Otto von Habsburg was the son of Charles I, the last emperor of Austria. A staunch opponent of Nazism, he called for the unification and integration of Europe. He had been a European Parliament member and spearheaded the Pan-European Picnic at the Austrian-Hungarian border during the 1989 revolution.
While he claimed he studied at the University of Vienna during World War II, documents recovered later suggested that Kurt Waldheim was in fact part of the German army in the Balkans. Waldheim later became the president of Austria and the secretary-general of the United Nations.
Son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat father and a Japanese mother, Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi, also known as Aoyama Eijiro in Japan, grew up to be a skilled politician and established the Pan-European Union. He was the first to receive the Charlemagne Prize and also had citizenships of Czechoslovakia and France.
One of the most powerful leaders of the 20th century, Adolf Hitler was a German dicator whose policies started the WWII that resulted in the death of millions of people. He had a visceral hatred for Jews and during his regime nearly six million Jews were killed in Holocaust.
Prince Eugene of Savoy was a field marshal who served in the army of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty and of the Holy Roman Empire. One of the most influential military commanders of his generation, Prince Eugene served three Holy Roman emperors in a career spanning 60 years. Consequently, he played important roles in many battles, including the Battle of Turin.
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the King of the Romans and as the King in Germany between 1576 and 1612. Best remembered as an intellectual aficionado of occult arts, Rudolf is often seen as the founding father of the Scientific Revolution. He devoted his time to astrology and alchemy in an attempt to find the Philosopher's Stone.
Georg von Trapp, or Captain von Trapp, was an Austrian naval officer who led the Trapp Family Singers, the family that inspired the play and the film The Sound of Music. An able military man, he had also been part of World War II and was knighted by the Austrian government.
Engelbert Dollfuss was an Austrian politician best remembered for his service as Chancellor of Austria from 1932 to 1934. In 1933, Dollfuss assumed dictatorial powers after dissolving the parliament. He then went on to ban the Austrian Nazi Party and strengthened his own political organization, The Fatherland Front. Engelbert Dollfuss was assassinated by Nazi agents in 1934.
The son of Archduke Otto von Habsburg, Karl von Habsburg was initially banished from Austria along with his family. Not only has he served the military but he has also been the president of the Pan-European Union. He has also represented Austria in the European Parliament.
Franz Jägerstätter was an Austrian conscientious objector who served during the Second World War. He opposed the Nazis and refused to fight for Nazi Germany during the war. He was executed for his stance against Nazi Germany and was later declared a martyr by the Catholic Church.
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria was the younger brother of both Maximilian I of Mexico and Franz Joseph I of Austria. Ludwig is remembered as the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria whose assassination in Sarajevo is widely regarded as the most immediate cause of the First World War. Ludwig's grandson Charles I was the last emperor of Austria.
Kurt Schuschnigg was an Austrian politician who served as the Chancellor of Austria from 1934 to 1938. He opposed the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany for which he was arrested in 1938. Schuschnigg was liberated by the US Army in 1945 post which he moved to the USA where he started working as a professor at Saint Louis University.
Eleonore von Habsburg is an Austrian gemologist, jewelry designer, and one of the most popular members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Renowned for her good looks, Habsburg is also known for her work as a fashion model. Apart from walking the runway for popular brands like Dolce & Gabbana, Eleonore von Habsburg has also been featured in many advertisement campaigns.
Apart from serving as the Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor also served as the Archduke of Austria, King of Croatia and Hungary, and King of Bohemia between 1612 and 1619. His reign resulted in the Bohemian Revolt, which was the initial theatre of the famous Thirty Years War.
Emperor Leopold I’s eldest son, Joseph I became the king of Hungary at the tender age of 9 and the king of Romans at 11. Though he strengthened Austria’s financial situation, bringing the Viennese city bank under the state, he failed to retain the Spanish crown for the Habsburg Monarchy.
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, son of Emperor Leopold II, was a major force behind strengthening the Austrian army in early 19th century. He is remembered for his exploits in the French Revolutionary Wars. Though initially successful in the Napoleonic Wars, he was defeated in the Battle of Wagram.
The son of an Austrian army lieutenant, Odilo Globocnik was initially a builder and joined the Nazi Party later. Known as one of the most prominent perpetrators of the ethnic cleansing of Jews during the Holocaust, he headed Operation Reinhard. After being captured, he committed suicide by consuming cyanide.
24 Karl Radek
Austrian Communist International leader Karl Radek had been imprisoned for a year for his association with the Russian Revolution. Born Karol Sobelsohn, he changed his name to Radek, after a character in the book Syzyfowe prace. He lost his life during the Great Purge initiated by Joseph Stalin.
