Famous Egyptian Emperors & Kings

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Talk of Egypt and the first thing that strikes the mind are the Pharaohs and their Pyramids. Popularly known as the gift of Nile, Egypt has had a flourishing history that dates back to 3000 BC. Then, in ancient Egypt, Pharaohs ruled the Egyptian kingdom. They were mostly considered God kings and were revered as divine deities. Interestingly, as much as the Pharaohs intended to keep the throne within the family through marriage and intermarriage, the line of kingship shifted hands numerous times creating a dynamic history of the Pharaohs of Egypt. It is speculated that in the three thousand years of history, Egypt had as many as thirty dynasties with more than 170 Pharaohs reining the kingdom. While some of their rules were interrupted by murder, there were many who mysteriously disappeared and still others whose reign was marred by mayhem. However, of these only some are remembered and revered till date primarily for their works and deeds including Tutankhamun, Cleopatra VII, Ramses II, Ramses III, Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Khufu, and Djoser. Find out more about Egyptian emperors and kings with this segment. Read on to know more about their life, works and contribution to Egyptian history and civilizations.
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 1 
Ramesses II
( Pharaoh of Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC)
Ramesses II
14
Birthdate: 1303 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1213 BC

Ramesses II, son of Seti I, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Also known as the “Great Ancestor,” he is remembered for his aggressive military expeditions to Nubia and Canaan. The second longest-reigning ruler of Egypt, he is credited for building monuments and cities such as the Pi-Ramesses.

 2 
Saladin
(Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174 - 1193))
Saladin
32
Birthdate: 1138 AD
Birthplace: Tikrit, Iraq
Died: March 4, 1193
Named the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Saladin founded the Ayyubid Dynasty. He abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and later defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, thus taking control of Palestine. As the de facto Caliph of Islam, he controlled a vast area, including Egypt, Syria, and Yemen.
 3 
Tutankhamun
(King of Egypt from 1332 BC to 1323 BC)
Tutankhamun
32
Birthdate: 1341 BC
Birthplace: Amarna
Died: 1323 BC

Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled between 1334 and 1325 BC. He is one of the most studied ancient Egyptian pharaohs, thanks to his well-preserved tomb. Although he was not a popular ruler, the global exhibitions of artifacts associated with him have made Tutankhamun the most renowned pharaoh in the modern world.

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 4 
Hatshepsut
(Women Ruler of Egypt from 1479 BC to 1458 BC)
Hatshepsut
7
Birthdate: 1507 BC
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: January 16, 1458

Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I, ruled as the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and was the second female pharaoh, according to records. She was the chief wife of Thutmose II, and ruled jointly with Thutmose III, Thutmose II’s son. She also named herself God's Wife of Amun.

 5 
Joshua
(Ruler)
Joshua
5
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1245 AD

Hebrew leader Joshua led the Israelite tribes after Moses’s death. He finds mention in the Book of Joshua in the Old Testament. He played a major role in conquering Canaan after the Exodus. Apart from Christianity, Joshua is also significant in Islam and Islamic literature.

 6 
Akhenaten
(Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Who Reigned from 1353 BC to 1336 BC)
Akhenaten
15
Birthdate: 1372 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1335 AD
Akhenaten ruled Egypt in 14th century B.C. He is believed to be Tutankhamun’s father. Akhenaten’s monuments and statues were destroyed following his death, as his deviation from the traditional polytheistic Egyptian culture, to worshipping Aten, was rejected by people. His capital city and his mummy were later unearthed by researchers.
 7 
Caesarion
(Pharaoh)
Caesarion
15
Birthdate: June 23, 0047
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: August 23, 0030

Caesarion reigned as the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt from September 44 BC to August 30 BC. He was Julius Caesar's only known biological son and his mother Cleopatra ruled over ancient Egypt along with him. Caesarion's death at the age of 17 marked the beginning of the famous Roman Empire and the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.

 8 
Thutmose III
(King of Egypt from 1479 BC to 1425 BC)
Thutmose III
10
Birthdate: 1481 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 1425 AD
The Napoleon of Egypt, Thutmose III is remembered for his ruthless expansion strategies. After co-ruling the kingdom with his regent stepmother, Hatshepsut, he enriched Egypt’s treasuries with the plunders from his raids as a pharaoh. He would often enter the battlefield on a chariot of gold, to intimidate his enemies.
 9 
Narmer
(Egyptian King)
Narmer
5
Birthdate: 3150 BC
Birthplace: Thinis

While many historians believe Narmer of the First Dynastic Period was the first Egyptian king who brought about peace in the region, some scholars later claimed Narmer was the same as Menes. The Narmer Palette is one of the most significant relics that describe Narmer’s heroics through hieroglyphics.

 10 
Amenhotep III
(Pharaoh)
Amenhotep III
3
Birthdate: 1411 BC
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 1353 BC

Amenhotep III reigned as the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the early and mid-14th century BC. Nicknamed Amenhotep the Magnificent, Amenhotep III's reign witnessed Egypt reach the height of its international and artistic power. Under his reign, Egypt also enjoyed unprecedented splendor and prosperity.

