Famous German Monarchs & Rulers

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Find out more about the greatest German monarchs & rulers, including Frederick The Great, Ferdinand II, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Frederick William III of Prussia
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 1 
Charlemagne
(1st Emperor of the Romans from 800 to 814)
Charlemagne
53
Birthdate: April 2, 0747
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Aachen, Germany
Died: January 28, 0814

Also known as Charles the Great, Charlemagne ruled as the king of the Franks, king of the Lombards, and emperor of the Romans at different time periods. Not surprisingly, he had a major impact during the Early Middle Ages as he went about uniting the majority of central and western Europe, for which he is called the Father of Europe.

 2 
Frederick The Great
(Former King of Prussia (1740 - 1786))
Frederick The Great
17
Birthdate: January 24, 1712
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: August 17, 1786
Prussian king Frederick II, also known as Frederick the Great and The Old Fritz, was the longest-reigning Hohenzollern king. He is known for his involvement in the Silesian Wars and the Partitions of Poland. He also supported art and culture, and reformed the judicial system of Prussia.
 3 
Wilhelm II
(German Emperor and King of Prussia (1888 - 1918))
Wilhelm II
53
Birthdate: January 27, 1859
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: June 4, 1941

Wilhelm II reigned as the King of Prussia and German emperor from 1888 to 1918. He is credited with promoting scientific innovation and building a blue-water navy, which strengthened Germany’s position as a great power. However, he was also responsible for getting his country involved in World War I, which eventually brought an end to the Hohenzollern dynasty’s rule.

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 4 
George I of Great Britain
(Former King of Great Britain and Ireland (1714 - 1727))
George I of Great Britain
17
Birthdate: May 28, 1660
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Hanover, Germany
Died: June 11, 1727
George I ruled as the king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727. He also ruled the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1698 to 1727. He was the House of Hanover’s first British monarch. George's reign witnessed the rise of Robert Walpole and the cabinet government. 
 5 
Frederick III, German Emperor
(Former German Emperor and King of Prussia (1888))
Frederick III, German Emperor
8
Birthdate: October 18, 1831
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Potsdam, Germany
Died: June 15, 1888

Frederick III, German Emperor reigned as the king of Prussia and emperor of the German Empire from 9 March 1888 until his death on 15 June 1888. Although he played key roles during the Austro-Prussian, Second Schleswig, and Franco-Prussian wars, Frederick professed hatred for warfare and was willing to make the German Empire more liberal before his untimely death.

 6 
Leopold I of Belgium
(First King of the Belgians (1831 - 1865))
Leopold I of Belgium
8
Birthdate: December 16, 1790
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Coburg, Germany
Died: December 10, 1865
Leopold I, the youngest son of Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was the first king of Belgium and reigned from 1831 to 1865. He fought against Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars. He rejected the throne of Greece. His reign is known for establishing Belgium's first railway and for its modernization.
 7 
Wilhelm I
(King)
Wilhelm I
8
Birthdate: March 22, 1797
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: March 9, 1888
 8 
Louis The Pious
(King of Aquitaine, King of Franks & Co-Emperor (Holy Roman Empire))
Louis The Pious
7
Birthdate: April 16, 0778
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Chasseneuil-du-Poitou
Died: June 20, 0840
Son of Charlemagne, Louis The Pious, became the king of Aquitaine at age 3. He crowned himself the emperor of the Franks immediately after his father’s death. His reign was riddled with three civil wars, while his death caused another civil war, which finally culminated in the Treaty of Verdun.
 9 
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (962 - 973))
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
6
Birthdate: November 23, 0912
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Wallhausen, Germany
Died: May 7, 0973

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, known for his ruthlessness, not only united the German empire by crushing all rebellious vassals, but also put an end to the attacks by the Magyars of Hungary. His strategy of making the German bishops feudal lords helped his cause of stabilizing his empire.

 10 
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1745 - 1765))
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: December 8, 1708
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Nancy, France
Died: August 18, 1765
Married to Maria Theresa, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, was often outshone by his wife. Their marriage was a political step of Maria’s father, Emperor Charles VI. An art connoisseur, Francis was not as much interested in the administrative affairs of his kingdom as he was in the cultural aspects.
 11 
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1433 - 1437))
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: February 14, 1368
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Nuremberg, Germany
Died: December 9, 1437

Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the king of Hungary and Croatia from 1387 to 1437. He also served as the king of Germany, king of Bohemia, king of Italy, and emperor of the Romans. Sigismund is best remembered for playing a key role in bringing about the Council of Constance, which ended the Papal Schism.   

