Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer Hermann Oberth is regarded as one of the founding fathers of astronautics and rocketry along with Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Esnault-Pelterie, and Robert Goddard. His classic book The Rocket into Planetary Space gained him widespread attention. Oberth garnered a patent for his rocket design and launched his first rocket near Berlin, Germany, on May 7, 1931.
Known for his pathbreaking research on the hormone insulin, Romanian physiologist Nicolae Paulescu was also a professor of medicine. He had a tiff with the Nobel Prize committee on their decision to award two other scientists for the discovery of insulin. His anti-Semitic writings influenced the Iron Guard movement.
Romanian-born Nobel Prize-winning cell biologist George E. Palade moved to the U.S. after World War II. He is best remembered for his discovery of the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum. He used electron microscopy to study various cell structures and spent most of his life teaching at prestigious institutes.
The daughter of Romanian Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, Zoia Ceaușescu was a renowned mathematician who had won the Simion Stoilow Prize. She was also known for her reckless lifestyle, her frequent travels, and her multiple relationships. Following her parents’ execution, she lost all her wealth and lived with her friends.
Romanian biologist and physician Ana Aslan was a pioneering gerontologist and established the first institute of geriatrics in the world. She also invented a drug named Gerovital, an H3 vitamin, which was the world’s first anti-aging remedy. She later co-invented a similar product, Aslavital, and an anti-aging cosmetic line.
Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai, who was the son of renowned mathematician Farkas Bolyai, co-founded non-Euclidean geometry. He had also served in the army and was a skilled swordsman. He was a linguist and a talented violinist, too. He also contributed to a geometric concept of complex numbers.
Victor Babeș was a Romanian bacteriologist, physician, academician, and professor. Widely regarded as the co-founder of modern microbiology, Babeș is credited with authoring one of the world's first treatises of bacteriology, Bacteria and their role in pathological anatomy and histology of infectious diseases. Victor Babeș also made important contributions to the study of leprosy, rabies, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.
Romanian-born sports scientist and York University professor Tudor Bompa spent his youth exploring soccer, rowing, and track and field, and even won a European Rowing Championship medal. He later developed new training methods and penned bestselling sports books such as Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training.
Ştefan Odobleja was a Romanian scientist and physician. Widely regarded in Romania as one of the forerunners of artificial intelligence and cybernetics, Ştefan Odobleja is best remembered for his book Psychologie consonantiste, which talks about the notion of feedback in psychology. This book was published 10 years before Norbert Wiener's groundbreaking book, Cybernetics.
Ștefan Procopiu was a Romanian physicist best remembered for discovering a circular effect of magnetic discontinuity, which was later named Procopiu Effect. Procopiu Effect had prominent applications in the evolution of the memory of computers. Ștefan Procopiu also served as a professor at several institutions throughout his life.
Joseph Dieffenbach was an Austrian gardener best remembered for his work on the imperial gardens of Vienna's Schönbrunn Palace, where he was the head gardener for many years. The Dieffenbachia, a genus of plants, is named after Joseph Dieffenbach.