25 Amon Goeth
Amon Goeth was an Austrian war criminal and SS functionary. During World War II, Goeth served as the commandant of the Płaszów concentration camp operated by the SS. After the war, he was convicted of homicide and was executed by hanging. Amon Goeth was played by Ralph Fiennes in the 1993 epic historical drama film Schindler's List.
Austrian-Hungarian conservative propagandist Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf was also one of the country’s greatest military strategists. He designed the Habsburg Empire’s campaigns at World War I. Known as a ruthless army man, he was often criticized for discounting the human factors. He also penned two autobiographies after the war.
Joseph Radetzky von Radetz had almost become a national hero in Austria for his military successes. Known as Vater, or Father Radetzky, in the army circle, the field marshal had also served as the Habsburg Empire’s chief of the general staff. One of his iconic victories was at the Battle of Custoza.
Archduke Franz Karl of Austria is best remembered as the father of Maximilian I of Mexico and Franz Joseph I of Austria who served as the emperors of the Second Mexican Empire and Austria respectively. Karl is also remembered as the grandfather of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria whose murder is considered the most immediate cause of World War I.
29 Jörg Haider
Jörg Haider was an Austrian politician best remembered for his work as the Governor of Carinthia. A controversial figure, Haider is known to have visited Saddam Hussein just before the start of the 2003 Iraq War. On 11 October 2008, Jörg Haider died in a car accident, at the age of 58.
30 Karl Lueger
Remembered for establishing the Austrian Christian Social Party, Karl Lueger had been the mayor of Vienna and was the man behind modernizing the city. Hailing from a working-class family, he had initially studied law. His views are often termed anti-Semitic and were praised by Hitler in Mein Kampf.
Polish military general Józef Antoni Poniatowski was initially part of the Austrian army and was later drafted into the Polish army on the instructions of his uncle, King Stanisław II August Poniatowski. Best remembered for his exploits in the Napoleonic Wars, he was later made a marshal but drowned after being wounded.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner was an SS official who played a major role in the Holocaust during the Nazi era. From 1943 to 1945, Kaltenbrunner served as chief of the Reich Main Security Office, which housed the offices of SD, Kripo, and Gestapo. His most influential period as an SS official coincided with the period during which the genocide of Jews intensified.
33 Karl Renner
Remembered as the Father of the Republic in Austria, Karl Renner led his country as its third president. Previously, he had also led the first Austrian republic. Born into a humble family of wine-growers, he studied law and began his political career with the SDAP.
Apart from being a dental technician, Heinz-Christian Strache has also been a prominent politician of Austria. He had not just chaired the far-right Freedom Party but had also served as the Vice Chancellor of his country. He was later found guilty of corruption, in relation to illegal donations to his party.
The second son of Austrian-Hungarian emperor Charles I, or Karl I, Robert, received the title Archduke of Austria-Este from his father at age 2. He also became the heir to Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose killing in Sarajevo is still considered the trigger that prompted World War I.
At 72, Bruno Kreisky ended his term as the oldest chancellor of Austria in the post-World War II era. The Social Democratic Party leader had been a doctor of law and had worked as a journalist, too. His 13-year stint as a chancellor was the longest-ever in republican Austria.
The daughter of prominent social psychologist Wolfgang Wagner, Pamela Rendi-Wagner is a renowned physician who specializes in tropical medicine and infectious diseases. She created history as the first women to chair the Social Democratic Party. She has also led the public health department of the Austrian government.
Austrian politician Heinz Fischer has not just served as the president of his country but has also presided over the National Council. While he initially studied law and also taught political science, he later represented the Social Democratic Party and eventually became an independent politician.
One of the three men who founded the iconic automobile company BMW, Franz Josef Popp was an Austrian engineer. He spearheaded innovative projects such as the production of air-cooled radial engines. Though he later joined the Nazi Party, he was warned for allowing a Jewish doctor treat his family.
While Werner Faymann initially studied law, he later began his political career chairing Socialist Youth Vienna. He has led Austria as its Chancellor and as the minister of transport, innovation, and technology. He has also been a UN special envoy for Youth Unemployment. He invited strong criticism after resigning from politics.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart was an Austrian politician who was part of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. A Nazi propagandist, Seyss-Inquart was convicted of crimes against humanity and war crimes at the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to death. He was executed on 16 October 1946 in Nuremberg Prison.
An Austro-Hungarian field marshal, Archduke Joseph August of Austria was born into the aristocratic family of Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria. A 72-carat diamond named after him is considered the world’s 12-largest diamond and was once owned by him. He was also associated with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Austrian field marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, is best remembered for his exploits in the Napoleonic Wars. He was a prominent part of the Allied forces that defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Leipzig and led to his abdication. He had also been Austria’s ambassador to Russia.