 12 
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1806 - 1826))
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
5
Birthdate: January 2, 1784
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Coburg, Germany
Died: January 29, 1844

Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha reigned as the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld from 9 December 1806 to 12 November 1826. He oversaw the construction of many projects, including a court theatre, in Coburg. Ernest is also remembered for the educational, constitutional, and economic development of his territories.

 13 
Frederick William I of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1713 - 1740))
Frederick William I of Prussia
3
Birthdate: August 14, 1688
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: May 31, 1740

The Soldier King Frederick William I of Prussia is remembered for transforming his nation into a prosperous state. He was known for his simple lifestyle, as opposed to his father’s kingly excesses. His experience at the War of the Spanish Succession led him to strengthen Prussia militarily, too.

 14 
Charles the Fat
(Emperor of the Carolingian Empire)
Charles the Fat
3
Birthdate: June 13, 0839
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Donaueschingen, Germany
Died: January 13, 0888

Charles the Fat reigned as the emperor of the Carolingian Empire between 881 and 887. During the same time period, he also served as the king of West Francia and Aquitaine, king of Italy, and king of East Francia and Alemannia. Although he was considered lethargic, Charles managed to reunite the entire Carolingian Empire after inheriting all of West Francia.

 15 
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1155 - 1190))
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
6
Birthdate: 1122 AD
Birthplace: Haguenau, France
Died: June 17, 1190
Frederick Barbarossa, or Frederick I, reigned as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 to 1190. He had been the king of Germany and the king of Burgundy, too, and had earned the name Barbarossa for his red beard. He died while fighting in the Third Crusade in 1190.
 16 
Ludwig II of Bavaria
(King of Bavaria (1864 - 1886))
Ludwig II of Bavaria
11
Birthdate: August 25, 1845
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Germany
Died: June 13, 1886

Ludwig II of Bavaria reigned as the King of Bavaria from 10 March 1864 until his death on 13 June 1886. He is best remembered for overseeing the construction of lavish palaces like Linderhof Palace, Neuschwanstein Castle, and Herrenchiemsee. This extravagance brought about his downfall as he was declared insane, which remains a subject of discussion.

William I, German Emperor
6
Birthdate: March 22, 1797
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: March 9, 1888

William I, German Emperor reigned as the king of Prussia from 1861 until his death in 1888. He also reigned as the first German emperor from 1871 to 1888. He is credited with overseeing the unification of Germany and establishing the German Empire. William's reign also witnessed the brilliance of Otto von Bismarck, who served as the former's minister president.

 18 
Ernest II
(Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)
Ernest II
8
Birthdate: June 21, 1818
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Coburg, Germany
Died: August 22, 1893

Ernest II, the eldest son of Duke Ernest I, had been the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was quite close to his brother, Prince Albert, consort to England’s Queen Victoria. Best known for his support of the German unification, he was also a skilled composer of operas and an avid sports lover.

 19 
Frederick William II of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1786 - 1797))
Frederick William II of Prussia
3
Birthdate: September 25, 1744
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Berlin Palace, Berlin
Died: November 16, 1797

Though he wasn’t a politically experienced ruler, Frederick William II’s reign as the king of Prussia proved to be beneficial for the country in terms of expansion. However, his excesses and his affinity for Protestantism made him unpopular. He patronized art and culture and even played the cello.

 20 
George V of Hanover
(Former King of Hanover (1851 - 1866))
George V of Hanover
3
Birthdate: May 27, 1819
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: June 12, 1878

Though completely blind since childhood, George V of Hanover, the only son of King Ernest Augustus, exerted his influence by constantly being at conflict with the Hanoverian parliament. His rejected of Prussia’s demands of unarmed neutrality led to Prussia’s invasion of Hanover. He spent his final years in exile.

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: November 11, 1050
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Goslar
Died: August 7, 1106
 22 
Frederick I of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1701 - 1713))
Frederick I of Prussia
3
Birthdate: June 11, 1676
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Königsberg, Germany
Died: February 25, 1713

Frederick I of Prussia reigned as the King of Prussia from 1701 until his death in 1713. He crowned himself in 1701 in Königsberg and proclaimed himself King in Prussia. A patron of learning and arts, Frederick I is credited with founding the Academy of Arts in 1696 as well as the Academy of Sciences in 1700.

