Murad IV, who ruled as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, was infamous for his cruelty. He took over the throne at 11 and subsequently came to be known for his exploits in the Ottoman–Safavid War, which changed the map of the Caucasus.
Osman II reigned as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his regicide in 1622. Despite becoming the emperor at the young age of 14, Osman II sought to exercise his powers as a ruler. Renowned for his bravery, Osman II led the Ottoman campaign against Sigismund III, the King of Poland, during the Moldavian Magnate Wars.
Abdülmecid II is remembered as the last caliph of the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey. Son of Sultan Abdulaziz, he received his education at the palace. After the deposition of his cousin and the abolition of the Sultanate, he was declared the caliph by the Turkish National Assembly.
Mustafa I reigned as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on two separate occasions; from 1617 to 1618 and again from 1622 to 1623. Nicknamed Mustafa the Mad, Mustafa I is believed to have suffered mental illness and was used as a puppet by his brother-in-law Kara Davud Pasha.
Mustafa II was the Emperor of the Ottoman Empire from 6 February 1695 to 22 August 1703. As the Sultan of the empire, Mustafa II played important roles in the Great Turkish War and Habsburg Wars. He was succeeded by his brother Ahmed III in 1703.
Suleiman II reigned as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from November 1687 until his death in June 1691. He is credited with changing the fortunes of the Ottoman Empire along with Fazıl Mustafa Pasha during the War of the Holy League and reconquered Belgrade in 1690. Suleiman II is also credited with carrying out important fiscal and military reforms.
Born in the Ottoman Empire, now Turkey, Archbishop Iakovos of North and South America was initially educated at the Theological School of Halki and then at Harvard University, before being ordained a priest. A civil rights movement supporter, he had participated in the Selma to Montgomery marches.
Gregory of Sinai was a monk who played a major role in the emergence of Hesychasm in 14th century. He learned the ways of Hesychasm from Arsenios. Gregory of Sinai is also credited with founding a monastery in southeast Bulgaria where he had taken shelter in the Bulgarian Empire in an attempt to escape the increasing Muslim raids on Athos.