Famous Egyptian Historical Personalities

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History has given us some of the most legendary men and women who have greatly contributed to our culture and heritage. And Egyptian history is more so renowned, for the country, popularly referred to as the Gift of Nile, has been the mecca of ancient discoveries and inventions. Egypt has to its credit one of the most advanced civilization of its times. They have been responsible for the breath mints we pop in today, eye makeup that we use, calendars that we refer to and toothpaste that meets our hygiene needs. Furthermore, Egypt has been the address of world’s most exemplary list of historical personalities, right from Tutankhamun, Cleopatra, Ramses II, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and so on. While Tutankhamun or King Tut as he is popularly known as, was the most king of Egypt who ascended the throne at the tender age of nine, Cleopatra’s fame of her fabled beauty and exotic allure has made her the most famous female of any ancient civilisation. She was the last ever ruler of Ancient Egypt and is best known for her affair with the then Roman emperor Julius Caesar. Dive into this segment and brush your knowledge with this pool of Egyptian historical personalities.
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 1 
Tutankhamun
(King of Egypt from 1332 BC to 1323 BC)
Tutankhamun
28
Birthdate: 1341 BC
Birthplace: Amarna
Died: 1323 BC

Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled between 1334 and 1325 BC. He is one of the most studied ancient Egyptian pharaohs, thanks to his well-preserved tomb. Although he was not a popular ruler, the global exhibitions of artifacts associated with him have made Tutankhamun the most renowned pharaoh in the modern world.

 2 
Nefertiti
(Queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt)
Nefertiti
11
Birthdate: 1370 BC
Birthplace: Thebes, Egypt
Died: 1330 BC

A queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. She and her husband reigned during a period marked by great prosperity in Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars even claim that she reigned independently for some time following her husband’s death though this claim is a matter of debate.

 3 
Saladin
(Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174 - 1193))
Saladin
23
Birthdate: 1138 AD
Birthplace: Tikrit, Iraq
Died: March 4, 1193
Named the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Saladin founded the Ayyubid Dynasty. He abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and later defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, thus taking control of Palestine. As the de facto Caliph of Islam, he controlled a vast area, including Egypt, Syria, and Yemen.
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 4 
Ramesses II
( Pharaoh of Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC)
Ramesses II
10
Birthdate: 1303 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1213 BC

Ramesses II, son of Seti I, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Also known as the “Great Ancestor,” he is remembered for his aggressive military expeditions to Nubia and Canaan. The second longest-reigning ruler of Egypt, he is credited for building monuments and cities such as the Pi-Ramesses.

 5 
Hatshepsut
(Women Ruler of Egypt from 1479 BC to 1458 BC)
Hatshepsut
8
Birthdate: 1507 BC
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: January 16, 1458

Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I, ruled as the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and was the second female pharaoh, according to records. She was the chief wife of Thutmose II, and ruled jointly with Thutmose III, Thutmose II’s son. She also named herself God's Wife of Amun.

 6 
Caesarion
(Pharaoh)
Caesarion
11
Birthdate: June 23, 0047
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: August 23, 0030

Caesarion reigned as the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt from September 44 BC to August 30 BC. He was Julius Caesar's only known biological son and his mother Cleopatra ruled over ancient Egypt along with him. Caesarion's death at the age of 17 marked the beginning of the famous Roman Empire and the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.

 7 
Akhenaten
(Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Who Reigned from 1353 BC to 1336 BC)
Akhenaten
10
Birthdate: 1372 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1335 AD
Akhenaten ruled Egypt in 14th century B.C. He is believed to be Tutankhamun’s father. Akhenaten’s monuments and statues were destroyed following his death, as his deviation from the traditional polytheistic Egyptian culture, to worshipping Aten, was rejected by people. His capital city and his mummy were later unearthed by researchers.
 8 
Thutmose III
(King of Egypt from 1479 BC to 1425 BC)
Thutmose III
5
Birthdate: 1481 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 1425 AD
The Napoleon of Egypt, Thutmose III is remembered for his ruthless expansion strategies. After co-ruling the kingdom with his regent stepmother, Hatshepsut, he enriched Egypt’s treasuries with the plunders from his raids as a pharaoh. He would often enter the battlefield on a chariot of gold, to intimidate his enemies.
 9 
Joshua
(Ruler)
Joshua
4
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1245 AD

Hebrew leader Joshua led the Israelite tribes after Moses’s death. He finds mention in the Book of Joshua in the Old Testament. He played a major role in conquering Canaan after the Exodus. Apart from Christianity, Joshua is also significant in Islam and Islamic literature.

