2 Franz Joseph I of Austria(Emperor of Austria King of Hungary (1848-1916))
Franz Joseph I of Austria reigned as the Emperor of Austria from 1848 until his death in 1916. He also served as the King of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia and monarch of other states of Austria-Hungary. During his reign, Austria-Hungary decided to wage war against the Kingdom of Serbia, which eventually resulted in the First World War.
3 Empress Elisabeth of Austria(Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary (1854-1898))
Empress Elisabeth of Austria was Queen of Hungary and Empress of Austria from 1854 to 1898, making her the longest-reigning Austrian empress. Often visiting Hungary for its relaxed environment, Elisabeth developed a deep kinship with Hungary, which in turn helped her influence the rise of the dual monarchy of Austria–Hungary in 1867.
4 Maria Theresa(Holy Roman Empress (1745-1765))
The mother of 16 children, Maria Theresa was the only female monarch of the Habsburg empire which she ruled with absolute power. She was known for industrial and educational reforms which led to the development of Austria during her 40-year reign. The devout Roman Catholic, who overtly disliked Jews and the Protestants, was sometimes criticized for her religious intolerance.
5 Charles I of Austria(Emperor of Austria (1916-18))
Charles I of Austria reigned from 1916 to 1918 as the last emperor of Austria. He was the last king of Croatia, Bohemia, Hungary, and the last monarch from the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Charles is remembered for making unsuccessful attempts to end Austria-Hungary's World War I campaign. He also tried to save the Austro-Hungarian Empire from disintegration but was unsuccessful.
6 Maximilian I of Mexico(Emperor of Mexico (1864-67))
7 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman Emperor (1765-90))
Joseph II reigned as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1765, and as the sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780, until 1790. Son of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I, and brother of Marie Antoinette, he laid down policies now known as Josephinism. He died without heirs.
8 Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman Emperor (1508-1519))
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death in 1519. The son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last years of the latter’s reign. During his reign, he expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg and established the Habsburg dynasty in Spain.
9 Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Emperor)
Much before his daughter Maria Theresa’s birth, Emperor Charles VI’s Pragmatic Sanction enabled his future daughter to succeed him, due to the lack of male heirs. Though he was always busy fighting, he apparently did it all to bring about peace. He had also unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Spain.
10 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman Emperor)
Second son of Emperor Ferdinand III, Leopold I became the heir apparent to his father’s throne on the death of his elder brother in 1654, being coroneted as the Holy Roman Emperor in 1658. Although he received little training for the throne, Austria became a great European power during his reign, emerging victorious in struggles against Ottoman Empire and France.
11 Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma(Empress Consort of the French)
Marie Louise was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. The eldest child of Emperor Francis II of Austria and his second wife, Maria Theresa, she grew up during a tumultuous period in the history of Austria. She was married to Napoleon I from 1810 to 1821. She died of pleurisy in 1847.
12 Ferdinand I of Austria(Emperor of Austria (1835-48))
Ferdinand I of Austria reigned as the Austrian emperor from 1835 until his retirement in 1848. As the emperor of Austria, Ferdinand also ruled as the king of Croatia, Hungary, and Bohemia. He also served as the king of Lombardy–Venetia and held several other lesser titles, which any emperor of Austria is entitled to hold.
13 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman Emperor)
Ferdinand II was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1619 to1637. He was a member of the House of Habsburg and the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria and Maria of Bavaria. A zealous Catholic, he wanted to restore the Catholic Church as the only religion in the empire, a move that earned him the ire of Protestant groups.
14 Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor(Politician)
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the King of the Romans and as the King in Germany between 1576 and 1612. Best remembered as an intellectual aficionado of occult arts, Rudolf is often seen as the founding father of the Scientific Revolution. He devoted his time to astrology and alchemy in an attempt to find the Philosopher's Stone.
15 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman Emperor)
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as king of Archduke of Austria, emperor of the Romans, and king of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 until his death in 1792. From 1765 to 1790, he served as Grand Duke of Tuscany, during which he abolished capital punishment in Tuscany, making it the first nation to abolish capital punishment in modern history.
16 Maria Carolina of Austria(Queen)
Maria Carolina of Austria, the wife of King Ferdinand IV of Naples, was also the de facto queen of Naples and Sicily. It is believed, she came under the influence of French-born English Sir John Acton and imposed many pro-British and anti-French reforms. She revoked the ban on Freemasonry and enlarged the navy, too.
Apart from serving as the Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor also served as the Archduke of Austria, King of Croatia and Hungary, and King of Bohemia between 1612 and 1619. His reign resulted in the Bohemian Revolt, which was the initial theatre of the famous Thirty Years War.
18 Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor(Holy Roman emperor)
Emperor Leopold I’s eldest son, Joseph I became the king of Hungary at the tender age of 9 and the king of Romans at 11. Though he strengthened Austria’s financial situation, bringing the Viennese city bank under the state, he failed to retain the Spanish crown for the Habsburg Monarchy.
19 Brunhilda of Austrasia(Queen)
Brunhilda was queen of Austrasia, which was part of Francia. The daughter of Visigothic king Athanagild, she was also one of the most powerful fighters of Merovingian age. Her conflict with Fredegund, the queen consort of Chilperic I, ended in her death by being torn apart by four horses.
20 Princess Stéphanie of Belgium(Princess)
Princess Stéphanie of Belgium became the Crown Princess of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia after her marriage to Crown Prince Rudolf, the son of Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I. Following the death of her husband and his mistress in a suicide-murder pact, she married a Hungarian nobleman.
