Famous 19th Century Psychiatrists

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 1 
Carl Jung
(Psychiatrist)
Carl Jung
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Birthdate: July 26, 1875
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Kesswil, Switzerland
Died: June 6, 1961

Widely regarded as the father of analytical psychology, Carl Jung is one of the most important contributors to symbolization and dream analysis. The concepts of socionics and a popular psychometric instrument called Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were developed from Jung's theory. Apart from working as a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, Carl Jung was also an artist, craftsman, builder, and prolific writer.

 2 
Alfred Adler
(Psychotherapist)
Alfred Adler
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Birthdate: February 7, 1870
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus, Vienna, Austria
Died: May 28, 1937

Alfred Adler was an Austrian psychotherapist and medical doctor. He is credited with founding the school of individual psychology. He was also one of the founders of the psychoanalytic movement along with Sigmund Freud and Freud's colleagues. In 2002, a survey conducted by Review of General Psychology named Adler among the 20th century's most eminent psychologists.

 3 
Alois Alzheimer
(Psychiatrist, Neuropathologist)
Alois Alzheimer
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Birthdate: June 14, 1864
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Marktbreit
Died: December 19, 1915

German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer is noted for identifying the first published case of presenile dementia, which his colleague and German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin later identified as Alzheimer's disease.  Alois publicly discussed his findings on brain pathology and symptoms of presenile dementia in late-1906 and penned a larger paper giving details of the disease and his findings in 1907.

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 4 
Hermann Rorschach
(Swiss psychiatrist)
Hermann Rorschach
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Birthdate: November 8, 1884
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Zurich, Switzerland
Died: April 1, 1922

Remembered for inventing the inkblot test to uncover the hidden traits of a subject’s personality, known as the Rorschach test, Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach was born to an art teacher in Zürich and had thus wished to be an artist initially. His Rorschach test was later criticized for its subjectivity.

 5 
Immanuel Velikovsky
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Birthdate: June 10, 1895
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Vitebsk
Died: November 17, 1979

Immanuel Velikovsky is remembered for his concepts such as cosmogony. He initially studied medicine and psychology, and later devoted his life to his research on ancient myths and legends, attempting to establish their historical authenticity. In spite of facing the hostility of scientists, his Worlds in Collision became a bestseller.

 6 
Emil Kraepelin
(Psychiatrist)
Emil Kraepelin
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Birthdate: February 15, 1856
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Neustrelitz, Germany
Died: October 7, 1926

The son of a musician, Emil Kraepelin, remembered as the founder of psychiatry, was the first to differentiate between dementia praecox, now known as schizophrenia, and manic-depressive psychosis. His classification of mental illnesses influenced much of the research on the subject in the 20th century.

 7 
Fritz Perls
(Psychologist, Psychiatrist)
Fritz Perls
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Birthdate: July 8, 1893
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Berlin
Died: March 14, 1970

Fritz Perls initially fought in World War I, following which he treated brain injuries of soldiers. He was later drawn to Freudian psychoanalysis. During World War II, he was the psychiatrist for the South African military. His Gestalt therapy, which he co-created with his wife, Laura, redefined psychology.

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 8 
Josef Breuer
(Physician, Psychologist, University teacher, Psychiatrist)
Josef Breuer
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Birthdate: January 15, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: June 20, 1925

Psychoanalyst and physician Josef Breuer inspired what later came to be known as Sigmund Freud’s cathartic method to treat mental ailments. His experiments with his patient Anna O. proved the therapeutic effect of the talking cure. He had also conducted research on the respiratory cycle and discovered the Hering-Breuer reflex.

 9 
Richard von Krafft-Ebing
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Birthdate: August 14, 1840
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Mannheim, Germany
Died: December 22, 1902

Known for his ground-breaking research on sexual psychopathology, German psychologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing worked on varied subjects such as sexual aberration and hypnosis. His Psychopathia Sexualis was one of the first written works that discussed LGBT sex and also spoke about taboo topics such as sadism, necrophilia, and masochism.

 10 
Eugen Bleuler
(Psychiatrist, Physician, University teacher)
Eugen Bleuler
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Birthdate: April 30, 1857
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Zollikon
Died: July 15, 1939
One of the most prolific psychiatrists of his time, Eugen Bleuler is known as the man who introduced the term schizophrenia. He also introduced autism and ambivalence as 2 concepts required for the study of schizophrenia. His Textbook of Psychiatry became a staple in classes of psychiatry
 11 
John Langdon Down
(Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist)
John Langdon Down
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Birthdate: November 18, 1828
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Torpoint
Died: October 7, 1896

British doctor John Langdon Down was pushed to assist at his father’s shop at 14. He gained an interest in medicine after apprenticing with a London surgeon. A pioneer in the treatment of mentally challenged patients, he is remembered for his study of what is now known as Down syndrome.

