Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian in the 16th century. He was one of the founders of the religious order called the Society of Jesus and served as its first Superior General at Paris. He was an inspired spiritual director and the founder of what is today known as "Ignatian spirituality."
Saint Dominic was a Castilian Catholic priest who is credited with founding the Dominican Order. Dominic is said to have abstained from meat throughout his life. He is also remembered for putting himself to undue hardship like traveling barefoot and rejecting the luxury of a bed. He is regarded as the patron saint of astronomers.
Saint Lawrence was one of the seven deacons of the Roman church serving Pope Sixtus II, who were executed by the Roman emperor Valerian during the persecution of the Christians. As a deacon, he was responsible for the distribution of alms to the poor. He was captured and martyred in 258 AD. His feast day is on 10 August.
John of the Cross was a Spanish Catholic priest, mystic, and Carmelite friar. One of the 36 Doctors of the Church, he is a major figure of the Counter-Reformation in Spain. He was a prolific writer and poet, and his writings are counted among the greatest works of all Spanish literature. He was beatified in 1675 by Pope Clement X.
Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville is widely remembered as the last of the Western Latin Fathers. His Etymologies was a chief reference book for years. The 7th-century archbishop of Sevilla wrote about varied subjects, such as religion, science, history, and linguistics. He had a major role in the Councils of Toledo.
Pope Alexander VI served as the pope from 1492 to 1503. Due to his involvement with several mistresses, Alexander is regarded as one of the most controversial popes of the Renaissance. However, during his papacy, a new architectural era surfaced in Rome as he encouraged the development of fine arts; famous personalities like Pinturicchio, Raphael, and Michelangelo worked for him.
Pope Callixtus III was initially a professor of law. He later helped King Alfonso V with Pope Martin V reconcile. He was infamous for his nepotism, as he was highly biased toward his nephew, Rodrigo Borgia, whom he made a cardinal and who later took over as the pope.
Teresa of Ávila, also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus, was a Spanish noblewoman who later turned into a Carmelite nun. She was posthumously named a Doctor of the Church. She co-established the Discalced Carmelite Order. Her written works include The Interior Castle and her own autobiography.
Initially a professor of theology, Vincent Ferrer later traveled across Europe to preach. He became known for his austere lifestyle. The Catholic saint is now revered as the patron saint of builders, fishermen, prisoners, and others. He had a major role in ending the Great Western Schism.
Antipope Benedict XIII, or Pope Luna, initially served as a university professor of canon law and later became a cardinal. He was made the pope after Clement VII’s death, on the grounds that he would resign to end the Western Schism later, but he didn’t and was thus deposed.
Son of a tax collector, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros spent 6 years in prison only because he wouldn’t give up on his claim to a rightful benefice. Part of the Spanish Inquisition, he opted for forced conversions of Muslims to Christianity, which caused the Moorish revolt of Moriscos.
Spanish priest Diego de Landa was one of the most significant Mayan researchers. A Franciscan missionary to Mexico, he initially helped the Mayan people through his charitable efforts and conversions. However, he later inflicted a lot of torture and brutality on them and also burned most of the Mayan manuscripts.
Thirteenth-century Spanish rabbinical scholar Nahmanides had to flee from Spain after a public debate against the Christians, which he won. He later settled in Palestine and penned his iconic works, including a commentary on the Pentateuch. He re-established Jews in Jerusalem after their displacement by the Crusades earlier.
16 Pedro Arrupe
Pedro Arrupe, who was the superior general of the Society of Jesus, had dropped out of medical school to care for the poor. He was part of one of the first rescue teams at Hiroshima after the tragic atomic bomb destruction. He later resigned due to paralysis caused by a stroke.
Abd al-Rahman III, the 10th-century emir of Cordoba, established the Caliphate of Córdoba and ruled as its first caliph. He is remembered as one of the most significant Umayyad Arab rulers of Spain. Though short in stature, he was feared for his aggressive policy toward the rebels of his kingdom.
Seventeenth-century Franciscan Roman Catholic priest, missionary, and explorer Louis Hennepin was the first to sail through the Great Lakes up to Illinois and to pen a description about the region. Though captured by Sioux Indians, he was later rescued by a French explorer. He spent his final years in a monastery.