 23 
Frederick William IV of Prussia
(Former King of Prussia (1840 - 1861))
Frederick William IV of Prussia
3
Birthdate: October 15, 1795
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: January 2, 1861

Frederick William IV of Prussia was the King of Prussia from 1840 until his death in 1861.  He was the eldest son of Frederick William III of Prussia and his wife, Queen Louise. He was a staunch Romanticist and was a patron of several great German artists. He ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 1840.

 24 
Edmund the Martyr
3
Birthdate: 0841 AD
Birthplace: Nuremberg, Germany
Died: November 28, 0869
 25 
Augustus II the Strong
(Elector of Saxony)
Augustus II the Strong
3
Birthdate: May 12, 1670
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dresden, Germany
Died: February 1, 1733
 26 
Frederick William III of Prussia
(King of Prussia (1797 - 1840))
Frederick William III of Prussia
3
Birthdate: August 3, 1770
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Potsdam, Germany
Died: June 7, 1840

The son of Frederick William II, Prussian king Frederick William III mostly kept himself aloof from important decisions. He also hampered Prussia’s image by maintaining neutrality in the Wars of the Second and Third Coalitions. He mostly remained under the shadow of his wife, Queen Louise.

 27 
Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoleon
7
Birthdate: July 11, 1986
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Saint-Raphaël, Var, France
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: August 6, 1697
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Brussels
Died: January 20, 1745
Louis, Prince Napoleon
4
Birthdate: January 23, 1914
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Brussels, Kingdom of Belgium
Died: May 3, 1997
 30 
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: September 21, 1415
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Innsbruck, Austria
Died: August 19, 1493

Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 to 1493. He also ruled as the king of the Romans from 1440 until his death in 1493. Although he struggled to make prompt decisions, for which he was mocked during his lifetime, Frederick is now widely regarded as an effective ruler.

 31 
Henry I of Germany
3
Birthdate: 0876 AD
Birthplace: Memleben
Died: July 2, 0936
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria
4
Birthdate: February 26, 1861
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: September 10, 1948
 33 
Ludwig III of Bavaria
(Last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918)
Ludwig III of Bavaria
3
Birthdate: January 7, 1845
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: October 18, 1921
 34 
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
(Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia)
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
3
Birthdate: February 16, 1620
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: April 29, 1688
 35 
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: August 11, 1086
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Goslar, Germany
Died: May 23, 1125
 36 
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
(monarch, writer, composer)
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: 1165
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Nijmegen
Died: September 28, 1197

Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was the Holy Roman Emperor in the 12th century. He was also the king of Germany and of Sicily, the latter through his marriage to Constance I. He failed in his attempt to make the crown of the Holy Roman Emperor a hereditary monarchy.

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
3
Birthdate: May 6, 0973
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Bad Abbach, Germany
Died: July 13, 1024
Augustus III of Poland
3
Birthdate: October 17, 1696
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Dresden, Germany
Died: October 5, 1763
 39 
Cerdic
(King of Wessex)
Cerdic
3
Birthdate: 0467 AD
Birthplace: Germany
Died: 0534 AD
 40 
Otto of Bavaria
3
Birthdate: April 27, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany
Died: October 11, 1916
Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: April 1, 1282
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: October 11, 1347
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: October 28, 1017
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Died: October 5, 1056
 43 
Christian I of Denmark
4
Birthdate: 1426
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Oldenburg, Germany
Died: May 21, 1481
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 0980
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kessel, Germany
Died: January 23, 1002
Rudolph I of Habsburg
2
Birthdate: May 1, 1218
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Breisgau
Died: July 15, 1291
Louis II, Prince of Monaco
3
Birthdate: July 12, 1870
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Baden, Grand Duchy of Baden
Died: May 9, 1949
 47 
Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
(Former Holy Roman Emperor)
Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 1175 AD
Birthplace: Braunschweig
Died: May 19, 1218
 48 
Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman emperor)
Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 0990 AD
Birthplace: Speyer, Germany
Died: June 4, 1039
Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 1273 AD
Birthplace: Valenciennes, France
Died: August 24, 1313
 50 
Louis the German
(First king of East Francia, and ruled from 843 to 876 AD)
Louis the German
3
Birthdate: 0806 AD
Birthplace: Francia
Died: August 28, 0876