 12 
Kurt Schneider
(Military physician, Psychologist, Psychiatrist, University teacher)
Kurt Schneider
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Birthdate: January 7, 1887
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Crailsheim
Died: October 27, 1967

Chiefly known for his works on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider published many papers on the subject, creating a list of the psychotic symptoms, today known as Schneiderian First-Rank Symptoms, to differentiate it from other forms of mental disorder. He also made significant contributions to personality disorders, coining term like endogenous depression and reactive depression.

 13 
Fredric Wertham
(Psychologist, Psychiatrist)
Fredric Wertham
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Birthdate: March 20, 1895
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: New York City
Died: November 18, 1981
 14 
Harry Stack Sullivan
(Psychiatrist, Psychotherapist, Psychologist)
Harry Stack Sullivan
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Birthdate: February 21, 1892
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: New York City
Died: January 14, 1949
 15 
Leo Kanner
(Psychiatrist)
Leo Kanner
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Birthdate: June 13, 1896
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Klekotiv, Ukraine
Died: April 3, 1981
 16 
Georges Gilles de la Tourette
(Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist)
Georges Gilles de la Tourette
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Birthdate: October 30, 1857
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers
Died: May 26, 1904
 17 
Otto Gross
(Psychiatrist, Psychanalyst, Physician)
Otto Gross
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Birthdate: March 17, 1877
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Gniebing-Weißenbach
Died: February 13, 1920

Born to renowned criminologist Hans Gross, Otto Gross initially worked with his father but later deviated to depth psychology. It is believed, he was a liberal drug user and an advocate of polyamory. He apparently allowed his wife to have sexual relationships with other men, often participating as an observer.

 18 
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
(Physician, Politician, Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Professor)
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
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Birthdate: March 7, 1857
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Wels
Died: September 27, 1940

Nobel Prize-winning Austrian psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Jauregg is best known for revolutionizing medical science by partially treating general paresis through artificial induction of malaria. He paved the path for shock therapy and fever therapy to treat mental ailments. He also studied thyroid and ovarian issues. He later became a Nazi sympathizer.

 19 
Carl Wernicke
(Anatomist, Physician, Neuroscientist, Psychiatrist, University teacher, Neurologist)
Carl Wernicke
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Birthdate: May 15, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tarnowskie Góry
Died: June 15, 1905

German neurologist, pathologist, and anatomist Carl Wernicke is best remembered for his extensive work on the various types of aphasia, or disorders that hinder the ability to speak or write. He also distinguished between motor aphasia and sensory aphasia, or what is now known as Wernicke's aphasia.

 20 
Sándor Ferenczi
(Psychanalyst, Psychiatrist, Non-fiction writer, Neurologist)
Sándor Ferenczi
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Birthdate: July 7, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Miskolc
Died: May 22, 1933

Sándor Ferenczi is best remembered for his research on free association and the psychoanalytic theory. Initially an army doctor, he specialized in subjects such as neuropathology and hypnosis. He was also close to Sigmund Freud and later taught at the University of Budapest. He also established the Hungarian Psychoanalytic Society.

 21 
Axel Munthe
(Medical Doctor)
Axel Munthe
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Birthdate: October 31, 1857
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Oskarshamn, Sweden
Died: February 11, 1949
 22 
Jacob L. Moreno
(Psychiatrist)
Jacob L. Moreno
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Birthdate: May 18, 1889
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Bucharest
Died: May 14, 1974

Romanian-American psychiatrist Jacob L. Moreno is best remembered for introducing the concept of psychodrama, consisting of role-play exercises and dramatizations by patients, as a therapeutic method to cure mental ailments. He also pioneered group psychotherapy, introduced the study of social networks, and coined the terms sociometry and sociatry.

 23 
W. H. R. Rivers
(British Anthropologist, Neurologist, Ethnologist and Psychiatrist, Best Known for His Work Treating First World War Officers)
W. H. R. Rivers
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Birthdate: March 12, 1864
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chatham, Kent, England
Died: June 4, 1922

English anthropologist and psychologist W. H. R. Rivers is best remembered for his work on the Todas of the Nilgiri Hills. A qualified physician, he also taught at Cambridge and worked extensively on medical psychology. One of his best-known works is Kinship and Social Organisation.

 24 
Max Nordau
(Co-founder of World Zionist Organization)
Max Nordau
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Birthdate: July 29, 1849
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Pest, Budapest, Hungary
Died: January 23, 1923

Hungarian physician and author Max Nordau was the son of a rabbi. After practicing medicine in Budapest for a while, he went to Paris and began writing for Neue Freie Presse. A major figure behind the Zionist Organization, he penned The Conventional Lies of Our Civilization, which was banned in several countries.