 10 
Maathorneferure
10
Birthplace: Hattusa, Egypt

Maathorneferure reigned as the queen of ancient Egypt during Ramesses II's rule. As the Great Royal Wife of the pharaoh, Maathorneferure enjoyed a luxurious life and demanded respect from her subjects. However, she was not influential in the court and had very little to contribute to state affairs.

 11 
Narmer
(Egyptian King)
Narmer
4
Birthdate: 3150 BC
Birthplace: Thinis

While many historians believe Narmer of the First Dynastic Period was the first Egyptian king who brought about peace in the region, some scholars later claimed Narmer was the same as Menes. The Narmer Palette is one of the most significant relics that describe Narmer’s heroics through hieroglyphics.

 12 
Ankhesenamun
(Queen of Egypt from 1332 BC to 1323 BC)
Ankhesenamun
5
Birthdate: 1348 AD
Birthplace: TThebes, Egypt
Died: 1322 AD

Ankhesenamun was an Egyptian queen and wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Unlike other ancient Egyptian queens, Ankhesenamun's life, especially her youth, is well-documented in the ancient paintings and reliefs of the reign of her parents. As the Great Royal Wife of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun may have played an important role in his administration.

Fawzia Fuad of Egypt
3
Birthdate: November 5, 1921
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: July 2, 2013

Often compared to actor Hedy Lamarr, for her beauty, Fawzia Fuad, the daughter of Fuad I, was an Egyptian princess who later became the empress of Iran, as Mohammad Reza Shah’s first wife. An unhappy marriage led to her divorce, following which she married diplomat Ismail Chirine.

 14 
Amenhotep III
(Pharaoh)
Amenhotep III
3
Birthdate: 1411 BC
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 1353 BC

Amenhotep III reigned as the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the early and mid-14th century BC. Nicknamed Amenhotep the Magnificent, Amenhotep III's reign witnessed Egypt reach the height of its international and artistic power. Under his reign, Egypt also enjoyed unprecedented splendor and prosperity.

 15 
Cambyses II
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Cambyses II
9
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: June 30, 0522

Cambyses II was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire. He ruled from 530 BC to 522 BC. He was the son of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane. Before claiming the throne, he served as the governor of northern Babylonia under his father. His reign was relatively brief and marked by his conquests in Africa, notably Egypt. 

 16 
Ay
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Ay
3
Birthplace: Akhmim, Egypt
Died: 1319 AD

Ay was the son of an Egyptian military officer and grew up to follow in his father’s footsteps. Following the death of Tutankhamen, Ay became the penultimate king of Egypt’s 18th dynasty. The Amarna Tomb, which was built to house his grave but didn’t, provides a lot of information on him.

 17 
Khufu
(Second Pharaoh of Egypt)
Khufu
4
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 2566 BC

Best remembered as the creator of the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egyptian pharaoh Khufu was the second king of the fourth dynasty. The son of King Snefru and Queen Hetephere, Khufu was projected as a oppressor by Greek historian Herodotus, though many sources claim he was a wise ruler.

 18 
Ramesses III
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Ramesses III
3
Birthdate: 1217 BC
Birthplace: Thebes, Egypt
Died: 1155 BC

The son of Setnakhte, the founder of the 20th dynasty in Egypt, Ramesses III, or the warrior Pharaoh, had a long reign that was marked by peace and his successful defense against foreign invasions. Studies suggest he was assassinated in a coup led by one of his wives.

 19 
Cleopatra Selene II
3
Birthdate: 0040 AD
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: 0005 AD

Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II, the only daughter of Queen Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, was the Queen of Numidia and Mauretania through her marriage with King Juba II. Considered a leading royal lady of the early Augustan age, Selene had great influence in decisions made by the Mauretania government, particularly those related to trade and construction projects. 

