.
In around 1550, Adrian Willaert founded the Venetian School, along with the help of fellow musicians such as French composer Jean Mouton. It became one of the most significant bodies of composers of the sixteenth century as well as the early seventeenth century. They had an enormous influence on musical practices all over Europe. Their innovations, along with the contemporary development of monody and opera in Florence, also became quite well-known.
Several significant musicians of the era became members of the Venetian School. Jacques Buus, a Franco-Flemish composer and organist of the Rennaisance era, was an early member. Among others were the famous Italian composer and teacher Giovanni Croce and famous Italian composer Costanzo Porta.
In the 1580s, the Venetian School reached its peak of development. Enormous works for several choir groups were composed by Andrea and Giovanni Gabriel. These works also became the first ones to include dynamics as well as specific instructions or ensemble instrumentations.
As one of the most efficient composers of his era, Adrian Willaert had created a large number of compositions which included ten masses, more than 50 hymns and psalms, over 150 motets, around 60 French chansons, more than 70 Italian madrigals, and 17 instrumentals. His works have an enduring significance in the world of music all over the world.
Personal Life & Legacy
Though not much is known about his personal life, it is known that Adrian Willaert never got married and remained a bachelor throughout his life.
He passed away on 7 December 1562. However, not much is known about the circumstances of his death.