Famous Italian Sculptors

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Find out more about the greatest Italian Sculptors, including Amedeo Modigliani, Donatello, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Gina Lollobrigida and Benvenuto Cellini.
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 1 
Michelangelo
(Regarded as the Most Accomplished Artist of His Era (High Renaissance))
Michelangelo
4
Birthdate: March 6, 1475
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Caprese Michelangelo, Italy
Died: February 18, 1564

Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet Michelangelo was a prominent figure of the High Renaissance. He is credited to have influenced the Western art in unprecedented ways. He is widely regarded as the greatest artist of his age and one of the greatest artists of all time. He was equally revered and respected as an architect.

 2 
Donatello
(One of the Greatest of All Italian Renaissance Artists)
Donatello
6
Birthdate: 1386 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: December 13, 1466

Donatello was an Italian sculptor best remembered for his most famous work, David, which is often viewed as the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. Donatello is one of the most popular Italian sculptors of all time. He was played by English actor Ben Starr in a historical drama TV series titled Medici: Masters of Florence.

 3 
Amedeo Modigliani
(Italian Painter and Sculptor Known for His Works: ‘Redheaded Girl in Evening Dress’ and ‘Madame Pompadour’)
Amedeo Modigliani
5
Birthdate: July 12, 1884
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Livorno, Italy
Died: January 24, 1920

Amedeo Modigliani was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor. He is remembered for his surrealist and modern-style depiction of nudes in his portraits. Even though he spent his youth in Italy, he worked mainly in France. He enjoyed little success while he was alive. He died young at the age of 35 and received massive posthumous appreciation for his works.

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 4 
Filippo Brunelleschi
(One of the Pioneers of Early Renaissance Architecture in Italy)
Filippo Brunelleschi
4
Birthdate: 1377 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: April 15, 1446

Filippo Brunelleschi was an Italian architect, sculptor, and designer. Regarded as Renaissance architecture's founding father, Brunelleschi is hailed as the first modern engineer. Among his famous accomplishments is the design of the dome of the Florence Cathedral. He is also credited with inventing hydraulic machinery and designing machinery that was used in churches to re-enact Biblical stories through theatrical performances.

 5 
Benvenuto Cellini
(Italian Goldsmith and Sculptor Best Known for His Sculpture 'Cellini Salt Cellar')
Benvenuto Cellini
6
Birthdate: November 3, 1500
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: February 13, 1571

Benvenuto Cellini was a 16th-century Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, and artist. The multifaceted artist wrote poetry and a famous autobiography as well. An important figure in Mannerism, he is known for creating pieces, such as the Cellini Salt Cellar and Perseus with the Head of Medusa. He was a member of the prestigious Accademia delle Arti del Disegno of Florence. 

 6 
Antonio Canova
(Italian Neoclassical Sculptor Famous for His Marble Sculptures)
Antonio Canova
5
Birthdate: November 1, 1757
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Possagno, Italy
Died: October 13, 1822

Antonio Canova was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor widely regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists. He was famous for his marble sculptures. His work was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival. His most notable works include Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss and Perseus Triumphant. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he refused to take in pupils. 

 7 
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(Italian Renaissance Sculptor Best Known as the Creator of Two Sets of Bronze Doors of the Florence Baptistery)
Lorenzo Ghiberti
4
Birthdate: 1378 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: December 1, 1455

Lorenzo Ghiberti was a Florentine Italian artist considered a major figure of the Early Renaissance. He is best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, also called the Gates of Paradise. He was a trained goldsmith and ran a famous workshop for metal sculpture. His son Vittorio followed in his footsteps as a goldsmith. 

 8 
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
(Italian Classical Archaeologist, Architect, and Artist)
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
4
Birthdate: October 4, 1720
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Venice, Italy
Died: November 9, 1778

Italian architect, artist, and archaeologist Giovanni Battista Piranesi is best known for his 16-print series name The Prisons. His remarkable etchings of the famous landmarks of Rome exhibited his unique etching technique, which involved contrasts of light and shade. He made about 2,000 plates throughout his life.

 9 
Andrea del Verrocchio
(Italian Painter, Sculptor and Goldsmith Known for His Equestrian Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni)
Andrea del Verrocchio
4
Birthdate: 1435 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: October 10, 1488

Andrea del Verrocchio was an Italian sculptor, painter, and goldsmith. He was a master of an important workshop in Florence and his pupils included famous men like Leonardo da Vinci, Lorenzo di Credi, and Pietro Perugino. As a sculptor, he is best known for his masterpiece, the Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice. 

