Apart from being a pioneer of Indology and geodesy, Persian scholar Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī also worked on subjects such as anthropology, math, and ethnography. It is believed he didn’t know his father. He had penned many works, such as the encyclopaedic volume The Chronology of Ancient Nations.
Omar Khayyam was a Persian polymath, mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, and poet. In the field of mathematics, he is best known for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations. As an astronomer, he designed a solar calendar known as the Jalali calendar. His philosophical attitude towards life had elements of pessimism, nihilism, Epicureanism, and fatalism.
Al-Ghazālī was a Persian Muslim polymath best remembered for his work in the fields of philosophy, theology, logic, and Sufism. Such was his popularity that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title Hujjat al-Islām during his lifetime itself. Among his other works, the Incoherence of the Philosophers is considered a landmark in the history of philosophy.
Eighth-century alchemist and physician Jabir Ibn Hayyan has been credited with too many written works. Experts believe his vast works may not have been written by a single person. The Jabirian corpus, a collection of his works, is known for its "method of the balance" and its focus on chemistry.
Persian polymath Nasir al-Din al-Tusi lost his jurist father in childhood and then went around as a scholar, learning subjects such as math and philosophy. He made invaluable contribution to astronomy and later served as a scientific advisor of the Mongols. One of his notable written works was Akhlaq-i Nasiri.
Al-Tabari was a historian, scholar, and commentator on the Quran. He is best remembered for his expertise in historiography and Qur'anic exegesis. A polymath, Al-Tabari wrote on a variety of topics like world history, poetry, mathematics, grammar, ethics, lexicography, and medicine. He is credited with founding a school of thought called madhhab which flourished among Sunni Muslims for two centuries.
Mazdak was an Iranian priest, reformer, and prophet who achieved immense popularity during the reign of Kavadh I. Such was his popularity that even King Kavadh I converted to Mazdakism. A self-proclaimed prophet, Mazdak instituted social welfare programs and his teachings acquired many followers.
Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī was a Persian polymath and Islamic scholar. He wrote influential works in the fields of cosmology, astronomy, physics, medicine, chemistry, theology, ontology, literature, history, philosophy, and jurisprudence. A person way ahead of his time, Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī was one of the earliest champions of the concept of Multiverse and argued about the actuality of the outer space.
Mulla Sadra was a Persian Twelver Shi'i Islamic mystic and philosopher. He was also an Alim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. He is considered one of the most influential philosophers in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. He tried to prove the idea of Unity of Existence through his works.
Mohammad Khatami is an Iranian politician who served as the President of Iran from 1997 to 2005. A respected and influential politician, Khatami advocated tolerance, freedom of expression, and civil society during his presidency. He also served as the Minister of Culture of Iran from 1982 to 1992.
Haji Bektash Veli was a Muslim saint, mystic, Sayyid, and philosopher whose teachings had a major impact on the Turkish itinerants of Asia Minor. In 2015, a Turkish TV series titled Yunus Emre: Aşkın Yolculuğu showcased the life and career of Haji Bektash Veli where he was played by Turkish actor Ahmet Mekin.
Ali Shariati was an Iranian sociologist and revolutionary whose work was inspired by the study of sociology of religion. Regarded as one of the 20th century's most influential Iranian intellectuals, Shariati was also a prolific writer who wrote more than 100 books such as Hubut in Kavir, Kavir, and The Philosophy of Supplication.
Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi was a Persian philosopher who founded the Iranian school of Illuminationism, an important school of thought in Islamic philosophy. He thought of himself as a reviver or resuscitator of the ancient tradition of Persian wisdom and produced his magnum opus, The Philosophy of Illumination at the age of 32.
Sibawayh was a Persian grammarian of Basra. He was the author of the earliest book on Arabic grammar and linguistics, an unnamed work simply referred to as Al-Kitāb, or "The Book." Modern scholars call him the greatest of all Arabic linguists and one of the greatest linguists of all time in any language.
Nāṣer-e Khusraw was a Persian poet, Isma'ili scholar, philosopher, and traveler. He was also widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the history of Persian literature. Among his most famous works is the Safarnama, which is widely read even today in Iran.
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani was a statesman, historian, and physician in 13th-century Iran. He was born into a Persian Jewish family and converted to Islam as a young man. He became the powerful vizier of the Ilkhan, Ghazan, and began his career as a historian as well. He was later arrested and executed on charges of poisoning the Ilkhanid king Öljaitü.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri was an Iranian Shia Islamic democracy advocate, theologian, human rights activist, and writer. An influential leader of the Iranian Revolution, Montazeri was expected to succeed the revolution's Supreme Leader Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini before having a fall out with the latter which cost him the position of the supreme leader. Hussein-Ali Montazeri is still revered in Iran.
Firishta was a Persian historian who served as the court historian for the Deccan Sultans in India. He is best remembered for his work Tarikh-i Firishta, a history of India with emphasis on Deccan dynasties' history. Firishta is often credited with throwing light on the history of the Deccan sultanates.
Shahram Amiri was an Iranian nuclear scientist who conducted research on particle physics. Amiri, who worked at the Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, disappeared under mysterious circumstances in 2009. It was later claimed that he worked as a double agent alongside the CIA. Shahram Amiri was subsequently executed by hanging by the Iranian government in 2016.
Iranian philosopher Abdolkarim Soroush, a former professor of the University of Tehran and the Imam Khomeini International University, has also taught at top-notch institutes such as Harvard and Princeton. Named to Time 100, he believes in a reformist version of Islam, with its core values intact.
