Haile Selassie Biography

(Former Emperor of Ethiopia (1930 - 1936, 1941 - 1974))

Birthday: July 23, 1892 (Leo)

Born In: Ejersa Goro, Ethiopia

Haile Selassie was the last emperor of Ethiopia and the messiah figure of the Rastafarian religion. He was the son of a chief adviser to Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. The ruler became his mentor, putting Selassie in positions of power from a very early age. After Menelik II's death, Selassie became a prominent political figure and began shaping the Ethiopian government. He became known for his progressive policies, and soon became the emperor himself. He was the first Ethiopian ruler to travel outside the country, and became an international celebrity known for his flamboyant world tours. In his country, his progressive rule made him popular among his subjects and enforced dramatic reform within Ethiopia. During the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy, Ethiopia was invaded and Selassie was forced to spend several years in exile. He appealed to the ‘League of Nations’ for support in regaining control of his own country. After regaining his crown, he became even more powerful, while unrest grew in Ethiopia. During the final years of his life, his rule was marred by rebellion and he was deposed in a coup. He spent his final years under house arrest in his own palace, but is still revered by some Rastafarians as God incarnate!

Quick Facts

Also Known As: Tafari Makonnen

Died At Age: 83


Spouse/Ex-: Menen Asfaw (m. 1911–1962), Woizero Altayech

father: Makonnen Wolde Mikael

mother: Yeshimebet Ali

siblings: Dejazmatch Yilma Makonnen

children: Amha Selassie, Prince Makonnen, Prince Sahle Selassie, Princess Romanework, Princess Tenagnework, Princess Tsehai, Princess Zenebework

Born Country: Ethiopia

Emperors & Kings Ethiopian Emperors & Kings

Height: 1.57 m

political ideology: Regent Plenipotentiary of Ethiopia - 27 September 1916 – 2 April 19301st & 5th Chairman of the Organization of African Unity - 25 May 1963 – 17 July 1964Emperor of Ethiopia - 2 April 1930 – 12 September 1974

Died on: August 27, 1975

place of death: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Founder/Co-Founder: Organisation of African Unity

More Facts

awards: Order of the Nile
Order of the White Rose of Finland
Order of the Yugoslav Star

Order of the White Eagle
Order of the Holy Trinity
Order of the Star of Romania

  • 1

    What was Haile Selassie's role in Ethiopian history?

    Haile Selassie was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and played a significant role in modernizing the country and promoting African unity on the global stage.

  • 2

    What was Haile Selassie's connection to Rastafarianism?

    Haile Selassie is considered a divine figure in Rastafarianism, with followers believing he is the messiah and the second coming of Jesus Christ.

  • 3

    How did Haile Selassie respond to Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935?

    Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for support and famously addressed the assembly in a speech that highlighted the aggression of Italy and the need for collective security.

  • 4

    What led to Haile Selassie's downfall in 1974?

    Haile Selassie's downfall was primarily due to political unrest, economic issues, and opposition to his rule, leading to a military coup that deposed him from power.

  • 5

    What was the significance of Haile Selassie's return to Ethiopia in 1941 after exile during the Italian occupation?

    Haile Selassie's return marked the restoration of Ethiopian sovereignty and his reclamation of the throne, solidifying his status as a revered leader in the eyes of his people.

Childhood & Early Life

Haile Selassie was born Tafari Makonnen on July 23, 1892, in Ejersa Goro, Imperial Ethiopia. He was the son of Ras (Prince) Makonnen, a chief adviser to the emperor of Ethiopia. He belonged to the royal family from his father's and mother's side.

Tafari received private education and his intellect soon caught the attention of Emperor Menelik II. He was singled out for early promotion, receiving the noble title of Dejazmach at the age of 13. Shortly after, his father died.

In 1906, at the age of 14, Tafari became governor of a minor province in Ethiopia. Over the next few years, under the protective wing of Emperor Menelik II, he became governor of several other small provinces. He also continued his studies.

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Accession & Reign

When Tafari's mentor Emperor Menelik II died, the emperor's grandson Lij Iyasu took over the throne and served as emperor from 1913 to 1916. Despite his claim to the throne, Iyasu was an unpopular ruler. He was criticized for embracing Islam in a largely Christian country.

Tafari headed the opposition against the emperor and deposed him in 1916. Subsequently, Menelik II's daughter Zewditu was made the new empress.

Empress Zewditu was crowned on February 11, 1917. Tafari was named as her Prince Regent. Although he played a key role in the daily affairs of the government, the empress had the last say in all matters.

Even under the conservative reign of Empress Zewditu, his progressive policies gained national attention. He was seen by the Ethiopian people as an enthusiastic leader who could represent Ethiopia on the world stage. His popularity increased after he secured Ethiopia's entry into the ‘League of Nations’ in 1923 with a promise to halt slavery.

In 1924, Tafari and his entourage embarked on a world tour, becoming the first Ethiopian leader to travel abroad. His vibrant and unique appearance made him a popular figure, and his travels were sensationalized by the media.

In 1928, he took on the title and responsibilities of the king. When Empress Zewditu died two years later, he became the emperor and assumed the title Haile Selassie, which translates to 'Power of the Trinity.' Shortly after, he cemented his authority and began reforming the constitution to strengthen his own power. These reforms also benefitted his country as he expanded education and the police force.

During the 1930s, Ethiopia was targeted and attacked by Mussolini's fascist regime in Italy. From 1936 to 1941, Selassie was forced into exile when Italy invaded his country. He spent the intervening time in Bath, England. He appealed to the ‘League of Nations,’ condemning the invasion, and won the support of England in his mission to liberate Ethiopia and reinstate himself as emperor.

After reclaiming his position as emperor, Selassie went about restoring his power by enforcing social, economic, and educational reform. In 1955, he granted a new constitution that reestablished his ultimate power over the Ethiopian government.

By the early-1970s, an extended famine had brought about soaring unemployment and crime rates, weakening his reign. In 1974, mutinies broke out among his own forces. Subsequently, he was ousted in a coup. He was forced to spend the rest of his life under house arrest.

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Major Works

In 1963, he was instrumental in the founding of ‘Organization of African Unity.’ This now-defunct organization of 32 governments was established to promote African solidarity, and was headquartered in Addis Ababa.

At the end of his reign in the '70s, Tafari was the longest-serving head of state in power. He continued to enjoy international celebrity status and popularity because of his relatively high global profile.

Personal Life & Legacy

Tafari is regarded by the Rastafarian religion as God incarnate messiah of the African race. Rastafarians believe that he was born to unify the African races. The name of the religion is derived from ‘Ras’ and ‘Tafari,’ a combination of his name and the noble title ‘Ras,’ which translates to 'prince.'

He died under house arrest in 1975 as the last emperor of Ethiopia. Although his death was ruled to be of natural causes, later investigation revealed that he may have been strangled. His remains were found long after his death and were buried in Addis Ababa.

Facts About Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie was a devout Christian and was known for his strong faith, often attending multiple church services in a day.

He was a passionate advocate for African unity and played a key role in establishing the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963.

Haile Selassie was a lover of animals and had a collection of exotic pets, including lions, at his palace.

He was a talented musician and composer, known for his skills on the piano and organ.

Haile Selassie was a strong supporter of education and worked to modernize Ethiopia's education system during his reign.

See the events in life of Haile Selassie in Chronological Order

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