Ibn Saud Biography

(King of Saudi Arabia from 1932 to 1953)

Birthday: January 15, 1875 (Capricorn)

Born In: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

King Abdulaziz al-Saud was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. Born as the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud, the last ruler of the Second Saudi State, he consolidated his control over his ancestral lands and became the ruler of nearly all of central Arabia. He then unified his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932 and became the first monarch of the consolidated nation. Even though his family, the House of Saud, had been a power in central Arabia for well over a century prior to his becoming a king, what he accomplished by conquering more dominions and unifying the lands was truly remarkable. The much feared and respected ruler was born as Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud, but was popularly known as Abdulaziz within the Arab World and Ibn Saud outside. Brought up under the care of his strict father, he started displaying signs of his greatness at an early age. He was intelligent, talented, courageous, and well-trained in military skills. He grew up to be an astute leader and proved himself to be a very able king after coming to power. His death in 1953 marked the end of an important era in the history of the Arab world
Quick Facts

Also Known As: Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud

Died At Age: 78


Spouse/Ex-: Al Jawhara bint Musaed Al Jiluwi, Al Jawhara bint Saad Al Sudairi, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim, Haya bint Saad Al Sudairi, Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi, Tarafa bint Abdullah Al Alsheikh

father: Abdul Rahman bin Faisal

mother: Sarah al Sudairi

siblings: Noura bint Abdul Rahman Al Saud

children: Abdul-Rahman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Bandar bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Haya bint Abdulaziz Al Saud, Nawwaf bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, Sattam bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Saud of Saudi Arabia

Emperors & Kings Spiritual & Religious Leaders

Height: 2.07 m

Died on: November 9, 1953

place of death: Shubra Palace, Ta'if, Saudi Arabia

Diseases & Disabilities: Heart Disease, Arthritis

Cause of Death: Heart Attack

City: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Founder/Co-Founder: Ikhwan, Princes' School

  • 1

    What was Ibn Saud's role in the unification of Saudi Arabia?

    Ibn Saud was the founder and first monarch of Saudi Arabia, playing a crucial role in unifying the various tribes and regions of the Arabian Peninsula to create the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.
  • 2

    How did Ibn Saud establish the modern Saudi state?

    Ibn Saud established the modern Saudi state through a combination of military conquests, strategic alliances with tribal leaders, and the implementation of a strict interpretation of Islamic law known as Wahhabism.
  • 3

    What was Ibn Saud's relationship with the British and Ottoman Empires?

    Ibn Saud initially formed alliances with the British against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, but later clashed with the British over territorial disputes in the Arabian Peninsula. He ultimately emerged victorious in these conflicts.
  • 4

    What was Ibn Saud's approach to governance and administration in Saudi Arabia?

    Ibn Saud ruled Saudi Arabia as an absolute monarch, implementing a system of governance based on Islamic principles and tribal customs. He centralized power in his own hands and maintained strict control over the country's resources and institutions.
  • 5

    How did Ibn Saud's policies impact the development of Saudi Arabia?

    Ibn Saud's policies, including the promotion of Wahhabism, the establishment of a strong central government, and the exploitation of oil reserves, laid the foundation for the economic and social development of Saudi Arabia in the 20th century.
Childhood & Early Life
Abdulaziz al-Saud was born on 15 January 1876 in Riyadh, Emirate of Nejd, as the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal and Sarah Al Sudairi. His father was the last ruler of the Second Saudi State. His family, the House of Saud, had been a major power in central Arabia for over a century.
He father ensured that he received a proper training from an early age. Initially he was trained under his father who later put him under the care of Sheikh Gadi Abdullah Al Kharji. Along with his basic education he also learned the Holy Qur’an under the supervision of Sheikh Mohammad Bin Museibih.
He studied Islamic theology and jurisprudence under Sheikh Abdullah Bin Abdu latif Al Al Sheikh.
The House of Saud’s long-term regional rivals, the Al Rashidi, conquered Riyadh in 1890, forcing Abdulaziz al-Saud’s family to flee from their homeland. First his family sought refuge with a Bedouin tribe in the southern desert of Arabia before moving on to Bahrain. In Bahrain too their stay was short. Finally they traveled to Kuwait where they stayed in exile for almost a decade.
Abdulaziz al-Saud grew up to be a passionate young man, determined to unify all the ancestral lands that his family had lost. He was bold and courageous, and was blessed with great leadership skills. Thus he vowed to conquer back all the land that once belonged to the House of Saud.
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Accession & Reign
Abdulaziz al-Saud started planning for gaining back his kingdom, and organized a small army consisting of his brother and cousins. He set out on a raiding expedition into the Najd in 1901.
Soon his army gained in numbers and he decided to attack Riyadh and reclaim it from his rival, the Al Rashidi. He led his men over the walls of the city in January 1902 and recaptured it.
He went from one victory to another over the next few years and by 1912 had completed his conquest of the Najd and the eastern coast of Arabia. During this time he founded the Ikhwan, a military-religious brotherhood which assisted in his later conquests.
After the World War I, he received considerable support from the British which enabled him to launch a full-fledged campaign against the Al Rashidi in 1920. Within two years, he defeated his rival and almost doubled the size of the Saudi territory.
He continued receiving support from the British government and with the help of international aid he consolidated his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and became the king of this nation on 23 September 1932.
After ruling for a few years, he shifted his court from the Masmak Fort to Murabba Palace in 1938. He remained in this residence for the rest of his life.
He developed the requisite administrative and organizational systems in his government for its proper functioning and established several ministries as an advance administrative organization. He also paid special attention to education and infrastructure building.
Awards & Achievements
King Abdulaziz al-Saud was awarded the Order of the Bath in 1935.
The other honors he received were the Legion of Merit in 1947 and the Order of Military Merit (with White Decoration) in 1952.
Personal Life & Legacy
As per the Arab traditions and customs, he hadseveral wives and also took many concubines. The most well known among his wives were Tarfah bint Abdullah Al Al Sheikh, Lulua bint Salih Al Dakhil, Al Jawhara bint Musaed Al Jiluwi, Lajah bint Khalid bin Hithlayn, Jawhara bint Saad bin Abdul Muhsin Al Sudairi, and Hassa Al Sudairi.
He fathered several children, close to a hundred, including 45 sons. Some of his famous sons are Prince Turki of Najd, King Saud, King Faisal, Crown Prince Muhammad, King Khalid, Prince Nasser, and Prince Sa'ad.
He suffered from heart problems during his later years and fell seriously ill in October 1953. King Abdulaziz al-Saud died of a heart attack on 9 November 1953 at the age of 76. He was buried in Al Oud cemetery.
Facts About Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud, the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, was known for his love of falconry and was an avid falconer himself.
Despite being a powerful political figure, Ibn Saud was also known for his simplicity in personal matters and preferred a modest lifestyle.
Ibn Saud was a skilled horseman and had a deep appreciation for Arabian horses, which were highly prized for their beauty and agility.
He had a strong interest in poetry and was known to have composed his own poems, reflecting his appreciation for the arts.
Ibn Saud was known for his strategic military tactics and leadership skills, which played a significant role in the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under his rule.

See the events in life of Ibn Saud in Chronological Order

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