Famous Spanish Spiritual & Religious Leaders

Every country in the world has its own culture and religion and thus its own group of spiritual and religious leaders. Though both spiritual and religious leaders aim at helping mankind become pious and reverent, their pathways are different. While religious leaders tend to an organized system of paying homage to God, spiritual leaders are basically concerned with the spiritual conduct of a human being and often do not use any form of deity worship. Talking about Spain’s religious beliefs, the country was born out of the religious struggle between Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism and Judaism. However, in 1851, Catholicism became a state religion. During the Franco regime, Roman Catholic Church gained a legal status as the only authorized religion of the country. It was only in 1978 that Spaniards were given the right to religious freedom. Amidst the religious turmoil that surfaced and prevailed in the nation, numerous spiritual and religious leaders influenced the people of Spain with their beliefs and philosophies. It is to these leaders that we have dedicated this section. Their dedication and wisdom in guiding Spaniards have been instrumental in the Spanish society. Check this section to know more about Spanish spiritual and religious leaders.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 Saint Ignatius of Loyola

Saint Ignatius of Loyola.
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: October 23, 1491
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Azpeitia, Spain
Died: July 31, 1556

Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a  Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian in the 16th century. He was one of the founders of the religious order called the Society of Jesus and served as its first Superior General at Paris. He was an inspired spiritual director and the founder of what is today known as "Ignatian spirituality."

 2 Francis Xavier

Francis Xavier.
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Famous As: Missionary
Birthdate: April 7, 1506
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Javier
Died: December 3, 1552
Navarrese Catholic missionary and saint Francis Xavier co-founded the Society of Jesus. His mission focused on the Portuguese Empire in Asia. He is remembered for his efforts to spread Christianity in Goa. He extended his mission to Japan and Borneo but died before he could preach in China.
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 3 Saint Dominic

Saint Dominic.
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: August 8, 1170
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Caleruega, Spain
Died: August 6, 1221

Saint Dominic was a Castilian Catholic priest who is credited with founding the Dominican Order. Dominic is said to have abstained from meat throughout his life. He is also remembered for putting himself to undue hardship like traveling barefoot and rejecting the luxury of a bed. He is regarded as the patron saint of astronomers.

 4 Saint Teresa of Avila

Saint Teresa of Avila.
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Famous As: Saint
Birthdate: March 28, 1515
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Gotarrendura
Died: October 4, 1582

Teresa of Ávila, also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus, was a Spanish noblewoman who later turned into a Carmelite nun. She was posthumously named a Doctor of the Church. She co-established the Discalced Carmelite Order. Her written works include The Interior Castle and her own autobiography.

 5 Tomás de Torquemada

Tomás de Torquemada.
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Famous As: Friar
Birthdate: October 14, 1420
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Torquemada or Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile
Died: September 16, 1498
Tomás de Torquemada, the first Grand Inquisitor of Spain, is remembered for his role in the Spanish Inquisition. He is known for his intolerance toward Jews and Muslims, leading to their conversion to Catholicism. About 2,000 people were burned at the stake during his tyrannical tenure.

 6 John of the Cross

John of the Cross.
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Famous As: Roman Catholic Saint
Birthdate: June 24, 1542
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Fontiveros
Died: December 14, 1591

John of the Cross was a Spanish Catholic priest, mystic, and Carmelite friar. One of the 36 Doctors of the Church, he is a major figure of the Counter-Reformation in Spain. He was a prolific writer and poet, and his writings are counted among the greatest works of all Spanish literature. He was beatified in 1675 by Pope Clement X.

 7 Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence.
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Famous As: Religious Leader
Birthdate: December 31, 0225
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Hispania
Died: August 10, 0258

Saint Lawrence was one of the seven deacons of the Roman church serving Pope Sixtus II, who were executed by the Roman emperor Valerian during the persecution of the Christians. As a deacon, he was responsible for the distribution of alms to the poor. He was captured and martyred in 258 AD. His feast day is on 10 August. 

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 8 Isidore of Seville

Isidore of Seville
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Famous As: Scholar
Birthdate: 0560 AD
Birthplace: Cartagena, Spain
Died: April 4, 0636

Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville is widely remembered as the last of the Western Latin Fathers. His Etymologies was a chief reference book for years. The 7th-century archbishop of Sevilla wrote about varied subjects, such as religion, science, history, and linguistics. He had a major role in the Councils of Toledo.