 11 
Cambyses II
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Cambyses II
8
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: June 30, 0522

Cambyses II was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire. He ruled from 530 BC to 522 BC. He was the son of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane. Before claiming the throne, he served as the governor of northern Babylonia under his father. His reign was relatively brief and marked by his conquests in Africa, notably Egypt. 

 12 
Khufu
(Second Pharaoh of Egypt)
Khufu
4
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 2566 BC

Best remembered as the creator of the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egyptian pharaoh Khufu was the second king of the fourth dynasty. The son of King Snefru and Queen Hetephere, Khufu was projected as a oppressor by Greek historian Herodotus, though many sources claim he was a wise ruler.

 13 
Ay
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Ay
3
Birthplace: Akhmim, Egypt
Died: 1319 AD

Ay was the son of an Egyptian military officer and grew up to follow in his father’s footsteps. Following the death of Tutankhamen, Ay became the penultimate king of Egypt’s 18th dynasty. The Amarna Tomb, which was built to house his grave but didn’t, provides a lot of information on him.

 14 
Ramesses III
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Ramesses III
3
Birthdate: 1217 BC
Birthplace: Thebes, Egypt
Died: 1155 BC

The son of Setnakhte, the founder of the 20th dynasty in Egypt, Ramesses III, or the warrior Pharaoh, had a long reign that was marked by peace and his successful defense against foreign invasions. Studies suggest he was assassinated in a coup led by one of his wives.

 15 
Farouk of Egypt
(King of Egypt and the Sudan (1936 - 1952))
Farouk of Egypt
3
Birthdate: February 11, 1920
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: March 18, 1965

The eldest son of Sultan Fuad I, Farouk of Egypt received his education in Egypt and England before taking over the throne. He later gained criticism for his lavish lifestyle and his eccentricities, such as his order that except his entourage, no other cars could be painted red.

 16 
Ahmose I
(Ruler)
Ahmose I
3
Birthplace: Thebes

Ahmose I was an Egyptian pharaoh credited with founding the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Identified as the New Kingdom of Egypt's first dynasty, Ahmose's Eighteenth Dynasty marked the beginning of an era, during which ancient Egypt achieved the height of its power. Ahmose started construction projects which culminated in the erection of the last pyramid constructed by native Egyptian rulers.

 17 
Djoser
(Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd Dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch)
Djoser
3
Birthplace: Egypt
 18 
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
(Pharaoh of Egypt (51–47 BC))
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
3
Birthdate: 0062 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: January 13, 0047

The son of pharaoh Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator co-ruled with his sister, Cleopatra VII. Faced with a civil war after he forced his sister to flee to Syria, he later ruled with Arsinoe IV, another sister. He was killed while battling Julius Caesar’s forces in the Alexandrian War.

 19 
Sneferu
(King of Ancient Egypt from 2575 BC to 2465 BC)
Sneferu
3
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 2589 BC

Sneferu reigned as a pharaoh during the Old Kingdom. The founding pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Sneferu is credited with introducing important innovations in the construction and design of the Egyptian pyramids. At least three pyramids, which were built during his time, have survived to this day.

 20 
Ptolemy XII Auletes
(Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt)
Ptolemy XII Auletes
3
Birthdate: 0117 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0051 AD

Being an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Auletes apparently bribed Julius Caesar, in exchange for a law acknowledging his kingship in Egypt. He was later exiled, but came back to Egypt and killed his daughter, Berenice IV, who ruled in his absence and with the support of the opposition.

 21 
Fuad I of Egypt
(Sultan of Egypt)
Fuad I of Egypt
3
Birthdate: March 26, 1868
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: April 28, 1936

Fuad I of Egypt was the Sultan of Egypt who ruled as the ninth ruler of Sudan and Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Fuad played an important role in modern Egyptian historiography. His efforts to depict his ancestors as benevolent monarchs and nationalists would prove to be a long-lasting influence on Egyptian history.

 22 
Fuad II of Egypt
(Former King of Egypt and the Sudan (1952 - 1953) and a Member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali Dynasty)
Fuad II of Egypt
3
Birthdate: January 16, 1952
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt

The son of king Farouk I of Egypt, Fuad II became a king at age 6 months, following his father’s abdication. He ruled for less than a year and was exiled soon after. He grew up in Switzerland and France and was given back his Egyptian citizenship years later.

 23 
Bardiya
(Pharaoh of Egypt)
Bardiya
9
Birthplace: Pasargadae, Iran
Died: 0522 AD

Born to Cyrus the Great of Persia, Bardiya was also known as Tanyoxarces. Though most sources believe he was the king of Persia, some sources claim an impersonator ruled Persia, pretending to be the real son of Cyrus. Both historian Herodotus and king Darius believed the impersonator was Gaumata, a magus.

 24 
Merneptah
3

One of the 13 sons of Ramesses II, Merneptah assumed power at the age of 70. The 4th pharaoh of Egypt’s 19th dynasty, he is remembered for his successful defense against a Libyan invasion. He was also known to have ordered the iconic commemorative text Israel Stela.

