Maimonides was a Sephardic Jewish philosopher. He went on to become one of the most important Torah scholars of the Middle Ages. He was also a respected physician and served as the personal physician of the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, Saladin. His work The Mishneh Torah is considered one of the main authoritative codifications of Jewish ethics and law.
Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria was perhaps the first to use allegory to fuse Jewish scriptures with Greek philosophy. Though not much is known about his life, it is believed Philo was a lover of theater, boxing contests, and lavish dinners. His written works showcase the development of Hellenistic Judaism.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi was an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar. An important influencer in the Muslim world, Al-Qaradawi is best remembered for his program, Sharia and Life. In addition to authoring over 120 books, Yusuf al-Qaradawi also helped found a website known as IslamOnline. Al-Qaradawi is often counted among the most influential Islamic scholars of his generation.
A prominent Islamic religious scholar from Egypt, Muhammad Abduh became the Grand Mufti, or an Islamic legal counselor, of his country. Known for his writings such as Risālat al-tawḥīd, he aimed at reforming Islam and ridding it of dogma and rigidity. He also avoided the literalization of the Quran.
Ahmed el-Tayeb is an Egyptian scholar who is currently serving as the Grand Imam of al-Azhar. Al-Tayeb served as the Grand Mufti of Egypt from 2002 to 2003 and then served as the President of Al-Azhar University from 2003 to 2010. Widely regarded as an important and influential leader of the Sunni Muslim community, Ahmed el-Tayeb has received several awards.
Ibn al-Farid was an Arab poet whose poetry is regarded as the peak of Arabic mystical verse. He is also credited with composing the longest mystical poem in Arabic. Some of Ibn al-Farid's poems are still revered by Sufis and other dutiful Muslims around the world.
Abdel Rahman Badawi was an Egyptian philosopher, poet, and professor of philosophy. An exponent of existentialism, Badawi has been regarded as the most important master of Arab existentialism. He wrote over 150 books, including 75 encyclopaedic works. In addition to writing in several languages, Abdel Rahman Badawi also taught at institutions like Ain Shams University and Kuwait University.