 20 
Farouk of Egypt
(King of Egypt and the Sudan (1936 - 1952))
Farouk of Egypt
4
Birthdate: February 11, 1920
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: March 18, 1965

The eldest son of Sultan Fuad I, Farouk of Egypt received his education in Egypt and England before taking over the throne. He later gained criticism for his lavish lifestyle and his eccentricities, such as his order that except his entourage, no other cars could be painted red.

 21 
Djoser
(Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd Dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch)
Djoser
5
Birthplace: Egypt
 22 
Ahmose I
(Ruler)
Ahmose I
3
Birthplace: Thebes

Ahmose I was an Egyptian pharaoh credited with founding the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Identified as the New Kingdom of Egypt's first dynasty, Ahmose's Eighteenth Dynasty marked the beginning of an era, during which ancient Egypt achieved the height of its power. Ahmose started construction projects which culminated in the erection of the last pyramid constructed by native Egyptian rulers.

 23 
Bardiya
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Bardiya
7
Birthplace: Pasargadae, Iran
Died: 0522 AD

Born to Cyrus the Great of Persia, Bardiya was also known as Tanyoxarces. Though most sources believe he was the king of Persia, some sources claim an impersonator ruled Persia, pretending to be the real son of Cyrus. Both historian Herodotus and king Darius believed the impersonator was Gaumata, a magus.

 24 
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
(Pharaoh of Egypt (51–47 BC))
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
3
Birthdate: 0062 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: January 13, 0047

The son of pharaoh Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator co-ruled with his sister, Cleopatra VII. Faced with a civil war after he forced his sister to flee to Syria, he later ruled with Arsinoe IV, another sister. He was killed while battling Julius Caesar’s forces in the Alexandrian War.

 25 
Sneferu
(King of Ancient Egypt from 2575 BC to 2465 BC)
Sneferu
3
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 2589 BC

Sneferu reigned as a pharaoh during the Old Kingdom. The founding pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Sneferu is credited with introducing important innovations in the construction and design of the Egyptian pyramids. At least three pyramids, which were built during his time, have survived to this day.

 26 
Ptolemy XII Auletes
(Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt)
Ptolemy XII Auletes
3
Birthdate: 0117 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0051 AD

Being an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Auletes apparently bribed Julius Caesar, in exchange for a law acknowledging his kingship in Egypt. He was later exiled, but came back to Egypt and killed his daughter, Berenice IV, who ruled in his absence and with the support of the opposition.

 27 
Fuad I of Egypt
(Sultan of Egypt)
Fuad I of Egypt
3
Birthdate: March 26, 1868
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: April 28, 1936

Fuad I of Egypt was the Sultan of Egypt who ruled as the ninth ruler of Sudan and Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Fuad played an important role in modern Egyptian historiography. His efforts to depict his ancestors as benevolent monarchs and nationalists would prove to be a long-lasting influence on Egyptian history.

 28 
Fuad II of Egypt
(Former King of Egypt and the Sudan (1952 - 1953) and a Member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali Dynasty)
Fuad II of Egypt
3
Birthdate: January 16, 1952
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt

The son of king Farouk I of Egypt, Fuad II became a king at age 6 months, following his father’s abdication. He ruled for less than a year and was exiled soon after. He grew up in Switzerland and France and was given back his Egyptian citizenship years later.

 29 
Merneptah
3

One of the 13 sons of Ramesses II, Merneptah assumed power at the age of 70. The 4th pharaoh of Egypt’s 19th dynasty, he is remembered for his successful defense against a Libyan invasion. He was also known to have ordered the iconic commemorative text Israel Stela.

 30 
Amenhotep II
(Seventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt)
Amenhotep II
3
Birthplace: Memphis, Egypt

The seventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Amenhotep II, also referred as Amenophis II, succeeded his father, Thutmose III. Amenhotep ruled at the height of Egypt’s royal era and thrived in maintaining the vast kingdom that he inherited from his father, employing a few military campaigns in Syria. His reign witnessed the effective end of conflict between Egypt and Mitanni.