Born to a Spanish Catholic mother and an Indian Hindu father in Barcelona, Raimon Panikkar grew up to be a Catholic priest and a philosophy professor. An expert in comparative religion, he compared the tenets of Catholicism and Hinduism in his doctoral thesis. He also penned several spiritual texts.
Spanish Catholic priest Joseph Calasanz founded the Pious Schools, whose followers, the Piarists, dedicated themselves to the service of the poor. He was the man behind Europe’s first free school for children from impoverished homes. A friend of Galileo Galilei, he supported the heliocentric system, unlike other religious orders.
22 Joseph Karo
Sixteenth-century Spanish-born rabbi Joseph Karo penned the last great codification of Jewish law, the Bet Yosef, later known as the Shulḥan ʿarukh. Expelled from Spain, he later settled in Palestine. Another of his notable works is the Maggid mesharim, a mystical diary that described visits by the Mishna.
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero probably belonged to a family that had migrated from Spain to Israel during the Spanish Inquisition. Also known as Ramak, he grew up to be a Galilean rabbi who penned summarized versions of the Kabbalah, such as Elimah rabati. He also taught Kabbalist Isaac Luria.
A Spanish rabbi and a noted kabbalist, Moses de León is believed to be the author of the Sefer ha-zohar, a foundational work on the Jewish mysticism written in Aramaic. However, to increase their acceptability, he credited ancient scholars as their authors. Apart from that, he also composed pseudepigrapha on ethics and the eschatology of the soul in Hebrew.
Seventeenth-century Spanish mystic and priest Miguel de Molinos propagated an extreme type of Quietism through his book Spiritual Guide. He believed people should sacrifice their individual wills to make way for God’s will. He was eventually imprisoned for heresy and died in custody, amid rumors of sexual misconduct.
Remembered as one of the most significant figures behind the revival of Catholicism in the 19th century, Nicholas Wiseman was the first archbishop of Westminster. He was born to Irish immigrants in Spain and initially worked as a language professor. He also penned the iconic works Horae Syriacae and Fabiola.
Gil Sánchez Muñoz, or Antipope Clement VIII, was an advisor of Benedict XIII. During the Western Schism, Benedict chose Clement as a cardinal, even at the reluctance of others to accept this decision. Later, Clement had to let go of his titles, reconciled, and was made the bishop of Majorca.
A Spanish benediction monk, Pedro Ponce de León is best remembered for his pioneering work, which helped several deaf persons to speak and write. Although he was not the creator of the modern sign language, he has been credited with developing manual alphabets based on monastic sign language, which was quite effective in achieving its objective.
Bahya ibn Paquda is best known as the author of Al Hidayah ila Faraid al-Qulub, or Duties of the Heart, an Arabic treatise of Jewish philosophy, also considered the first written work on Jewish ethics. Islamic mystics inspired him to look for the existence and nature of God.
Trained in theology and law, Vasco de Quiroga was the second audiencia of New Spain and the Bishop of Michoacán. Considered as a humanist educator and a social reformer, he is believed to have worked diligently for the welfare of the Indian in Mexico, establishing two hospitals and also the Colegio de San Nicolás Obisbo for that purpose.
Theodulf of Orléans had been the bishop of Orléans during the reign of Charlemagne and had later become his chief theological advisor. His iconic works, such as Ad Carolum regem, were inspired by Charlemagne. A prominent figure of the Carolingian Renaissance, he also built many churches.
32 Joseph Albo
Born in Aragon, Spain, Jewish philosopher and theologian Joseph Albo is remembered for his iconic work Sefer ha-ʿiqqarim, or Book of Principles, which laid down the fundamental principles of Judaism. He had also been part of the famous Disputation of Tortosa between Christians and Jews.
Moses ibn Ezra, or Abū Hārūn Mūsā, was one of the best Spanish Jewish poets and a pioneer of secular verse. He had fallen in love with his niece, but she had been married off to someone else, inspiring him to write poetry which spoke of love and old age.
Born into a Spanish noble family, Juan de Padilla grew up to be an ace military leader who led the Castilian Comunidades in their rebellion against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, or Carlos I of Spain. He was eventually defeated and executed along with the other leaders of the revolt.
