Omar Khayyam was a Persian polymath, mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, and poet. In the field of mathematics, he is best known for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations. As an astronomer, he designed a solar calendar known as the Jalali calendar. His philosophical attitude towards life had elements of pessimism, nihilism, Epicureanism, and fatalism.
Al-Ghazālī was a Persian Muslim polymath best remembered for his work in the fields of philosophy, theology, logic, and Sufism. Such was his popularity that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title Hujjat al-Islām during his lifetime itself. Among his other works, the Incoherence of the Philosophers is considered a landmark in the history of philosophy.
Persian polymath Nasir al-Din al-Tusi lost his jurist father in childhood and then went around as a scholar, learning subjects such as math and philosophy. He made invaluable contribution to astronomy and later served as a scientific advisor of the Mongols. One of his notable written works was Akhlaq-i Nasiri.
Mazdak was an Iranian priest, reformer, and prophet who achieved immense popularity during the reign of Kavadh I. Such was his popularity that even King Kavadh I converted to Mazdakism. A self-proclaimed prophet, Mazdak instituted social welfare programs and his teachings acquired many followers.
Mohammad Khatami is an Iranian politician who served as the President of Iran from 1997 to 2005. A respected and influential politician, Khatami advocated tolerance, freedom of expression, and civil society during his presidency. He also served as the Minister of Culture of Iran from 1982 to 1992.
Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī was a Persian polymath and Islamic scholar. He wrote influential works in the fields of cosmology, astronomy, physics, medicine, chemistry, theology, ontology, literature, history, philosophy, and jurisprudence. A person way ahead of his time, Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī was one of the earliest champions of the concept of Multiverse and argued about the actuality of the outer space.
Mulla Sadra was a Persian Twelver Shi'i Islamic mystic and philosopher. He was also an Alim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. He is considered one of the most influential philosophers in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. He tried to prove the idea of Unity of Existence through his works.
Haji Bektash Veli was a Muslim saint, mystic, Sayyid, and philosopher whose teachings had a major impact on the Turkish itinerants of Asia Minor. In 2015, a Turkish TV series titled Yunus Emre: Aşkın Yolculuğu showcased the life and career of Haji Bektash Veli where he was played by Turkish actor Ahmet Mekin.
Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi was a Persian philosopher who founded the Iranian school of Illuminationism, an important school of thought in Islamic philosophy. He thought of himself as a reviver or resuscitator of the ancient tradition of Persian wisdom and produced his magnum opus, The Philosophy of Illumination at the age of 32.
Nāṣer-e Khusraw was a Persian poet, Isma'ili scholar, philosopher, and traveler. He was also widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the history of Persian literature. Among his most famous works is the Safarnama, which is widely read even today in Iran.
Iranian philosopher Abdolkarim Soroush, a former professor of the University of Tehran and the Imam Khomeini International University, has also taught at top-notch institutes such as Harvard and Princeton. Named to Time 100, he believes in a reformist version of Islam, with its core values intact.
Mohammad Beheshti was an Iranian philosopher, jurist, politician, and cleric. He is credited with shaping Islamic republic's administrative structure as well as Iran's post-revolution constitution. Beheshti is also credited with training many politicians in the Islamic Republic, including Mohammad Khatami, Hassan Rouhani, and Ali Akbar Velayati. Mohammad Beheshti also served as the Chief Justice of Iran from 1980 to 1981.
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi was a 13th-century Persian polymath and poet. As a polymath, he made important contributions to astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine, music theory, philosophy, and Sufism. He was also known for his commentary on Hikmat al-ishraq of Suhrawardi. He practiced ophthalmology at the Mozaffari hospital in Shiraz while simultaneously pursuing his other interests.
Baha' al-din al-'Amili was an Arab Iranian Shia philosopher, Islamic scholar, architect, astronomer, mathematician, and poet who flourished in Safavid Iran during the late 16th and early 17th century. Baha' al-din al-'Amili was one of the first astronomers in the Islamic world to advocate the possibility of the Earth's movement before the outspread of the Copernican theory.
Miskawayh was a Persian chancery official, historian, and philosopher who lived during the Buyid era. As a Neoplatonist, Miskawayh had a significant influence on Islamic philosophy, especially in the area of moral philosophy. He is credited with authoring the first major Islamic book on moral philosophy entitled Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq or The Refinement of Character.
Morteza Motahhari was an Iranian Twelver Shia philosopher, scholar, and lecturer. A co-founder of the Combatant Clergy Association and Hosseiniye Ershad, Motahhari had a prominent influence on the principles of the Islamic Republic. Morteza Motahhari wrote more than 50 books that dealt with philosophy and theology. In 1965, he was honored with the UNESCO Award.
Jalal al-Din al-Dawani was a Persian poet, theologian, philosopher, and jurist. He was considered one of the leading scholars in late 15th-century Iran. After completing his education, he began his military career and was appointed by the Aq Qoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan. He dedicated his later life to composing poetry and led a comfortable life, thanks to his wealthy patrons.
Hadi Sabzavari was an Iranian poet, philosopher, and mystic theologian. He lived during an era of intellectual and spiritual turmoil in the Qajar period. He received his education at the Hajj Hasan madrasa near the mausoleum of Imam Reza and began a teaching career. He wrote several works of prose and poetry in both Arabic and Persian.
Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi was a Persian Sufi master, writer, and poet. He is best remembered for authoring a collection of lyric poetry. Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi’s best known work Lama’at or Divine Flashes has been translated into Swedish, French, and English.