 9 Pope Callixtus III

Pope Callixtus III
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Famous As: Pope
Birthdate: December 31, 1378
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Canals, Spain
Died: August 6, 1458

Pope Callixtus III was initially a professor of law. He later helped King Alfonso V with Pope Martin V reconcile. He was infamous for his nepotism, as he was highly biased toward his nephew, Rodrigo Borgia, whom he made a cardinal and who later took over as the pope.

 10 Vincent Ferrer

Vincent Ferrer
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Famous As: Saint
Birthdate: January 23, 1350
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Valencia, Spain
Died: April 5, 1419

Initially a professor of theology, Vincent Ferrer later traveled across Europe to preach. He became known for his austere lifestyle. The Catholic saint is now revered as the patron saint of builders, fishermen, prisoners, and others. He had a major role in ending the Great Western Schism.

 11 Isidore the Laborer

Isidore the Laborer
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Famous As: farmer
Birthdate: 1080 AD
Birthplace: Madrid
Died: May 15, 1130

Revered as the patron saint of Madrid and of farmers, Isidore the Laborer initially worked for a rich landowner of Madrid. One of the five saints of Spain, he is remembered for his love for animals and the poor. He symbolizes the fact that there is dignity in physical labor.

 12 Antipope Benedict XIII

Antipope Benedict XIII
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Famous As: Antipope
Birthdate: November 25, 1328
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Illueca, Spain
Died: May 23, 1423

Antipope Benedict XIII, or Pope Luna, initially served as a university professor of canon law and later became a cardinal. He was made the pope after Clement VII’s death, on the grounds that he would resign to end the Western Schism later, but he didn’t and was thus deposed.

 13 Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros
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Famous As: Statesman
Birthdate: 1436 AD
Birthplace: Torrelaguna, Spain
Died: November 8, 1517

Son of a tax collector, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros spent 6 years in prison only because he wouldn’t give up on his claim to a rightful benefice. Part of the Spanish Inquisition, he opted for forced conversions of Muslims to Christianity, which caused the Moorish revolt of Moriscos.

 14 Diego de Landa

Diego de Landa
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Famous As: Bishop
Birthdate: November 12, 1524
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Cifuentes, Alcarria, Spain
Died: April 29, 1579

Spanish priest Diego de Landa was one of the most significant Mayan researchers. A Franciscan missionary to Mexico, he initially helped the Mayan people through his charitable efforts and conversions. However, he later inflicted a lot of torture and brutality on them and also burned most of the Mayan manuscripts.

 15 Nahmanides

Nahmanides
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Birthdate: 1194 AD
Birthplace: Girona
Died: 1270 AD

Thirteenth-century Spanish rabbinical scholar Nahmanides had to flee from Spain after a public debate against the Christians, which he won. He later settled in Palestine and penned his iconic works, including a commentary on the Pentateuch. He re-established Jews in Jerusalem after their displacement by the Crusades earlier.

 16 Pedro Arrupe

Pedro Arrupe
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: November 14, 1907
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Bilbao, Spain
Died: February 5, 1991

Pedro Arrupe, who was the superior general of the Society of Jesus, had dropped out of medical school to care for the poor. He was part of one of the first rescue teams at Hiroshima after the tragic atomic bomb destruction. He later resigned due to paralysis caused by a stroke.

 17 Abd al-Rahman III

Abd al-Rahman III
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Famous As: Caliph
Birthdate: January 7, 0891
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Córdoba, Spain
Died: October 15, 0961

Abd al-Rahman III, the 10th-century emir of Cordoba, established the Caliphate of Córdoba and ruled as its first caliph. He is remembered as one of the most significant Umayyad Arab rulers of Spain. Though short in stature, he was feared for his aggressive policy toward the rebels of his kingdom.

 18 Raimon Panikkar

Raimon Panikkar
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: November 2, 1918
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Barcelona, Spain
Died: August 26, 2010

Born to a Spanish Catholic mother and an Indian Hindu father in Barcelona, Raimon Panikkar grew up to be a Catholic priest and a philosophy professor. An expert in comparative religion, he compared the tenets of Catholicism and Hinduism in his doctoral thesis. He also penned several spiritual texts.

