Famous 19th Century Neurologists

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 1 
Sigmund Freud
(Neurologist & the Founder of Psychoanalysis)
Sigmund Freud
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Birthdate: May 6, 1856
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Příbor, Czechia
Died: September 23, 1939

Regarded as the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was a neurologist. Despite suffering criticism, psychoanalysis remains influential in the fields of psychology and psychiatry; such is the influence Freud has on humanities. Scholars believe that Freud is one of the most influential personalities of the 20th century and that his impact is comparable to that of Marxism and Darwinism.

 2 
Wilder Penfield
(Surgeon, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgeon, University teacher, Neurologist)
Wilder Penfield
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Birthdate: January 26, 1891
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Spokane
Died: April 5, 1976

Neuroscientist Wilder Penfield redefined medical science with his innovative way of treating epilepsy patients through surgery. He would note down his patients’ responses when they would be conscious under local anesthesia. He also founded the Montreal Neurological Institute, but was unable to cure his sister’s brain cancer.

 3 
Jean-Martin Charcot
(Neurologist)
Jean-Martin Charcot
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Birthdate: November 29, 1825
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Paris
Died: August 16, 1893
French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot is best remembered for his work with hysteria patients. He was also an extraordinary professor and had Sigmund Freud as one of his students. He was one of the first to include photos and drawings as tools for instruction in neurology classes.
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 4 
Ludwig Guttmann
(Neurologist)
Ludwig Guttmann
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Birthdate: July 3, 1899
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Toszek
Died: March 18, 1980

Born in Germany, neurosurgeon Ludwig Guttmann fled the country during the Nazi regime and later settled in the UK. What started as his effort to rehabilitate injured soldiers, materialized into the launch of the Paralympic Games to encourage sports among the disabled. He also worked extensively on paraplegia.

 5 
António Egas Moniz
(Neurologist)
António Egas Moniz
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Birthdate: November 29, 1874
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal
Died: December 13, 1955
 6 
John Langdon Down
(Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist)
John Langdon Down
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Birthdate: November 18, 1828
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Torpoint
Died: October 7, 1896

British doctor John Langdon Down was pushed to assist at his father’s shop at 14. He gained an interest in medicine after apprenticing with a London surgeon. A pioneer in the treatment of mentally challenged patients, he is remembered for his study of what is now known as Down syndrome.

 7 
Georges Gilles de la Tourette
(Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist)
Georges Gilles de la Tourette
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Birthdate: October 30, 1857
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers
Died: May 26, 1904
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 8 
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
(Physician, Politician, Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Professor)
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
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Birthdate: March 7, 1857
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Wels
Died: September 27, 1940

Nobel Prize-winning Austrian psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Jauregg is best known for revolutionizing medical science by partially treating general paresis through artificial induction of malaria. He paved the path for shock therapy and fever therapy to treat mental ailments. He also studied thyroid and ovarian issues. He later became a Nazi sympathizer.

 9 
Carl Wernicke
(Anatomist, Physician, Neuroscientist, Psychiatrist, University teacher, Neurologist)
Carl Wernicke
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Birthdate: May 15, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tarnowskie Góry
Died: June 15, 1905

German neurologist, pathologist, and anatomist Carl Wernicke is best remembered for his extensive work on the various types of aphasia, or disorders that hinder the ability to speak or write. He also distinguished between motor aphasia and sensory aphasia, or what is now known as Wernicke's aphasia.

 10 
Sándor Ferenczi
(Psychanalyst, Psychiatrist, Non-fiction writer, Neurologist)
Sándor Ferenczi
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Birthdate: July 7, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Miskolc
Died: May 22, 1933

Sándor Ferenczi is best remembered for his research on free association and the psychoanalytic theory. Initially an army doctor, he specialized in subjects such as neuropathology and hypnosis. He was also close to Sigmund Freud and later taught at the University of Budapest. He also established the Hungarian Psychoanalytic Society.

 11 
Ernest Jones
(Psychoanalyst)
Ernest Jones
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Birthdate: January 1, 1879
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gowerton, Wales
Died: February 11, 1958
 12 
Silas Weir Mitchell
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Birthdate: February 15, 1829
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: January 4, 1914

A pioneer of medical neurology, Silas Weir Mitchell not only discovered the causalgia and erythromelalgia but also penned more than 100 monographs on various medical treatments. A talented author, he also penned children’s stories, poems, and novels, such as Roland Blake. He also developed rest cure during the American Civil War.

