Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud has been reigning as the King of Saudi Arabia since 23 January 2015. An important political figure, Salman also served as the Minister of Defense from 5 November 2011 to 23 January 2015. Salman also served as the Governor of Riyadh Province on two occasions; from 1956 to 1960 and again from 1963 to 2011.
Faisal of Saudi Arabia was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. He was the son of King Abdulaziz and his wife, Tarfa. During his father’s reign, he was given numerous responsibilities of political significance. After coming to power, he implemented a series of modern reforms and issued a decree for the total abolition of slavery.
Fahd of Saudi Arabia, the eighth son of Saudi king Abdulaziz, started his career as a politician and served as the minister of education and the minister of interior of Saudi Arabia. He then reigned as the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia for more than 2 decades, becoming the longest-reigning Saudi king.
Umar was one of the most influential and powerful Muslim caliphs in history. The father-in-law of Muhammad, the founder of Islam, Umar reigned as the second Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate from 634 to 644. During his reign, the Rashidun Caliphate expanded immensely, ruling the Sasanian Empire and much of the Byzantine Empire. Umar is revered in the Sunni tradition.
Khalid of Saudi Arabia reigned as the king of Saudi Arabia from 1975 until his death in 1982. One of the sons of the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, Khalid represented the country abroad as a diplomat. In 1943, he played a key role in establishing diplomatic relations between the United States of America and Saudi Arabia.
Umar II reigned as the eighth Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate from 717 to 720 CE. Described as the most devout and pious of the Umayyad rulers, Umar II is credited with making various important contributions to the society. During his rule, the Islamic faith was accepted by large segments of the population of Egypt and Persia.
Abd al-Malik reigned as the fifth Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate from 12 April 685 until his demise on 9 October 705. Abd al-Malik is often counted among the most celebrated caliphs by historians. Prior to his accession, Abd al-Malik held military and administrative posts under Caliph Mu'awiya I and Caliph Marwan I.
Part of the Hashemite dynasty, Talal of Jordan reigned as the king of Jordan for a little over a year in the 1950s. The only son of Abdullah I, the first king of Jordan, he was forced to abdicate due to his mental illness. He died in a sanatorium in Istanbul.
The first Marwanid caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and the fourth Umayyad caliph, Marwan I initially governed Medina and the Hejaz. His short rule was marked by internal conflict for the caliphate. Old and in poor health at the time of his accession to the throne, he died within a year.
Sultan bin Abdulaziz was the 15th son of Saudi king Abdulaziz. He began his political career as the governor of the Riyadh province and then took over as the minister of defense and aviation. He then reigned as the deputy prime minister and the crown prince of Saudi Arabia.
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was a 7th-century caliph and is remembered for leading a rebellion against the Umayyad dynasty. He was also associated with the Prophet Muhammad. His rebellion began the Second Muslim Civil War. He died in the siege of Mecca initiated by the forces of Abd al-Malik.
The sixth caliph of the Umayyad caliphate, Al-Walid I constructed some of the most iconic mosques of his era. Apart from building mosques in Medina and Jerusalem, he built the Great Mosque in place of the basilica of St. John the Baptist in Damascus. He also expanded the influence of Islam.
Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was inducted as the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia and First Deputy Prime Minister on October 27, 2011, by King Abdullah following death of Crown Prince Sultan. Prince Nayef was also noted for serving as the Minister of Interior for over three decades from October 11, 1975 until his death on June 16, 2012.
Ibn Saud, or King Abdulaziz, was the founder and first monarch of Saudi Arabia. He oversaw the discovery of petroleum and the subsequent oil production in his country. He annexed the kingdoms of central and northern Arabia and ruled for over 20 years. He sired countless children, including 45 sons.
Alauddin Husain Shah was a 16th-century Sultan of Bengal and the founder of the Hussain Shahi dynasty. He is remembered as one of the most influential rulers of Bengal of the late medieval era. He shifted his capital from Gaur to Ikdala. He was also known for his religious tolerance.