 19 Joseph Calasanz

Joseph Calasanz
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: September 11, 1557
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Peralta de Calasanz, Spain
Died: August 25, 1648

Spanish Catholic priest Joseph Calasanz founded the Pious Schools, whose followers, the Piarists, dedicated themselves to the service of the poor. He was the man behind Europe’s first free school for children from impoverished homes. A friend of Galileo Galilei, he supported the heliocentric system, unlike other religious orders.

 20 Joseph Karo

Joseph Karo
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Famous As: Author
Birthdate: 1488 AD
Birthplace: Spain
Died: March 24, 1575

Sixteenth-century Spanish-born rabbi Joseph Karo penned the last great codification of Jewish law, the Bet Yosef, later known as the Shulḥan ʿarukh. Expelled from Spain, he later settled in Palestine. Another of his notable works is the Maggid mesharim, a mystical diary that described visits by the Mishna.

 21 Moses de León

Moses de León
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Famous As: Rabbi
Birthdate: 1240 AD
Birthplace: Guadalajara, Spain
Died: 1305 AD

A Spanish rabbi and a noted kabbalist, Moses de León is believed to be the author of the Sefer ha-zohar, a foundational work on the Jewish mysticism written in Aramaic. However, to increase their acceptability, he credited ancient scholars as their authors. Apart from that, he also composed pseudepigrapha on ethics and the eschatology of the soul in Hebrew.

 22 Vasco de Quiroga

Vasco de Quiroga
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Famous As: Judge
Birthdate: February 3, 1470
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Spain
Died: March 14, 1565

Trained in theology and law, Vasco de Quiroga was the second audiencia of New Spain and the Bishop of Michoacán. Considered as a humanist educator and a social reformer, he is believed to have worked diligently for the welfare of the Indian in Mexico, establishing two hospitals and also the Colegio de San Nicolás Obisbo for that purpose.

 23 Nicholas Wiseman

Nicholas Wiseman
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Famous As: Archbishop
Birthdate: August 3, 1802
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Seville, Spain
Died: February 15, 1865

Remembered as one of the most significant figures behind the revival of Catholicism in the 19th century, Nicholas Wiseman was the first archbishop of Westminster. He was born to Irish immigrants in Spain and initially worked as a language professor. He also penned the iconic works Horae Syriacae and Fabiola.

 24 Antipope Clement VIII

Antipope Clement VIII
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Famous As: Antipope
Birthdate: 1369 AD
Birthplace: Teruel, Spain
Died: December 28, 1446

Gil Sánchez Muñoz, or Antipope Clement VIII, was an advisor of Benedict XIII. During the Western Schism, Benedict chose Clement as a cardinal, even at the reluctance of others to accept this decision. Later, Clement had to let go of his titles, reconciled, and was made the bishop of Majorca.

 25 Pedro Ponce de León

Pedro Ponce de León
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Famous As: Monk
Birthdate: 1520 AD
Birthplace: Valladolid, Spain
Died: 1584 AD

A Spanish benediction monk, Pedro Ponce de León is best remembered for his pioneering work, which helped several deaf persons to speak and write.  Although he was not the creator of the modern sign language, he has been credited with developing manual alphabets based on monastic sign language, which was quite effective in achieving its objective.    

 26 Miguel de Molinos

Miguel de Molinos
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Famous As: Mystic
Birthdate: June 29, 1628
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Spain
Died: December 29, 1696

Seventeenth-century Spanish mystic and priest Miguel de Molinos propagated an extreme type of Quietism through his book Spiritual Guide. He believed people should sacrifice their individual wills to make way for God’s will. He was eventually imprisoned for heresy and died in custody, amid rumors of sexual misconduct.

 27 Bahya ibn Paquda

Bahya ibn Paquda
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Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 1050 AD
Birthplace: Zaragoza, Spain
Died: 1120 AD

Bahya ibn Paquda is best known as the author of Al Hidayah ila Faraid al-Qulub, or Duties of the Heart, an Arabic treatise of Jewish philosophy, also considered the first written work on Jewish ethics. Islamic mystics inspired him to look for the existence and nature of God.

