Haitian general, Toussaint Louverture, was the most prominent leader of the Haitian Revolution. A revolutionary leader, he was devoted to the cause of Haitian independence and fought hard until he was killed by the French in a treacherous manner. The revolution continued after his death, leading to Haiti’s independence. He is now known as the Father of Haiti.
Tecumseh was a Shawnee chief, diplomat, orator, and warrior. He is best known for promoting resistance to the United States' expansion onto Native American lands. He also promoted tribal unity and is credited with forming a Native American confederacy. He died trying to unite Native Americans and is considered an iconic folk hero in Canadian, Indigenous, and American history.
A significant figure of the American Revolution, Patrick Henry was the first governor of post-colonial Virginia. A skilled orator, he is remembered for his iconic words “Give me liberty or give me death!” He excelled as a lawyer and gained fame with his win in the Parson's Cause.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines was an important figure and leader of the Haitian Revolution. He went on to rule an independent Haiti, which became the first country to abolish slavery permanently. Considered one of Haiti's founding fathers, Dessalines reigned as the emperor of Haiti from 1804 until his murder in 1806. Today, he is regarded as an icon of Haitian nationalism.
Charlotte Corday was an important figure of the French Revolution. She is remembered for murdering Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, for which she was executed by guillotine. Her action changed the political position and role of women at the time. She was also considered a hero by those who opposed the teachings of Jean-Paul Marat.
As a child, Ethan Allen was fond of deciphering passages from the Bible. He grew up to co-establish Vermont and led the Green Mountain Boys during the American Revolutionary War. After failing to achieve Vermont’s separation from New York, he tried to unite Vermont with Canada.
Túpac Amaru II was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru. His wife was also a revolutionary and played a key role in the uprising. They were both captured, tortured, and put to death by the Spaniards. Following his death, he became known as a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence.
Sold as a slave in childhood, Denmark Vesey adopted the surname of his master. He later purchased his freedom with the money he had won in a lottery. Earning a living as a carpenter, he simultaneously launched a slave rebellion and planned a coup but was eventually hanged to death.
English-born American political activist, philosopher, and revolutionary, Thomas Paine, is credited to have penned some of the most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution. His works inspired the common people of America and motivated them to fight for independence from British rule. He was ostracized for criticizing Christianity and died a lonely man.
Initially a lawyer, Wolfe Tone later ditched his practice to co-establish the Society of United Irishmen, aimed at ending the British reign in Ireland. A prominent face of the Irish Rebellion, he led French forces into Ireland during the 1798 rebellion. Sentenced to be hanged, he later slit his own throat and died.
Born to a militia officer, Sybil Ludington later made history with her fearless resistance to the British during the American Revolutionary War. Most of her statues today find her perched on a horse, in a tribute to her night-long horseback ride to inform American soldiers of an impending British attack.
Part of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, Benjamin Lincoln had worked on his family farm before joining the army. After he and his 7,000 men surrendered in Charleston, he was freed in a prisoner exchange program and later became the lieutenant governor of Massachusetts.
James Wilkinson served the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and also revealed Aaron Burr’s conspiracy to the U.S. government. While he worked against the Spanish people as part of the U.S. army, he was later revealed to be a Spanish spy, also known as Number Thirteen.
One of the rare literate slaves of the colonial era, Gabriel Prosser was born into slavery at a tobacco plantation in Virginia. He led one of the first great slave revolutions of the U.S., aspiring to create an all-Black state, with himself as the king. He was eventually hanged.
Yemelyan Pugachev, a Cossack leader, was a significant figure of the peasant rebellion in Russia. Impersonating Emperor Peter III, who had been deposed by Queen Catherine and killed, Pugachev gathered a group of peasants and besieged several major Russian cities, but was eventually sent to Moscow, where he was executed.
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier was a revolutionary who played a major role in a colonial Brazilian revolutionary movement called Inconfidência Mineira, which called for a creation of a Brazilian republic and full independence from the Portuguese Empire. Joaquim José da Silva Xavier was arrested and publicly hanged. Today, he is regarded as a national hero in Brazil.
