**Birthdate:**0287 AD

**Birthplace:**Syracuse, Italy

**Died:**0212 AD

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1

Archimedes

(One of the Leading Scientists in Classical Antiquity and the Greatest Mathematician of Ancient History)

Greek mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Archimedes is remembered for his contribution to mathematics, especially geometry. He laid down theorems related to the area of a circle, and the area and volume of a sphere, and reached an accurate value of pi. He also invented machines such as the screw pump.

2

Leonardo Fibonacci

(Italian Mathematician Who was Considered to be One of the Most Talented Western Mathematicians of the Middle Ages)

Medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci is remembered for introducing the Hindu–Arabic numeral system to Europe through his book *Liber abaci*. Son of an Italian trader, he interacted with merchants along the Mediterranean coast to learn about their system of calculations. The *Fibonacci sequence*, too, was invented by him.

3

Galileo Galilei

(Known as “Father” of Observational Astronomy who Invented the ‘Thermoscope’ and Various Military Compasses)

An Italian astronomer, engineer, and physicist, Galileo Galilei is widely regarded as the **father of observational astronomy**, the **father of the scientific method**, the **father of modern physics**, and the **father of modern science**. He is credited with popularizing the telescope, which changed the course of history.

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4

Joseph Louis Lagrange

(Mathematician)

Joseph Louis Lagrange was an Italian mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the fields of number theory, analysis, and both classical and celestial mechanics. He served as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin for over 20 years. He later moved to France and became a member of the French Academy of Sciences.

5

Luca Pacioli

(Italian Mathematician Who is Known as the Father of Accounting and Bookkeeping)

Luca Pacioli was an Italian Franciscan friar and mathematician. He worked closely with Leonardo da Vinci and produced works, such as *Divina proportione*, a book on mathematics. Luca Pacioli was an early contributor to the field which came to be known as accounting. Pacioli is widely regarded as *The Father of Accounting and Bookkeeping*.

6

Evangelista Torricelli

(Physicist)

Evangelista Torricelli, a student of Galileo, later made a name for himself as a physicist and a mathematician with his invention of the barometer. He also laid down the *Torricelli’s theorem* and discovered the* Torricellian vacuum*. The *torr,* a unit of pressure, bears his name.

7

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

(Astronomer and Mathematician)

Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini is best remembered for his discovery of four moons of Saturn, the computation of Jupiter’s rotational period, and the observation of the *Cassini Division*, or the gap between Saturn’s rings. King Louis XIV made him a member of the **Académie des Sciences**.

8

Maria Gaetana Agnesi

(First Woman to Write a Mathematics Handbook and the First Woman Appointed as a University Mathematics Professor)

Italian mathematician Maria Gaetana Agnesi, daughter of an affluent silk trader, was well-versed in a number of languages as a child. Most of her work was regarding algebra, calculus, and the *Witch of Agnesi*. She was also the first female academic to write a math book and to teach math.

9

Paolo Uccello

(Florentine Painter and Mathematician Known for His Pioneering Work on Visual Perspective in Art)

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Paolo Uccello was a 15th-century Florentine painter and mathematician. He worked in the Late Gothic tradition and had a style best described as idiosyncratic. As a young man, he was apprenticed to the famous sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, with whom he collaborated on his later works. His paintings representing the battle of San Romano are considered his best.

10

Nicholas of Cusa

(German Mathematician and Philosopher)

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Nicholas of Cusa was a German mathematician, astronomer, jurist, theologian, and philosopher. One of the first supporters of Renaissance humanism in Germany, Nicholas of Cusa made significant political and spiritual contributions in European history. He is remembered for his efforts to reform the universal and Roman Church.

11

Giuseppe Peano

(Italian Mathematician and Glottologist)

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Remembered as the founder of symbolic logic, Giuseppe Peano laid down the symbols of union and intersection of sets. He also worked on geometric calculus and taught at institutes such as the **University of Turin**. His works are written in a simplified version of Latin. He was knighted by Italy.

12

Carlo Azeglio Ciampi

(Economist, Politician, Banker)

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Former Italian president and prime minister Carlo Azeglio Ciampi had a major role in introducing Italy to the *euro*. He had been the governor of the **Bank of Italy **for 14 years and had held several portfolios, including the ministry of treasury. He was also a World War II veteran.