 28 Joseph Albo

Joseph Albo
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Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 1380 AD
Birthplace: Monreal del Campo, Spain
Died: 1444 AD

Born in Aragon, Spain, Jewish philosopher and theologian Joseph Albo is remembered for his iconic work Sefer ha-ʿiqqarim, or Book of Principles, which laid down the fundamental principles of Judaism. He had also been part of the famous Disputation of Tortosa between Christians and Jews.

 29 Moses ibn Ezra

Moses ibn Ezra
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Famous As: Rabbi
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Granada, Spain
Died: 1138 AD

Moses ibn Ezra, or Abū Hārūn Mūsā, was one of the best Spanish Jewish poets and a pioneer of secular verse. He had fallen in love with his niece, but she had been married off to someone else, inspiring him to write poetry which spoke of love and old age.

 30 Theodulf of Orléans

Theodulf of Orléans
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Famous As: Writer
Birthdate: 0750 AD
Birthplace: Spain
Died: December 8, 0821

Theodulf of Orléans had been the bishop of Orléans during the reign of Charlemagne and had later become his chief theological advisor. His iconic works, such as Ad Carolum regem, were inspired by Charlemagne. A prominent figure of the Carolingian Renaissance, he also built many churches.

 31 Juan de Padilla

Juan de Padilla
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Famous As: Missionary
Birthdate: 1490 AD
Birthplace: Toledo, Spain
Died: 1542 AD

Born into a Spanish noble family, Juan de Padilla grew up to be an ace military leader who led the Castilian Comunidades in their rebellion against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, or Carlos I of Spain. He was eventually defeated and executed along with the other leaders of the revolt.

 32 Jaime Luciano Balmes

Jaime Luciano Balmes
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Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: August 28, 1810
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Vic, Spain
Died: July 9, 1848

Spanish philosopher Jaime Luciano Balmes is best known for iconic work Protestantism and Catholicism Compared in Their Effect on the Civilization of Europe, penned in defense of Catholicism. An expert in civil and canon law, he initially taught math and physics, and was criticized by Catholics for being too liberal.

 33 Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz

Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz
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Famous As: Political leader
Birthdate: 1310 AD
Birthplace: Cuenca, Spain
Died: August 23, 1367

Known for founding Collegio di Spagna at Bologna, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz was a soldier before he entered the church. Eventually he became the archbishop of Toledo and supported a campaign against the Muslims. He was later  on made the cardinal-priest of S. Clement and finally a papal legate. Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz helped the papacy to return from Avignon to Rome.

 34 Shlomo ibn Aderet

Shlomo ibn Aderet
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Famous As: Shlomo ben Avraham ibn Aderet
Birthdate: 1235 AD
Birthplace: Barcelona, Spain
Died: 1310 AD

Spanish Jewish spiritual leader Shlomo ibn Aderet, also known as the Rabbi of Spain and Rashba, is remembered for his 1305 decree that threatened to excommunicate all Jewish science and philosophy students below 25, except medical students. Many of his responsa, or replies, to enquiries on Jewish law still remain.

 35 Joseph Gikatilla

Joseph Gikatilla
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Famous As: Spanish Kabbalist
Birthdate: 1248 AD
Birthplace: Medinaceli, Spain
Died: 1305 AD

As a student of the Kabbalah, under Abraham Abulafia, at 26, Joseph Gikatilla penned his iconic work Ginnat eʾgoz, which inspired Moses de León, the author of the Zohar. His works showcase a merger of philosophy and mysticism. Shaʿareʾora remains another of his significant works.

 36 Yehuda Alharizi

Yehuda Alharizi
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Famous As: Rabbi
Birthdate: 1165 AD
Birthplace: Toledo, Spain
Died: 1225 AD

Spanish Jewish rabbi, translator, and poet Yehuda Alharizi was one of the greatest scholars of 13th-century Spain. Fluent in multiple languages, such as French, Greek, and Latin, he also traveled widely across the world. His works include Tahkemoni and translations of Arabic works such as Guide to the Perplexed into Hebrew.

 37 Bartolomé Carranza

Bartolomé Carranza
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Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: 1503 AD
Birthplace: Miranda de Arga, Spain
Died: May 2, 1576

Dominican theologian Bartolomé Carranza had also been the archbishop of Toledo. Known for works such as Summa conciliorum and Quattuor controversiae, he was charged with heresy and imprisoned for almost 17 years during the Spanish Inquisition. He died 18 days after being acquitted due to lack of proof.