 31 
Tiye
(Daughter of Yuya and Thuya)
Tiye
3
Birthdate: 1398 AD
Birthplace: Ipu, Egypt
Died: 1338 AD
 32 
Amenhotep I
(Second Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt)
Amenhotep I
3
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1504 AD

Amenhotep I was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh who reigned over the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt from 1526 to 1506 BC. He continued the work of his father Ahmose I and invested much of his time in rebuilding the temples in Upper Egypt. Amenhotep is best remembered for revolutionizing mortuary complex design and starting a new trend in royal funerary monuments.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
3
Birthdate: 0309 BC
Birthplace: Alexandria
Died: 0246 AD

Ptolemy II Philadelphus succeeded his father and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I, as the second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy II developed agriculture and commerce and promoted the Museum and Library of Alexandria. The material and literary grandeur of the Alexandrian court reached its pinnacle during his rule making Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences.

 34 
Thutmose II
(Pharaoh)
Thutmose II
3
Birthdate: 1510 BC
Died: 1479 BC

The 4th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, Thutmose II is best remembered for suppressing rebellions in the Levant and Nubia. He also defeated the Bedouins in Palestine. While some scholars believe he had a short-lived reign, others state he may have ruled for upto 18 years.

 35 
Thutmose IV
(Pharaoh)
Thutmose IV
3
Birthplace: Unknown

King Thutmose IV, the son of pharaoh Amenhotep II, was military-trained and loved hunting. A tale of god Horus having visited him in his dream to tell him he would be the next king proves he may not have been the heir apparent. He led campaigns in Syria, Palestine, and Nubia.

 36 
Pepi II Neferkare
(King of Egypt)
Pepi II Neferkare
3
Birthdate: 2284 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 2216 BC

Ancient Egyptian king of the 6th dynasty, Pepi II Neferkare took to the throne at age 6, after Merenre I’s death. While scholars initially thought he was the son of Pepi I and the half-brother of Merenre, later studies suggested he was probably Merenre’s son and Pepi I’s grandson.

 37 
Psamtik I
(King)
Psamtik I
3
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0610 AD
 38 
Taharqa
(Pharaoh)
Taharqa
3
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0664 AD
 39 
Sobekneferu
(Pharaoh)
Sobekneferu
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1802 BC

Sobekneferu reigned as a pharaoh of ancient Egypt during the mid 18th century BC. She belonged to the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom and was the last ruler of the dynasty. One of the few Egyptian women to rule over the ancient civilization, Sobekneferu was also the first female ruler to adopt the full royal titulary.

 40 
Khafra
(King of Egypt)
Khafra
2
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 2480 BC
 41 
Menkaura
(King)
Menkaura
3
Birthdate: 2532 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: November 30, 2504
 42 
Necho II
(King)
Necho II
2
Birthdate: 0610 BC
Died: 0595 BC
 43 
Seti II
(King)
Seti II
2
Birthdate: 1203 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1197 AD
 44 
Nectanebo II
(King of Egypt)
Nectanebo II
2
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 0340 AD
 45 
Arsinoe IV
(Queen of Egypt)
Arsinoe IV
2
Birthdate: 0068 BC
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: 0041 BC

Arsinoe IV reigned as the Queen of Egypt from 48 to 47 BC. She ruled alongside her brother Ptolemy XIII and was among the last surviving members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Arsinoe IV is best remembered for her role in overseeing the famous siege of Alexandria in 47 BC against her half-sister Cleopatra VII Philopator.

 46 
Seqenenre Tao
(Pharaoh)
Seqenenre Tao
2
Birthplace: Egypt
 47 
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
(Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom)
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
2
Birthdate: October 9, 0210
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: August 31, 0180
 48 
Ramses VI
(king)
Ramses VI
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1137 AD
 49 
Shoshenq I
(Pharaoh)
Shoshenq I
2
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0924 AD

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I founded the 22nd dynasty. Probably of Libyan tribal descent, he was initially a general of king Psusennes II, whom he succeeded later, without any resistance. Known for his successful campaigns in Palestine, he was also mentioned as Shishak in the Hebrew Bible.

 50 
Senusret I
(Second Pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt)
Senusret I
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1926 AD

After serving as a co-regent with his father, Amenemhet I, for a decade, Senusret I, also known as Sesostris I, became the 2nd pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He carried on the kingdom’s expansion in Nubia and also led a campaign against the Libyans. A commemorative shrine at Karnak bears his legacy.