 13 
Charles Bell
(Scottish Surgeon Known for Discovering the Difference Between Sensory Nerves and Motor Nerves in the Spinal Cord)
Charles Bell
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Birthdate: November 12, 1774
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: April 28, 1842

Charles Bell was a Scottish surgeon, physiologist, anatomist, and neurologist. He was also an artist and philosophical theologian. He discovered the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also known for describing Bell's palsy. He played a key role in the creation of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. 

 14 
Vladimir Bekhterev
(Neurologist)
Vladimir Bekhterev
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Birthdate: February 1, 1857
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Sorali, Russia
Died: December 24, 1927

Neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev is best remembered for his research on the brain and conditioned reflexes and for his pioneering research on objective psychology. He taught at institutes such as the University of Kazan and was also known for his rivalry with contemporary Ivan Pavlov.

 15 
W. H. R. Rivers
(British Anthropologist, Neurologist, Ethnologist and Psychiatrist, Best Known for His Work Treating First World War Officers)
W. H. R. Rivers
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Birthdate: March 12, 1864
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chatham, Kent, England
Died: June 4, 1922

English anthropologist and psychologist W. H. R. Rivers is best remembered for his work on the Todas of the Nilgiri Hills. A qualified physician, he also taught at Cambridge and worked extensively on medical psychology. One of his best-known works is Kinship and Social Organisation.

 16 
Duchenne de Boulogne
(Photographer, Neurologist, Physician)
Duchenne de Boulogne
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Birthdate: September 17, 1806
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Boulogne-sur-Mer
Died: September 15, 1875
 17 
Robert Remak
(Physiologist)
Robert Remak
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Birthdate: July 26, 1815
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Poznań, Poland
Died: August 29, 1865

German embryologist and neurologist Robert Remak is known for pathbreaking scientific feats such as the discovery of the Remak’s ganglia and the use of electrotherapy to treat nervous ailments. He also named the three layers of the embryo, the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. His Jewish origin deprived him from valid recognition.

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
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Birthdate: April 8, 1817
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Port Louis, Mauritius
Died: April 2, 1894
 19 
John Hughlings Jackson
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Birthdate: April 4, 1835
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Green Hammerton, England
Died: October 7, 1911

John Hughlings Jackson was an English neurologist best known for his research on epilepsy. He attended the York Medical and Surgical School and became the house physician to the York Dispensary. He later established his reputation as a neurologist and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.  He was one of the founders of the important journal Brain. 

 20 
Joseph Erlanger
(Physiologist)
Joseph Erlanger
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Birthdate: January 5, 1874
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: San Francisco
Died: December 5, 1965

Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Joseph Erlanger is best known for discovering that fibers in the same nerve cord have different functions. He was also known for his association with the University of Wisconsin and Washington University. He conducted most of his studies with his former student Herbert Spencer Gasser.

 21 
Pierre Marie
(Neurologist)
Pierre Marie
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Birthdate: September 9, 1853
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: April 13, 1940
 22 
Édouard Claparède
(Neurologist)
Édouard Claparède
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Birthdate: March 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Geneva, Switzerland
Died: September 29, 1940

Known for his pioneering work in the fields of child and educational psychology, Édouard Claparède was also the co-founder of the journal Archives de psychologie. A professor at the University of Geneva, too, he also conducted research on animal psychology and the biological theory of sleep.

 23 
Edward Flatau
(Neurologist)
Edward Flatau
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Birthdate: December 27, 1868
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Płock, Poland
Died: June 7, 1932
 24 
Marshall Hall
(Physician)
Marshall Hall
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Birthdate: February 18, 1790
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Basford, England
Died: August 11, 1857

Marshall Hall was an English physician, neurologist, and physiologist. He is credited with contributing immensely to the theory of reflex arc. Hall also wrote many books on neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and apoplexy (stroke). An ardent supporter of the abolitionist movement, Marshall Hall was inducted into the American Philosophical Society (APS) in 1853.

 25 
Bronson Crothers
(Neurologist)
Bronson Crothers
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Birthdate: July 10, 1884
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Elmira, New York, United States
Died: July 17, 1959

Harvard professor and pediatric neurologist Bronson Crothers initially spent a few years practicing in Minnesota before becoming an army doctor during World War I. He is best remembered for his work on neurological injuries that cause conditions such as cerebral palsy. He also served the American Pediatric Society as its president.