 10 
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
(One of the Greatest Sculptors of the 17th Century)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
5
Birthdate: December 7, 1598
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Naples, Italy
Died: November 28, 1680
Son of sculptor Pietro Bernini, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, introduced the Baroque style of sculpture to the world. Known for his masterpieces such as Apollo and Daphne and David, he excelled in depicting the fine details of skin and hair in his marble creations. His commissioned creations include St. Peter's baldachin.
 11 
Maurizio Cattelan
(Italian Artist Known for His Hyperrealistic Sculptures and Installations)
Maurizio Cattelan
3
Birthdate: September 21, 1960
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Padua, Veneto, Italy

Maurizio Cattelan is an Italian artist best known for his hyperrealistic sculptures and installations. He has a satirical approach to art and is often considered a joker or prankster of the art world. His works have been exhibited internationally in museums. One of his best-known works is America, a fully functional toilet made of solid gold. 

 12 
Umberto Boccioni
(Painter and Sculptor)
Umberto Boccioni
3
Birthdate: October 19, 1882
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Reggio Calabria, Italy
Died: August 17, 1916

Umberto Boccioni was an Italian painter and sculptor credited to have shaped the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement. Even though he died at the young age of 33, he left behind a rich legacy as an artist. He was of a rebellious nature and played a key role in the development of the Futurism movement. 

 13 
Lorenzo Quinn
(Sculptor)
Lorenzo Quinn
3
Birthdate: May 7, 1966
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Rome, Italy

Lorenzo Quinn is an Italian sculptor whose works can be seen in places like the UK and Spain. Apart from being a sculptor, Quinn also works with charity organizations and donates his sculptures to charitable causes. He is also credited with designing MOTO GP championships' Ride The World trophy. A multi-talented personality, Quinn also co-owns a restaurant named Galeria Gastronomica.

 14 
Giuliano Gemma
(Actor best known internationally for his work in Spaghetti Westerns, particularly for his performances as the title character in Duccio Tessari's A Pistol for Ringo (1965))
Giuliano Gemma
3
Birthdate: September 2, 1938
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: October 1, 2013

Giuliano Gemma was an Italian actor best remembered for his performances in Spaghetti Westerns. Giuliano Gemma achieved international recognition for his portrayal of the title role in Duccio Tessari's A Pistol for Ringo. The success of the movie earned him title roles in subsequent Spaghetti Westerns, such as The Return of Ringo and Michele Lupo's Arizona Colt.

 15 
Giambologna
(Italian Renaissance Sculptor)
Giambologna
3
Birthdate: 1529 AD
Birthplace: Douai, France
Died: August 13, 1608

Giambologna was a Flemish sculptor best remembered for his bronze and marble statuary in a Mannerist or late Renaissance style. Among his most important works are Mercury and the Rape of the Sabine Women. He also served as an important influence on other popular sculptors like Pierre Puget, Pietro Tacca, Alessandro Algardi, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. 

 16 
Arturo Di Modica
3
Birthdate: January 26, 1941
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Vittoria, Italy
Died: February 19, 2021

Arturo Di Modica was a sculptor best known for creating the bronze sculpture Charging Bull. Born in Italy during World War II, he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze and later moved to USA. He opened his own studios and built a brilliant career, often holding major exhibitions. His Charging Bull has often been featured in media. 

 17 
Paolo Soleri
(Former Architect who established the educational Cosanti Foundation and Arcosant)
Paolo Soleri
3
Birthdate: June 21, 1919
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Turin, Italy
Died: April 9, 2013

Paolo Soleri was an Italian architect and educator who taught at the Arizona State University's College of Architecture. He is credited with establishing the Cosanti Foundation and also introduced the concept of arcology, a synthesis of ecology and architecture. A respected architect, Paolo Soleri won several prestigious awards like the American National Design Award and AIA Gold Medal.

 18 
Gentile Bellini
(Italian Painter and One of the Founders of the Orientalist Tradition in Western Painting)
Gentile Bellini
3
Birthdate: 1429 AD
Birthplace: Venice, Italy
Died: February 23, 1507

Gentile Bellini was an Italian painter affiliated with the school of Venice. He hailed from Venice's leading family of painters and was the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice. He worked for the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in Constantinople for several months. He was a co-founder of the Orientalist tradition in Western painting.  

 19 
Lucio Fontana
(Painter)
Lucio Fontana
3
Birthdate: February 19, 1899
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Rosario, Argentina
Died: September 7, 1968

Lucio Fontana was an Argentine-Italian painter, sculptor, and theorist best known as the founder of Spatialism. The son of a sculptor, he followed in his father’s footsteps and studied at Accademia di Brera under the tutelage of sculptor Adolfo Wildt. He was prolific painter and held numerous stagings and exhibitions of his works. He was a co-founder of the Altamira Academy. 