13

Gerolamo Cardano

(One of the most influential mathematicians of the Renaissance)

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Italian polymath Gerolamo Cardano is best known for his iconic work *Ars magna*, or *The Great Art*, which contributed immensely to the field of algebra. Throughout his illustrious life, he had been a physician, a math lecturer, and an astrologer. He was also the first to describe typhus fever clinically.

14

Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia

(Mathematician)

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2

Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia was the first to apply math to the science of ballistics. During the French invasion of Brescia, his jaw was sliced by a sword, causing him a speech difficulty, and thus gaining him the nickname *Tartaglia*, or "Stammerer." His *Nova Scientia* remains a significant work on mechanics.

15

Silvio Micali

(Computer scientist, University teacher)

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16

Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro

(Mathematician)

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Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro pioneered the study of absolute differential calculus, or *Ricci calculus*, which later came to be known as tensor analysis. His studies were later used by Albert Einstein in his discovery of the theory of relativity, which is why the *Ricci tensor* is also known as the *Einstein tensor*.

17

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli

(Italian Physiologist, Physicist and Mathematician)

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While he matriculated in math and taught the subject later, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli also made pioneering discoveries as a physicist and physiologist. With works such as *De Motu Animalium*, he revolutionized the field of biomechanics, explaining muscular movements with the help of statics and dynamics.

18

Giuseppe Piazzi

(Astronomer, University teacher, Mathematician)

10

4

Italian *Theatine* priest, astronomer and mathematician Giuseppe Piazzi discovered and identified the first asteroid *Ceres* at **Palermo Astronomical Observatory** that he established in Palermo, Sicily. He first demonstrated the large proper motion of the binary star system *61 Cygni* in the constellation *Cygnus*. He also supervised compilation of the *Palermo Catalogue* of stars and completion of the **Capodimonte (Naples) Observatory**.

19

Gian-Carlo Rota

(Italian-American Mathematician and Philosopher)

10

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Gian-Carlo Rota went down in history as the first and the only professor of applied mathematics and philosophy at **MIT**. His illustrious scientific career revolved around research on subjects such as combinatorics, probability, and functional analysis. He had also led the **American Mathematical Society** as its vice president.

20

Vito Volterra

(Italian Mathematician and Physicist)

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Vito Volterra is remembered for his work on calculus and functional analysis. Born into a poor family in Ancona, he used his math skills to join the **University of Pisa**. He later taught as mechanics professor. He was also the first to suggest the use of helium in airships.

21

Bonaventura Cavalieri

(Mathematician)

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Seventeenth-century Italian mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri is largely remembered as someone who set the tone for integral calculus with his work on geometry. While teaching math at the **University of Bologna**, he developed his iconic* method of indivisibles*. He also introduced Italy to logarithms through his book *Directorium Generale Uranometricum*.

22

Enrico Bombieri

(Italian Mathematician Known for His Work in Number Theory)

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Fields Medal-winning Italian mathematician Enrico Bombieri is known for his work on number theory and the distribution of primes. Currently a professor at **Princeton**, Bombieri was 16 when he wrote his first math paper and 22 when he earned a math degree. He is also an avid painter.

23

Benedetto Castelli

(Mathematician)

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Benedetto Castelli, a Benedictine priest and a student of Galileo, later became a math professor at the **University of Pisa**. His *On the Measurement of Water Currents* is considered a fundamental work in hydraulics. He was the first to work on the principle of the barometer and sustained vacuum.

24

Carlo Masi

(Mathematician)

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Italian mathematics lecturer and award-winning former gay pornographic film actor Carlo Masi worked in the gay pornography industry with **Colt Studio Group** for six years before joining theatres. He later earned a B.SC degree in mathematics and a Ph.D. in Mathematical Models for Engineering, Electromagnetism and Nanosciences from the **Sapienza University of Rome **where he also worked as a lecturer.

25

Paolo Ruffini

(Italian Mathematician and Philosopher)

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Paolo Ruffini was at the same time a mathematician and a physician. He was the first to claim that the general quintic equation had no algebraic solution. Ruffini was briefly banned from teaching when he refused to submit to the new republic following the rise of Napoleon.

26

Guarino Guarini

(Italian Architect of the Piedmontese Baroque)

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A major influence on European Baroque architects, Guarino Guarini was not just a talented architect but also a mathematician and a priest. He had also penned books on architecture, astronomy, and mathematics, such as *Euclides adauctus*, and built buildings such as royal palaces, castles, churches, and chapels.