Mohammad Beheshti was an Iranian philosopher, jurist, politician, and cleric. He is credited with shaping Islamic republic's administrative structure as well as Iran's post-revolution constitution. Beheshti is also credited with training many politicians in the Islamic Republic, including Mohammad Khatami, Hassan Rouhani, and Ali Akbar Velayati. Mohammad Beheshti also served as the Chief Justice of Iran from 1980 to 1981.
Aṭā Malek Joveynī was a Persian historian. He is best known for writing an account of the Mongol Empire titled Tarīkh-i Jahān-gushā (History of the World Conqueror). Like his grandfather and father before him, he served as an important state official in the Mongol court, becoming privy to confidential information unavailable to other historians.
Al-Zamakhshari was a medieval Muslim scholar of Iranian descent. A Mu'tazilite theologian, linguist, and poet, he was an interpreter of the Quran and the author of many books. In his best-known book, AlKashshaf, he interprets and linguistically analyzes Quranic expressions. He was an acclaimed teacher and students came to him from far and near.
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi was a 13th-century Persian polymath and poet. As a polymath, he made important contributions to astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine, music theory, philosophy, and Sufism. He was also known for his commentary on Hikmat al-ishraq of Suhrawardi. He practiced ophthalmology at the Mozaffari hospital in Shiraz while simultaneously pursuing his other interests.
Mohammad Javad Bahonar was a Shia Iranian politician and theologian who served as the 48th Prime Minister of Iran from 4 August 1981 until his assassination on 30 August 1981. Bahonar and other prominent members of the Mohammad-Ali Rajai government were killed by the political-militant organization, Mujahideen-e Khalq. Bahonar also served as the Minister of Education from 1980 to 1981.
Mohammad-Taqi Bahar was a renowned Iranian scholar, poet, historian, journalist, politician, and Professor of Literature. Counted among the most influential cultural icons of modern Iran, Bahar had a strong impact on the progression of modern Persian poetry and literature through his literary magazine Majaleh-ye Dāneshkadeh. Bahar is also known as the father of another great historian and mythologist Mehrdad Bahar.
Baha' al-din al-'Amili was an Arab Iranian Shia philosopher, Islamic scholar, architect, astronomer, mathematician, and poet who flourished in Safavid Iran during the late 16th and early 17th century. Baha' al-din al-'Amili was one of the first astronomers in the Islamic world to advocate the possibility of the Earth's movement before the outspread of the Copernican theory.
Miskawayh was a Persian chancery official, historian, and philosopher who lived during the Buyid era. As a Neoplatonist, Miskawayh had a significant influence on Islamic philosophy, especially in the area of moral philosophy. He is credited with authoring the first major Islamic book on moral philosophy entitled Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq or The Refinement of Character.
Abu Hanifa Dinawari was a Persian Islamic Golden Age astronomer, agriculturist, geographer, botanist, metallurgist, historian and mathematician. Thanks to his most famous work Book of Plants, Dinawari is regarded as the founder of Arabic botany.
Fairuzabadi was a 14th-century lexicographer. He was the compiler of al-Qamous, a comprehensive Arabic dictionary. It was one of the most widely used Arabic dictionaries for nearly five centuries. He was a wide traveler and had been to Jerusalem, Western Asia, and Egypt. In his later years, he converted his house into a school of Maliki law.
Fariborz Raisdana was an Iranian economist, socialist, and activist. He was also a professor and a member of the Iranian Writers' Association. After graduating from The London School of Economics, he embarked on an academic career. He criticized the Iranian subsidy reform plan in an interview with BBC Persian and was arrested because of this.
Al-Sharif al-Jurjani was a Persian traditionalist theologian and encyclopedic writer. He is credited with authoring over 50 books, 31 of which are extant. One of his best-known works, Al Taʿrīfāt, contains about 2100 definitions of Arabic terms in a glossary style. The book was edited by G Flügel and published in Cairo and St Petersburg in 1866 and 1897 respectively.
Parvin Ardalan is an Iranian writer, journalist, and leading women's rights activist. Her efforts and struggles for gender equality in Iran earned her the prestigious Olof Palme Prize in 2007. In 2012, Parvin Ardalan was granted permanent residency by the Swedish Migration Board.
Jalal al-Din al-Dawani was a Persian poet, theologian, philosopher, and jurist. He was considered one of the leading scholars in late 15th-century Iran. After completing his education, he began his military career and was appointed by the Aq Qoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan. He dedicated his later life to composing poetry and led a comfortable life, thanks to his wealthy patrons.
Hadi Sabzavari was an Iranian poet, philosopher, and mystic theologian. He lived during an era of intellectual and spiritual turmoil in the Qajar period. He received his education at the Hajj Hasan madrasa near the mausoleum of Imam Reza and began a teaching career. He wrote several works of prose and poetry in both Arabic and Persian.
Morteza Motahhari was an Iranian Twelver Shia philosopher, scholar, and lecturer. A co-founder of the Combatant Clergy Association and Hosseiniye Ershad, Motahhari had a prominent influence on the principles of the Islamic Republic. Morteza Motahhari wrote more than 50 books that dealt with philosophy and theology. In 1965, he was honored with the UNESCO Award.
Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi was a Persian Sufi master, writer, and poet. He is best remembered for authoring a collection of lyric poetry. Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi’s best known work Lama’at or Divine Flashes has been translated into Swedish, French, and English.
Al-Hamadānī was an Iranian mystic and theologian responsible for teaching and mentoring several Sufis of the Kubrawiyah order in present-day Kashmir. He traveled extensively and documented his experiences of different places. Al-Hamadānī's best known work is titled Dhakhirat al-muluk.