 20 
Domitilla Harding
(Designer, Artist)
Domitilla Harding
3
Birthplace: Rome, Italy

Domitilla Harding is an Italian designer and artist, who once worked as a designer with the Miss Italy fashion label. She has also designed furniture in the past and currently works as a glass sculptor with glass master Andrea Zilio. From her mother’s side, she has links to the House of della Rovere, an Italian noble family. 

 21 
Bonanno Pisano
(Sculptor)
Bonanno Pisano
3
Birthplace: Pisa, Italy

Bonanno Pisano was a 12th-century Italian sculptor. He combined Byzantine and classical elements in his works. He was the creator of the bronze Porta Reale of the cathedral of Pisa, which was destroyed in the great fire of 1595. Mafia boss Joseph Bonanno claimed to be a descendant of Pisano, although there is no evidence to support this claim. 

 22 
Nicola Pisano
(Sculptor)
Nicola Pisano
3
Birthdate: 1220 AD
Birthplace: Pisa, Italy
Died: 1284 AD

Thirteenth-century Italian sculptor Nicola Pisano was a master of Gothic art. One of his best-known works was the Pisa baptistery’s pulpit. He was also the father of sculptor Giovanni Pisano, who finished much of his work. Though his origins aren’t clear, he is referred to as the Master Nicola from Apulia.

 23 
Antonio Corradini
3
Birthdate: October 19, 1688
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Venice, Italy
Died: August 12, 1752

Antonio Corradini was an Italian Rococo sculptor from Venice best known for his sculpture Veiled Truth (also called Modesty or Chastity). After spending much of his career as a migrant artist traveling to different parts of Europe, he was made court sculptor for Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in Vienna. He resumed traveling after the emperor’s death. 

 24 
Alberto Burri
(Italian Visual Artist and Painter Associated with the 'Matterism' of the European Informal Art Movement)
Alberto Burri
3
Birthdate: March 12, 1915
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Città di Castello, Italy
Died: February 13, 1995

Known for his artistic innovations, Alberto Burri was one of the most important artists of the Italian post-war period. Although passionate about painting since his childhood, he grew up to be army doctor, returning to the art while being interned as prisoner-of-war. Today, he is known as the precursor of Italian contemporary art, having direct influence on Arte Povera movement.  

 25 
Giovanni Strazza
2
Birthdate: 1818 AD
Birthplace: Milan, Italy
Died: 1875 AD

Giovanni Strazza is perhaps best known for his unique artwork The Veiled Virgin, a stunning and realistic depiction of the Virgin Mary, with a veil draped over her, made of high-quality Carrara marble, derived from Tuscany. The Italian sculptor taught at his alma, Brera Academy in Milan.

 26 
Luca della Robbia
(Italian Renaissance Sculptor)
Luca della Robbia
3
Birthdate: 1400 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: February 10, 1482

Sculptor Luca della Robbia is best remembered for launching his own studio of enameled terra-cotta. While he initially specialized in marble work, he was also one of the first to work in the Florentine Renaissance style. The Resurrection lunette of the Florence Cathedral is one of his best-known works

 27 
Arnaldo Pomodoro
2
Birthdate: June 23, 1926
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Morciano di Romagna, Italy

Known for his singular artistic language, underpinned by his extraordinary craftsmanship, Italian sculptor Arnaldo Pomodoro developed an interest in art and scenography while working for the Public Works Department. However, it was not until he attended an exhibition of Picasso in 1953 that he decided to devote his life to art, eventually creating many masterpieces including the Sfera con Sfera

 28 
Rembrandt Bugatti
2
Birthdate: October 16, 1884
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Milan, Italy
Died: January 8, 1916

Rembrandt Bugatti is best remembered for his animal sculptures made of bronze. The son of Art Nouveau designer Carlo Bugatti, he initially worked with plasticine. He later created sculptures modeled on the animals of Antwerp Zoo and eventually committed suicide when the zoo started killing its animals due to food shortage.

 29 
Arnolfo di Cambio
(Former architect, sculptor who designed Florence Cathedral and the sixth city wall around Florence (1284-1333))
Arnolfo di Cambio
2
Birthdate: 1240 AD
Birthplace: Colle di Val d'Elsa, Italy
Died: March 8, 1310
 30 
Fortunato Depero
(Painter, Sculptor, Graphic designer, Writer)
Fortunato Depero
2
Birthdate: March 30, 1892
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Fondo
Died: November 29, 1960

Italian painter, sculptor, and graphic designer Fortunato Depero was one of the main figures of the Second Futurism movement. He later launched Italy’s first museum on the Futurist movement, the Casa d’Arte Futurista Depero. He also established himself as a successful interior designer, costume designer, and advertiser in New York.