María Cristina De Habsburgo-Lorena is better known as the Spanish king Alfonso XII’s queen consort, who acted as the queen regent after her husband’s death and before her son came of age to rule on his own. Her regency was the longest in the history of Spanish royalty.
22 Maria Leopoldina of Austria(Empress)
Born the Archduchess of Austria, Maria Leopoldina was a great painter and also grew up studying subjects such as botany and mineralogy. By virtue of her marriage to Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal, she became the queen of Portugal and the empress of Brazil.
24 Ferdinand II of Portugal(Prince)
25 Albert II of Germany(King of Bohemia)
Albert II of Germany was a Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg Monarchy. He became the ruler of Hungary, Germany, and Bohemia after his father-in-law Sigismund’s death. He was known for bringing about peace and for dividing Germany into structured administrative segments to make ruling easier.
26 Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily(Empress)
Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily lost 8 of her 16 siblings to smallpox in infancy. The eldest child of King Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily, Maria was also the niece of the infamous French queen Marie Antoinette. A patron of Viennese music, she loved masquerades and balls.
27 Marie Henriette of Austria(Queen of the Belgians as the wife of King Leopold II)
Holy Roman Empress Maria Amalia was the queen of the Germans and Bohemia. The wife of Emperor Charles VII, Maria established the first modern hospital of Munich, run by the nuns of Elisabetinerinnen. She also advised her son, Maximilian III Joseph, to make peace with Maria Theresa, her cousin.
29 Maria Josepha of Austria(Queen)
The daughter of Emperor Joseph I of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, Maria Josepha of Austria got married to the son of Augustus the Strong, Frederick Augustus II, in a Turkish-style wedding. Augustus II even converted to Catholicism for the marriage, as Maria wasn’t supposed to marry a Catholic.
Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France, is considered by many as the most attractive member of the Habsburg dynasty. The second daughter of Maria of Spain and Maximilian II of the Holy Roman Empire, she became the queen consort of France by virtue of her marriage to King Charles IX.
31 Leopold V, Duke of Austria(Sovereign)
32 Albert VII, Archduke of Austria(Archduke)
33 Caroline Augusta of Bavaria(Princess)
The daughter of King Maximilian I Joseph, Caroline Augusta became the Empress of Austria by virtue of her marriage to Emperor Francis I of Austria. She had lifelong scars on her face due to a bout of smallpox at age 2. Due to lack of consummation, her first marriage was eventually dissolved.
34 Archduchess Adelheid of Austria(Member of the Austrian imperial family, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine)
35 Maria Theresa of Austria(Queen)
Maria Theresa of Austria was the Queen of the Two Sicilies by virtue of her marriage to King Ferdinand II. The daughter of Archduke Charles and Princess Henrietta, she wasn’t liked by the Sicilian court and spent most of her time inside her room with her children, absorbed in needlework.
37 Maria Anna of Austria(Queen)
The daughter of Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire, Maria Anna of Austria had also been the queen consort of Portugal by virtue of her marriage to King John V. Following her husband’s stroke and partial paralysis, she also served as a regent. Following her death, her heart was buried in Vienna.
The third of the four wives of Austrian emperor Franz I, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este was also the youngest child of Archduke Ferdinand. She received an elite education under strict supervision of her grandmother, Maria Theresa. Though Goethe admired her a lot, he had sworn to never make his admiration public.
39 Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria(Archduchess of Austria)
Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria was the eldest daughter of Franz Salvator and Marie Valerie of Austria. She married Georg von Waldburg, a person with no royal lineage and one who had been a tutor to her brothers. She was also a talented painter but died of pneumonia at age 38.
40 Childebert II(King)
41 Elizabeth of Austria(Queen)
Elizabeth of Austria was the Queen consort of Poland through her marriage to King Casimir IV of Poland. Elizabeth's marriage to Casimir proved to be one of Poland's most successful royal marriages. Four of Elizabeth's sons went on to be crowned as kings. As Queen Mother, Elizabeth played an important role in securing the Polish throne to John I Albert.
42 Anna of Tyrol(Queen)
Known as the Working Empress, Anna of Tyrol was a Holy Roman Princess and the queen consort of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, by virtue of her marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Matthias. Her contributions include the formation of the Imperial Crypt and the transfer of the Imperial court from Prague to Vienna.
43 Cymburgis of Masovia(Duchess)
Part of the Piast dynasty, Cymburgis of Masovia was a Polish princess who became the duchess of Austria by virtue of her marriage to Ernest the Iron of the Habsburg dynasty. Though the marriage was initially not approved by the Habsburg House, it was a happy one.
44 Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans(King of the Romans, Hungary and Bohemia)
45 Maria Leopoldine of Austria(Queen)
Maria Leopoldine of Austria was born Archduchess of Austria and belonged to the House of Habsburg. Through her marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Maria Leopoldine became the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Queen consort of Bohemia as well as Hungary, and German Queen. Maria Leopoldine died in childbirth when she was just 17 years old.
46 Elizabeth of Austria(Queen)
Elizabeth of Austria was the Queen consort of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania through her marriage to the King of Poland, Sigismund II Augustus. Plagued by ill health and Sigismund Augustus' extramarital affairs, Elizabeth's marriage was unhappy and brief. Elizabeth suffered from epileptic seizures throughout her life and died at the age of 18.
47 Frederick the Fair(King)
49 Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg(Princess)
Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg was the Duchess of Teschen from 1822 to 1829 through her marriage to Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. The marriage, which was considered a happy one, produced seven children. Henrietta is credited with popularizing the Christmas tree in Vienna. She died at the age of 32 after contracting scarlet fever.