Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician and physical scientist par excellence who made his invaluable contributions in several fields such as statistics, differential geometry, astronomy, number theory, electrostatics, analysis, geophysics and optics. He is also titled as ‘the Princeps mathematicorum’, meaning ‘the Prince of Mathematicians’ or ‘the foremost of mathematicians’ and ‘greatest mathematician since antiquity’ in Latin. Though Gauss did not enjoy teaching, some of his students were very influenced by him such as Bernhard Riemann, Richard Dedekind and Friedrich Bessel who themselves became great mathematicians in their lives. Gauss attended only a single scientific conference in Berlin in 1828. He never wrote regularly or in abundance and refused to publish his incomplete works. It is believed that Gauss supported monarchy and was against the revolutionary Napoleon. According to Dunnington, Gauss was religious and believed in the concept of search for truth.

**Childhood And Early Life**

**Early Years And Career**

**Later Years**

**Personal Life**

**Death And Legacy**

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CARL F. GAUSS TIMELINE

Born on 30 April in Braunschweig, in the duchy of Braunschweig Wolfenbüttel, now part of Lower Saxony, Germany.

Proved that any regular polygon with a number of sides which is a Fermat prime can be constructed by straightedge and compass. He also discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March and the quadratic reciprocity law on 8 April.

At the age of 21, he finished ‘DisquisitionesArithmeticae’, his magnum opus.

Proved the fundamental theorem of algebra.

His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae was published, making significant contributions to number theory.

Appointed as the Professor of Astronomy and Director of the astronomical observatory in Göttingen.

His theory of ‘motion of the celestial bodies moving in conic sections around the sun’ got published. His first wife, Johanna Osthoff expired.

Invented the heliotrope, an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances, to measure positions.

He was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

He proved an important theorem, the Theorema Egregium, establishing an important property of the notion of curvature.

He developed a productive association with the physics professor Wilhelm Weber, leading to new knowledge in magnetism and the discovery of Kirchhoff's circuit laws in electricity. His second wife expired after a long illness.

Gauss and Weber invented the first electromechanical telegraph

Gauss published his significant Dioptrische Untersuchungen.

-1855

Pictures of Carl F. Gauss

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