Jean-Étienne-Dominique Esquirol
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Birthdate: February 3, 1772
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Toulouse, France
Died: December 12, 1840
 26 
Ernst Kretschmer
(Psychiatrist)
Ernst Kretschmer
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Birthdate: October 8, 1888
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Wüstenrot, Germany
Died: February 8, 1964

German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer believed that mental illnesses and personality traits could be linked to the types of bodies people possess. He treated hysteria patients as a military doctor in World War I. Though he opposed the Nazi regime, he stayed in Germany throughout World War II.

Karl Augustus Menninger
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Birthdate: July 22, 1893
Sun Sign: Cancer
Died: July 18, 1990
 28 
Heinrich Hoffmann
(German physician and writer)
Heinrich Hoffmann
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Birthdate: June 13, 1809
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Died: September 20, 1894

A qualified physician and psychiatrist, Heinrich Hoffmann managed the state mental hospital of Frankfurt on Main. However, he is best known as an author of children’s books and for his creation Struwwelpeter, or Slovenly Peter, a character with a naughty personality and a weird appearance, initially created for his son.

 29 
Adolf Meyer
(Psychiatrist)
Adolf Meyer
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Birthdate: September 13, 1866
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Niederweningen, Switzerland
Died: March 17, 1950

Swiss-born American psychiatrist Adolf Meyer is best remembered for introducing the concept of ergasiology, or psychobiology. Not only was he associated with the Johns Hopkins Hospital throughout his life, but he also led the American Psychiatric Association as its president. He was also a pioneering figure in occupational therapy.

 30 
Rudolf Dreikurs
(Psychiatrist)
Rudolf Dreikurs
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Birthdate: February 8, 1897
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: May 25, 1972

Austrian psychiatrist Rudolf Dreikurs was influenced by Alfred Adler’s individual psychology and used it to understand children’s behavior. He suggested that children misbehave if they feel they don’t belong to their social group, such as a classroom. He later established the Alfred Adler Institutes in the U.S. and Israel.

 31 
Edouard Séguin
(Physician)
Edouard Séguin
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Birthdate: January 20, 1812
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Clamecy, France
Died: October 28, 1880
Frederik Willem van Eeden
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Birthdate: April 3, 1860
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Haarlem, Netherlands
Died: June 16, 1932

Apart from being a physician and the first Dutch psychiatrist to gain international fame, Frederik Willem van Eeden was also an author. Known for inventing the term lucid dream, he later penned books that revolved around themes such as symbolism and psychiatric experiences. He also translated Tagore’s works into Dutch.

 33 
Thomas Story Kirkbride
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Birthdate: July 31, 1809
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Morrisville, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: December 16, 1883
 34 
Auguste Forel
(Psychiatrist)
Auguste Forel
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Birthdate: September 1, 1848
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Morges, Switzerland
Died: July 27, 1931

Renowned Swiss neuroanatomist and psychiatrist Auguste Forel is known for his lifelong research on the human brain structure. He also devoted himself to social causes, such as the prevention of alcoholism. His early interest in insects led him to study the psychology of ants, too.

 35 
Bénédict Morel
(Psychiatrist)
Bénédict Morel
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Birthdate: November 22, 1809
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: March 30, 1873

Bénédict Morel was a French psychiatrist born in Austria. He was abandoned by his parents and had a difficult childhood. He worked hard to earn a medical doctorate and worked alongside psychiatrist Jean-Pierre Falret. He soon became an influential psychiatrist himself and was a key figure in the field of degeneration theory in the mid-19th century. 

 36 
Édouard Claparède
(Neurologist)
Édouard Claparède
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Birthdate: March 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Geneva, Switzerland
Died: September 29, 1940

Known for his pioneering work in the fields of child and educational psychology, Édouard Claparède was also the co-founder of the journal Archives de psychologie. A professor at the University of Geneva, too, he also conducted research on animal psychology and the biological theory of sleep.

 37 
Morton Prince
(Physician)
Morton Prince
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Birthdate: December 22, 1854
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Died: August 31, 1929
 38 
Géza Csáth
(Writer)
Géza Csáth
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Birthdate: February 13, 1887
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Subotica, Serbia
Died: September 11, 1919
 39 
Edward Flatau
(Neurologist)
Edward Flatau
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Birthdate: December 27, 1868
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Płock, Poland
Died: June 7, 1932
 40 
Ruth Mack Brunswick
(Psychiatrist)
Ruth Mack Brunswick
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Birthdate: February 17, 1897
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois, United States
Died: January 24, 1946
 41 
Amariah Brigham
(Psychiatrist)
Amariah Brigham
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Birthdate: December 26, 1798
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Massachusetts, United States
Died: September 8, 1849