The wife of Jean-Marie Roland, Madame Roland was a leading French revolutionary and often hosted significant political meets at her salon. She often directed her husband’s political actions and was responsible for creating a rift between the Jacobin and Girondin factions. She was later arrested and guillotined.
Abu Muslim was a Persian military general best remembered for his service as the commander-in-chief of the third caliphate to succeed Prophet Muhammad, Abbasid Caliphate. He helped Abbasid Caliphate overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate by playing an important role in the Abbasid Revolution. Abu Muslim then became the governor of Khurasan in 747 after defeatng the Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar.
Mary Ludwig Hays, an American brave heart who is considered to have fought at the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778 during the American War of Independence, is mostly identified as the woman behind the legend of Molly Pitcher. She reportedly took her husband's place working a gun after he was wounded and brought water to troops at the battle
Jacques Pierre Brissot was a French journalist and publisher. He was one of the most important members of the Girondins, who played a prominent role during the French Revolution. Brissot is also credited with founding the Society of the Friends of the Blacks, an abolitionist society, which aimed at abolishing the institution of slavery.
Rigas Feraios was a Greek writer, revolutionary, and political thinker. A front runner of the Greek War of Independence, Feraios is revered as one of the most important national heroes in Greece. Rigas Feraios is also credited with kindling the Greeks' love of freedom.
French revolutionary Jean-Baptiste Carrier is remembered for his radicalism, his actions during the the War in the Vendée, and his notorious atrocities against counter-revolutionaries, such as the murder of thousands of people at Nantes. He was eventually found guilty of mass murder by the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined.
Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois was a French actor, essayist, dramatist, and revolutionary. He played an important role during the Reign of Terror, serving as one of the most important members of the Committee of Public Safety. Although he is credited with saving Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, Collot d'Herbois oversaw the execution of over 2,000 people in Lyon.
Mexican revolutionary leader and liberal reformer Juan Álvarez was a mestizo landowner who later fought in the Mexican War of Independence and led the revolution supporting the Plan de Ayutla. He also became the provisional president of Mexico after the fall of Mexican general Santa Anna.
Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French politician who played an important role during the French Revolution. Although he initially supported the Reign of Terror, Tallien became known as an influential leader of the Thermidorian Reaction that led to the downfall of the Reign of Terror's leader Maximilien Robespierre, which eventually resulted in the end of the Terror.
American politician and slaveholder Abraham Clark, a Revolutionary War figure who earned the reputation as "the poor man's councilor," signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for New Jersey to the Continental Congress. He later served as Member of the United States House of Representatives from New Jersey's At-large district in both the Second and Third United States Congress.
Betty Zane is remembered as the heroine of the second siege of Fort Henry that took place in September 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. She volunteered and thrived in carrying gunpowder from her brother’s home to the fort when the garrison was running low on ammunition, thus allowing them to continue to fight and hold the fort.
François Hanriot was a Sans-culotte leader and street orator. He played an important role during the French Revolution, commanding the National Guard. He played a crucial role in the insurrection of May 31 to 2 June 1793 which resulted in the fall of the Girondins. François Hanriot’s arrest and execution went a long way in ending the Reign of Terror.
José Miguel Carrera was a Chilean general and an important member of the famous Carrera family. The most prominent leader of the War of Independence in Chile, Carrera is widely regarded as a co-founder of independent Chile. Today, he is counted among the Fathers of the Nation in Chile. José Miguel Carrera is also credited with ending slavery in Chile.
François de Charette was a Breton soldier and politician who played an important role during the American Revolutionary War, serving in the French Royal Navy. He was one of the leaders of the War in the Vendée and fought against the revolutionary regime. His life inspired the creation of Le Dernier Panache at a theme park named Puy du Fou.
Irish revolutionary hero James Napper Tandy, who finds mention in the Irish ballad The Wearing of the Green, was associated with the Society of United Irishmen. Together with the French, he attempted to drive the British out of Ireland. He was eventually captured and sentenced to death but later released and exiled.