Spanish philosopher Jaime Luciano Balmes is best known for iconic work Protestantism and Catholicism Compared in Their Effect on the Civilization of Europe, penned in defense of Catholicism. An expert in civil and canon law, he initially taught math and physics, and was criticized by Catholics for being too liberal.
Known for founding Collegio di Spagna at Bologna, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz was a soldier before he entered the church. Eventually he became the archbishop of Toledo and supported a campaign against the Muslims. He was later on made the cardinal-priest of S. Clement and finally a papal legate. Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz helped the papacy to return from Avignon to Rome.
Spanish Jewish spiritual leader Shlomo ibn Aderet, also known as the Rabbi of Spain and Rashba, is remembered for his 1305 decree that threatened to excommunicate all Jewish science and philosophy students below 25, except medical students. Many of his responsa, or replies, to enquiries on Jewish law still remain.
As a student of the Kabbalah, under Abraham Abulafia, at 26, Joseph Gikatilla penned his iconic work Ginnat eʾgoz, which inspired Moses de León, the author of the Zohar. His works showcase a merger of philosophy and mysticism. Shaʿareʾora remains another of his significant works.
Spanish Jewish rabbi, translator, and poet Yehuda Alharizi was one of the greatest scholars of 13th-century Spain. Fluent in multiple languages, such as French, Greek, and Latin, he also traveled widely across the world. His works include Tahkemoni and translations of Arabic works such as Guide to the Perplexed into Hebrew.
Born to a famous poet, Pedro González received an elite education and then served as a bishop and an archbishop, before finally being named cardinal. He helped Henry IV’s half-sister, Isabella, and her husband, Ferdinand, secure the throne after Henry’s death. He was also an art lover and a humanist.
Dominican theologian Bartolomé Carranza had also been the archbishop of Toledo. Known for works such as Summa conciliorum and Quattuor controversiae, he was charged with heresy and imprisoned for almost 17 years during the Spanish Inquisition. He died 18 days after being acquitted due to lack of proof.
One of most significant Hebrew grammarians of the 11th century, Jonah ibn Janah was initially a physician but later became a pioneer in the study of the Hebrew syntax. He is remembered for his works al-Mustalha and Kitāb at-tanqiḥ, and for his exegesis of religious texts.
Simeon ben Zemah Duran was the first Spanish Jewish rabbi to earn a regular salary from the community, going against the trend of the rabbi’s post being honorary. He excelled in subjects such as philosophy, math, and medicine, and is best remembered for his commentary Magen Avot.
Born into an affluent family, Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza, remembered for her mystical poetry, lost her parents as a child. She later took her vows and also established a Jesuit college with the fortune her parents left her. She came under suspicion during the Gunpowder Plot and was imprisoned, too.
Diego Gelmírez had been both the bishop and the archbishop of Santiago de Compostela. He is also remembered as a prominent historiographer of his era. He had major conflicts with Queen Urraca, the Reckless. He transformed Santiago into a pilgrimage site and also arranged a fleet to combat Moorish naval attacks.
46 Joseph Kimhi
Jewish rabbi, exegete, and grammarian Joseph Kimhi made significant contributions to Hebrew language, along with his sons, Moses and David. His notable works include Sefer ha-zikkaron and Sefer ha-Berit. He also classified Hebrew verbs, dividing them into 10 long and short vowels. He excelled in poetry and translations, too.
Jewish philosopher Joseph ibn Shem-Tov was also the court physician of Castile. He is best known for his attempt to find a middle ground between Aristotelian and Jewish philosophical thoughts, through his works such as Kevod Elohim. He is also remembered for his disputations with Christian scholars.
One of the most significant figures of Adoptionism, a form of christology, Felix had been the bishop of Urgell in 8th-century Spain. Most of his works, including the iconic Against the Saracen, were later destroyed or were practically lost. Accused of heresy, he was exiled and later died in Lyon.
Spanish diplomat and Roman Catholic cardinal Alfonso de la Cueva, 1st Marquis of Bedmar had initially followed in his father’s footsteps, to step into a military career. He later became an ambassador to Venice, but was caught amid Venice’s plan to counter Spain’s growing influence and left Venice.