 25 
Amenhotep II
(Seventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt)
Amenhotep II
3
Birthplace: Memphis, Egypt

The seventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Amenhotep II, also referred as Amenophis II, succeeded his father, Thutmose III. Amenhotep ruled at the height of Egypt’s royal era and thrived in maintaining the vast kingdom that he inherited from his father, employing a few military campaigns in Syria. His reign witnessed the effective end of conflict between Egypt and Mitanni.

 26 
Amenhotep I
(Second Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt)
Amenhotep I
3
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1504 AD

Amenhotep I was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh who reigned over the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt from 1526 to 1506 BC. He continued the work of his father Ahmose I and invested much of his time in rebuilding the temples in Upper Egypt. Amenhotep is best remembered for revolutionizing mortuary complex design and starting a new trend in royal funerary monuments.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
3
Birthdate: 0309 BC
Birthplace: Alexandria
Died: 0246 AD

Ptolemy II Philadelphus succeeded his father and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I, as the second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy II developed agriculture and commerce and promoted the Museum and Library of Alexandria. The material and literary grandeur of the Alexandrian court reached its pinnacle during his rule making Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences.

 28 
Thutmose II
(Pharaoh)
Thutmose II
3
Birthdate: 1510 BC
Died: 1479 BC

The 4th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, Thutmose II is best remembered for suppressing rebellions in the Levant and Nubia. He also defeated the Bedouins in Palestine. While some scholars believe he had a short-lived reign, others state he may have ruled for upto 18 years.

 29 
Thutmose IV
(Pharaoh)
Thutmose IV
3
Birthplace: Unknown

King Thutmose IV, the son of pharaoh Amenhotep II, was military-trained and loved hunting. A tale of god Horus having visited him in his dream to tell him he would be the next king proves he may not have been the heir apparent. He led campaigns in Syria, Palestine, and Nubia.

 30 
Pepi II Neferkare
(King of Egypt)
Pepi II Neferkare
3
Birthdate: 2284 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 2216 BC

Ancient Egyptian king of the 6th dynasty, Pepi II Neferkare took to the throne at age 6, after Merenre I’s death. While scholars initially thought he was the son of Pepi I and the half-brother of Merenre, later studies suggested he was probably Merenre’s son and Pepi I’s grandson.

 31 
Psamtik I
(King)
Psamtik I
3
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0610 AD
 32 
Taharqa
(Pharaoh)
Taharqa
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 0664 AD
 33 
Menkaura
(King)
Menkaura
2
Birthdate: 2532 BC
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: November 30, 2504
 34 
Khafra
(King of Egypt)
Khafra
2
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 2480 BC
 35 
Nectanebo II
(King of Egypt)
Nectanebo II
2
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 0340 AD
 36 
Necho II
(King)
Necho II
2
Birthdate: 0610 BC
Died: 0595 BC
 37 
Seti II
(King)
Seti II
2
Birthdate: 1203 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1197 AD
 38 
Shoshenq I
(Pharaoh)
Shoshenq I
2
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0924 AD

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I founded the 22nd dynasty. Probably of Libyan tribal descent, he was initially a general of king Psusennes II, whom he succeeded later, without any resistance. Known for his successful campaigns in Palestine, he was also mentioned as Shishak in the Hebrew Bible.

 39 
Seqenenre Tao
(Pharaoh)
Seqenenre Tao
2
Birthplace: Egypt
 40 
Ramses VI
(king)
Ramses VI
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1137 AD
 41 
Senusret I
(Second Pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt)
Senusret I
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1926 AD

After serving as a co-regent with his father, Amenemhet I, for a decade, Senusret I, also known as Sesostris I, became the 2nd pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He carried on the kingdom’s expansion in Nubia and also led a campaign against the Libyans. A commemorative shrine at Karnak bears his legacy.

 42 
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
(Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom)
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
3
Birthdate: October 9, 0210
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: August 31, 0180
 43 
Marwān II
(Ruler)
Marwān II
2
Birthdate: 0688 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: August 6, 0750
 44 
Ramesses IV
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1149 AD
 45 
Amenemhat III
(Pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the sixth king of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom)
Amenemhat III
2
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 1814 AD
 46 
Senusret III
(Pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled from 1878 BC to 1839 BC)
Senusret III
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1839 BC

The fifth king of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, Khakaure Senusret III is regarded as a great pharaoh and perhaps the mightiest Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. His reign and military campaigns witnessed a period of great power leading to an era of peace, economic prosperity, decreased power of regional rulers and a complete reformation of Egypt’s government. 

Ptolemy VIII Physcon
2
Birthdate: 0184 AD
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: June 28, 0116
 48 
Ramses XI
(King)
Ramses XI
2
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 1070 AD
 49 
Abbas II of Egypt
2
Birthdate: July 14, 1874
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: December 19, 1944
 50 
Userkaf
(Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt and the Founder of the Fifth Dynasty)
Userkaf
2
Birthplace: Egypt

Userkaf, the founder of the Fifth Dynasty, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt who reigned during the Old Kingdom period. The cult of Ra or Re, the ancient Egyptian deity of the Sun, started gaining unprecedented significance during his reign. He became the first pharaoh to build a dedicated Sun temple, known as Nekhenre, in the Memphite necropolis north of Abusir.