Ramesses II, son of Seti I, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Also known as the “Great Ancestor,” he is remembered for his aggressive military expeditions to Nubia and Canaan. The second longest-reigning ruler of Egypt, he is credited for building monuments and cities such as the Pi-Ramesses.
Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled between 1334 and 1325 BC. He is one of the most studied ancient Egyptian pharaohs, thanks to his well-preserved tomb. Although he was not a popular ruler, the global exhibitions of artifacts associated with him have made Tutankhamun the most renowned pharaoh in the modern world.
Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I, ruled as the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and was the second female pharaoh, according to records. She was the chief wife of Thutmose II, and ruled jointly with Thutmose III, Thutmose II’s son. She also named herself God's Wife of Amun.
Hebrew leader Joshua led the Israelite tribes after Moses’s death. He finds mention in the Book of Joshua in the Old Testament. He played a major role in conquering Canaan after the Exodus. Apart from Christianity, Joshua is also significant in Islam and Islamic literature.
Caesarion reigned as the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt from September 44 BC to August 30 BC. He was Julius Caesar's only known biological son and his mother Cleopatra ruled over ancient Egypt along with him. Caesarion's death at the age of 17 marked the beginning of the famous Roman Empire and the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
While many historians believe Narmer of the First Dynastic Period was the first Egyptian king who brought about peace in the region, some scholars later claimed Narmer was the same as Menes. The Narmer Palette is one of the most significant relics that describe Narmer’s heroics through hieroglyphics.
Amenhotep III reigned as the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the early and mid-14th century BC. Nicknamed Amenhotep the Magnificent, Amenhotep III's reign witnessed Egypt reach the height of its international and artistic power. Under his reign, Egypt also enjoyed unprecedented splendor and prosperity.
Cambyses II was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire. He ruled from 530 BC to 522 BC. He was the son of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane. Before claiming the throne, he served as the governor of northern Babylonia under his father. His reign was relatively brief and marked by his conquests in Africa, notably Egypt.
Best remembered as the creator of the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egyptian pharaoh Khufu was the second king of the fourth dynasty. The son of King Snefru and Queen Hetephere, Khufu was projected as a oppressor by Greek historian Herodotus, though many sources claim he was a wise ruler.
Ay was the son of an Egyptian military officer and grew up to follow in his father’s footsteps. Following the death of Tutankhamen, Ay became the penultimate king of Egypt’s 18th dynasty. The Amarna Tomb, which was built to house his grave but didn’t, provides a lot of information on him.
The son of Setnakhte, the founder of the 20th dynasty in Egypt, Ramesses III, or the warrior Pharaoh, had a long reign that was marked by peace and his successful defense against foreign invasions. Studies suggest he was assassinated in a coup led by one of his wives.
The eldest son of Sultan Fuad I, Farouk of Egypt received his education in Egypt and England before taking over the throne. He later gained criticism for his lavish lifestyle and his eccentricities, such as his order that except his entourage, no other cars could be painted red.
Ahmose I was an Egyptian pharaoh credited with founding the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Identified as the New Kingdom of Egypt's first dynasty, Ahmose's Eighteenth Dynasty marked the beginning of an era, during which ancient Egypt achieved the height of its power. Ahmose started construction projects which culminated in the erection of the last pyramid constructed by native Egyptian rulers.
The son of pharaoh Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator co-ruled with his sister, Cleopatra VII. Faced with a civil war after he forced his sister to flee to Syria, he later ruled with Arsinoe IV, another sister. He was killed while battling Julius Caesar’s forces in the Alexandrian War.
Sneferu reigned as a pharaoh during the Old Kingdom. The founding pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Sneferu is credited with introducing important innovations in the construction and design of the Egyptian pyramids. At least three pyramids, which were built during his time, have survived to this day.
Being an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Auletes apparently bribed Julius Caesar, in exchange for a law acknowledging his kingship in Egypt. He was later exiled, but came back to Egypt and killed his daughter, Berenice IV, who ruled in his absence and with the support of the opposition.
Fuad I of Egypt was the Sultan of Egypt who ruled as the ninth ruler of Sudan and Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Fuad played an important role in modern Egyptian historiography. His efforts to depict his ancestors as benevolent monarchs and nationalists would prove to be a long-lasting influence on Egyptian history.
The son of king Farouk I of Egypt, Fuad II became a king at age 6 months, following his father’s abdication. He ruled for less than a year and was exiled soon after. He grew up in Switzerland and France and was given back his Egyptian citizenship years later.
Born to Cyrus the Great of Persia, Bardiya was also known as Tanyoxarces. Though most sources believe he was the king of Persia, some sources claim an impersonator ruled Persia, pretending to be the real son of Cyrus. Both historian Herodotus and king Darius believed the impersonator was Gaumata, a magus.
One of the 13 sons of Ramesses II, Merneptah assumed power at the age of 70. The 4th pharaoh of Egypt’s 19th dynasty, he is remembered for his successful defense against a Libyan invasion. He was also known to have ordered the iconic commemorative text Israel Stela.
The seventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Amenhotep II, also referred as Amenophis II, succeeded his father, Thutmose III. Amenhotep ruled at the height of Egypt’s royal era and thrived in maintaining the vast kingdom that he inherited from his father, employing a few military campaigns in Syria. His reign witnessed the effective end of conflict between Egypt and Mitanni.
Amenhotep I was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh who reigned over the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt from 1526 to 1506 BC. He continued the work of his father Ahmose I and invested much of his time in rebuilding the temples in Upper Egypt. Amenhotep is best remembered for revolutionizing mortuary complex design and starting a new trend in royal funerary monuments.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus succeeded his father and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I, as the second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy II developed agriculture and commerce and promoted the Museum and Library of Alexandria. The material and literary grandeur of the Alexandrian court reached its pinnacle during his rule making Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences.
The 4th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, Thutmose II is best remembered for suppressing rebellions in the Levant and Nubia. He also defeated the Bedouins in Palestine. While some scholars believe he had a short-lived reign, others state he may have ruled for upto 18 years.
King Thutmose IV, the son of pharaoh Amenhotep II, was military-trained and loved hunting. A tale of god Horus having visited him in his dream to tell him he would be the next king proves he may not have been the heir apparent. He led campaigns in Syria, Palestine, and Nubia.
Ancient Egyptian king of the 6th dynasty, Pepi II Neferkare took to the throne at age 6, after Merenre I’s death. While scholars initially thought he was the son of Pepi I and the half-brother of Merenre, later studies suggested he was probably Merenre’s son and Pepi I’s grandson.
Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I founded the 22nd dynasty. Probably of Libyan tribal descent, he was initially a general of king Psusennes II, whom he succeeded later, without any resistance. Known for his successful campaigns in Palestine, he was also mentioned as Shishak in the Hebrew Bible.
After serving as a co-regent with his father, Amenemhet I, for a decade, Senusret I, also known as Sesostris I, became the 2nd pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He carried on the kingdom’s expansion in Nubia and also led a campaign against the Libyans. A commemorative shrine at Karnak bears his legacy.
The fifth king of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, Khakaure Senusret III is regarded as a great pharaoh and perhaps the mightiest Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. His reign and military campaigns witnessed a period of great power leading to an era of peace, economic prosperity, decreased power of regional rulers and a complete reformation of Egypt’s government.
Userkaf, the founder of the Fifth Dynasty, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt who reigned during the Old Kingdom period. The cult of Ra or Re, the ancient Egyptian deity of the Sun, started gaining unprecedented significance during his reign. He became the first pharaoh to build a dedicated Sun temple, known as Nekhenre, in the Memphite necropolis north of Abusir.