 38 Pedro González, cardinal de Mendoza

Pedro González, cardinal de Mendoza
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Famous As: Spanish cardinal
Birthdate: May 3, 1428
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Guadalajara, Spain
Died: January 11, 1495

Born to a famous poet, Pedro González received an elite education and then served as a bishop and an archbishop, before finally being named cardinal. He helped Henry IV’s half-sister, Isabella, and her husband, Ferdinand, secure the throne after Henry’s death. He was also an art lover and a humanist.

 39 Jonah ibn Janah

Jonah ibn Janah
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Famous As: Rabbi
Birthdate: 0990 AD
Birthplace: Córdoba, Spain
Died: 1055 AD

One of most significant Hebrew grammarians of the 11th century, Jonah ibn Janah was initially a physician but later became a pioneer in the study of the Hebrew syntax. He is remembered for his works al-Mustalha and Kitāb at-tanqiḥ, and for his exegesis of religious texts.

 40 Simeon ben Zemah Duran

Simeon ben Zemah Duran
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Famous As: Author
Birthdate: 1361 AD
Birthplace: Majorca, Spain
Died: 1444 AD

Simeon ben Zemah Duran was the first Spanish Jewish rabbi to earn a regular salary from the community, going against the trend of the rabbi’s post being honorary. He excelled in subjects such as philosophy, math, and medicine, and is best remembered for his commentary Magen Avot.

 41 Diego Gelmírez

Diego Gelmírez
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Famous As: Archbishop
Birthdate: 1069 AD
Birthplace: Catoira, Spain
Died: 1140 AD

Diego Gelmírez had been both the bishop and the archbishop of Santiago de Compostela. He is also remembered as a prominent historiographer of his era. He had major conflicts with Queen Urraca, the Reckless. He transformed Santiago into a pilgrimage site and also arranged a fleet to combat Moorish naval attacks.

 42 Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza

Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza
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Famous As: Missionary
Birthdate: January 2, 1566
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Jaraicejo, Spain
Died: January 2, 1614

Born into an affluent family, Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza, remembered for her mystical poetry, lost her parents as a child. She later took her vows and also established a Jesuit college with the fortune her parents left her. She came under suspicion during the Gunpowder Plot and was imprisoned, too.

 43 Joseph Kimhi

Joseph Kimhi
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Famous As: Rabbi
Birthdate: 1105 AD
Birthplace: Spain
Died: 1170 AD

Jewish rabbi, exegete, and grammarian Joseph Kimhi made significant contributions to Hebrew language, along with his sons, Moses and David. His notable works include Sefer ha-zikkaron and Sefer ha-Berit. He also classified Hebrew verbs, dividing them into 10 long and short vowels. He excelled in poetry and translations, too.

 44 Joseph ibn Shem-Tov

Joseph ibn Shem-Tov
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Famous As: Writer
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Castile, Spain
Died: 1480 AD

Jewish philosopher Joseph ibn Shem-Tov was also the court physician of Castile. He is best known for his attempt to find a middle ground between Aristotelian and Jewish philosophical thoughts, through his works such as Kevod Elohim. He is also remembered for his disputations with Christian scholars.

 45 Felix

Felix
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Famous As: Bishop
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Spain
Died: 0818 AD

One of the most significant figures of Adoptionism, a form of christology, Felix had been the bishop of Urgell in 8th-century Spain. Most of his works, including the iconic Against the Saracen, were later destroyed or were practically lost. Accused of heresy, he was exiled and later died in Lyon.

 46 Luis Ladaria Ferrer

Luis Ladaria Ferrer
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Famous As: Cardinal, Theologian
Birthdate: April 19, 1944
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Manacor, Spain

 47 Alfonso de la Cueva, 1st Marquis of Bedmar

Alfonso de la Cueva, 1st Marquis of Bedmar
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Famous As: Diplomat
Birthdate: July 25, 1574
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bedmar y Garcíez, Spain
Died: August 10, 1655

Spanish diplomat and Roman Catholic cardinal Alfonso de la Cueva, 1st Marquis of Bedmar had initially followed in his father’s footsteps, to step into a military career. He later became an ambassador to Venice, but was caught amid Venice’s plan to counter Spain’s growing influence and left Venice.