27

Lodovico Ferrari

(Italian Mathematician)

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Starting his career as servant of Italian polymath Gerolamo Cardano, Lodovico de Ferrari proved his brilliance and earned tutelage of Cardano and became a noted mathematician of his time. He assisted Cardano on his solutions for quadratic equations and cubic equations, and is most noted for solving the quartic equations that Cardano published in his book *Ars Magna*.

28

Eugenio Beltrami

(Italian Mathematician Known for His Description of Non-euclidean Geometry)

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Eugenio Beltrami was an Italian mathematician, whose work on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces helped to establish the soundness of non-Euclidean geometry. A faculty of University of Bologna, he dealt in wide range of subjects, establishing Beltrami equation, Beltrami identity, Beltrami's theorem, Laplace–Beltrami operator, Beltrami vector field and Beltrami–Klein model, publishing several works including* Opere Matematiche*.

29

Aloysius Lilius

(Astronomer)

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Aloysius Lilius, also known as Luigi Lilio, is best remembered as the main author of the **Gregorian Calendar**. Well-versed in medicine and astronomy, Lilius hailed from Calabria, Italy, though not much is known about his life. His calendar was presented to Pope Gregory XIII by his brother Antonio.

30

Scipione del Ferro

(Mathematician)

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Scipione del Ferro was the first to find a technique to solve the depressed cubic equation *x3 + px = q*. He taught arithmetic and geometry throughout his life and also contributed to the study of fractions that had irrational denominators. Unfortunately, none of his written works exist anymore.

31

Enrico Betti

(Italian Mathematician)

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Noted for his contributions in the fields of topology and algebra, Italian mathematician Enrico Betti also worked in the area of theoretical physics, particularly dealing with potential theory and elasticity. He discovered *Betti's theorem* and is perhaps best remembered for his 1871 paper on topology that led to the eventual naming of the *Betti numbers* after him.

32

Giovanni Ceva

(Italian Mathematician Known for Proving 'Ceva’s Theorem' in Elementary Geometry)

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Giovanni Ceva had proposed the geometric theory, the *Ceva's theorem*, named after him. The Italian mathematician taught at the universities of Pisa and Mantua. Apart from geometry, he had also worked on hydraulics and mathematical economics. He was the brother of poet and mathematician Tommaso Ceva.

33

Luigi Cremona

(Italian Mathematician Who was an Originator of Graphical Statics)

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Italian mathematician Luigi Cremona is best remembered for his work on graphical statics. A member of the Steinerian school of geometry, he was a professor, a **Royal Society** member, and later, a senator of the Kingdom of Italy. He also received the Steiner Prize and the German **Pour le Mérite**.

34

Giorgio Valla

(Mathematician, Writer)

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35

Tommaso Ceva

(Italian Mathematician)

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Italian Jesuit mathematician and poet Tommaso Ceva worked in geometry, arithmetic and gravity. Notable works of Ceva includes *Opuscula mathematica* (1699), his only work in mathematics; the scientific work *De natura gravium* (1699); and the religious poem *Jesus Puer* (1690). His brother, Italian mathematician Giovanni Ceva, is noted for proving *Ceva's theorem* in elementary geometry.

36

Paolo Frisi

(Italian Mathematician and Astronomer Best Known for His Work in Hydraulics)

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Italian physicist, mathematician, and astronomer Paolo Frisi is best remembered for his work on hydraulics, expressed through his books such as *A Treatise on Rivers and Torrents*. His interpretation of the works of eminent scientists such as Galileo and Newton, too, are considered immensely valuable to the scientific community.

37

Giulio Giorello

(Philosopher)

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A highly intellectual scholar and a reputed epistemologist, Giulio Giorello graduated from the University of Milan with philosophy and mathematics. He later taught physics and natural science in a number of reputed universities across Italy before being appointed as professor of philosophy of science at his alma mater. A prolific writer, he published around twenty major works in his lifetime.

38

Domenico Guglielmini

(Italian Mathematician, Astronomer and Physician)

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Domenico Guglielmini is regarded as the pioneer of the Italian school of hydraulics, though he initially worked on astronomy. Apart from being a professor of hydrometry and mathematics, he was also a part-time physician, but eventually quit his research on hydraulics to focus on medicine full-time.