Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer Hermann Oberth is regarded as one of the founding fathers of astronautics and rocketry along with Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Esnault-Pelterie, and Robert Goddard. His classic book The Rocket into Planetary Space gained him widespread attention. Oberth garnered a patent for his rocket design and launched his first rocket near Berlin, Germany, on May 7, 1931.
Romanian-born Nobel Prize-winning cell biologist George E. Palade moved to the U.S. after World War II. He is best remembered for his discovery of the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum. He used electron microscopy to study various cell structures and spent most of his life teaching at prestigious institutes.