 31 
Daniele da Volterra
(Mannerist Italian Painter and Sculptor Known for His Association with 'Michelangelo')
Daniele da Volterra
3
Birthdate: 1509 AD
Birthplace: Volterra, Italy
Died: April 4, 1566

Daniele da Volterra was a 16th-century Mannerist Italian painter and sculptor. He became an apprentice to painter Perino del Vaga as a young boy and worked alongside him. He later befriended Michelangelo and often collaborated with him. His best-known painting is the Descent from the Cross. He trained many pupils, including painter Michele Alberti. 

 32 
Michelozzo
(Italian Architect and Sculptor)
Michelozzo
2
Birthdate: 1396 AD
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: October 7, 1472

Michelozzo, one of the chief figures of the Florentine Renaissance movement, initially learned bronze work under the guidance of Lorenzo Ghiberti. Throughout his career, he built everything from tombs to libraries and monasteries. He was also associated with the Medicis, and one of his best-known works was the Palazzo Medici Riccardi.

 33 
Francesco Queirolo
2
Birthdate: 1704 AD
Birthplace: Genoa, Italy
Died: 1762 AD

Through his stunningly realistic masterpiece, Il Disinganno, or Release from Deception, which he completed in 7 years, Italian sculptor Francesco Queirolo symbolically showed a man’s release from sins. The fisherman’s net in the sculpture is so intricately carved that people don’t believe it’s made out of marble.

 34 
Pietro Torrigiano
2
Birthdate: November 24, 1472
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: July 31, 1528

Florentine sculptor and painter Pietro Torrigiano was the first to introduce Italian Renaissance art to England. He had studied under Lorenzo de’ Medici and had artists such as Michelangelo as his classmates. Known for the tombs he created in Westminster Abbey, he specialized in bronze art.

 35 
Giovanni Pisano
(Sculptor)
Giovanni Pisano
2
Birthdate: 1250 AD
Birthplace: Pisa, Italy
Died: 1315 AD

Italian sculptor Giovanni Pisano began his career under the tutorship of his sculptor-father Nicola, working with him at the pulpit of Siena Cathedral.  Later, he started working independently, slowly developing a style of his own, sculpting the statues on the façade of the same cathedral, a work that showcases his tendencies to blend French Gothic art with ancient Roman art. 

 36 
Vincenzo Amato
2
Birthdate: March 30, 1966
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Palermo, Italy

Vincenzo Amato was the son of stage director and musician Emma Muzzi Loffredo. He has appeared in major roles in films such as Once We Were Strangers and Respiro. He is also a skilled painter and a talented iron sculptor. He is a polyglot and now stays in New York.

 37 
Marino Marini
(Italian sculptor)
Marino Marini
2
Birthdate: February 27, 1901
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Pistoia, Italy
Died: August 6, 1980

Marino Marini had initially studied painting, and though he never gave it up, he later gained fame for his sculptures. His works primarily consist of two major figures: the equestrian and the female nude. He also taught at the Brera Academy. He fused Roman works with German Gothic themes.

 38 
Jacopo Sansovino
(Italian Renaissance Sculptor and Architect Who Introduced the Style of the High Renaissance into Venice)
Jacopo Sansovino
2
Birthdate: July 2, 1486
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: November 27, 1570

One of the leading sculptors and architects of the Venetian Renaissance era, Jacopo Sansovino specialized in marble and bronze sculptures. An acquaintance of Pietro Aretino and Titian, he was also made the chief architect of Venice. As a sign of respect, he had adopted his teacher Andrea Sansovino’s surname.

 39 
Filarete
(Architect)
Filarete
2
Birthdate: 1400
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: 1469 AD

Best remembered for his Treatise on Architecture, Filarete was a Florentine architect, sculptor, medalist and author. Born Antonio di Pietro Averlino, he was given the name Filarete, meaning lover of excellence, possibly by his teacher Lorenzo Ghiberti. Later, he began working independently, building the bronze central doors of Old St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and Ospedale Maggiore in Milan.

 40 
Francesco di Giorgio Martini
(Italian Architect, Painter and Sculptor Best Known for Four Bronze Figures for the High Altar of 'Siena Cathedral')
Francesco di Giorgio Martini
2
Birthdate: September 23, 1439
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Siena, Italy
Died: November 29, 1502

Francesco di Giorgio was a multidimensional person and was a sculptor, painter, writer, architect, and engineer at the same time. The quintessential Renaissance man, he was later chiefly known as an architect and served Duke Federico da Montefeltro. As a sculptor, he specialized in bronze sculptures.

 41 
Giuseppe Sanmartino
2
Birthdate: 1720 AD
Birthplace: Naples, Italy
Died: December 12, 1793

Giuseppe Sanmartino is best remembered for his stunning marble work Veiled Christ, a depiction of a deceased Christ under a shroud, that was left incomplete by Antonio Corradini. The statue earned him further commissions from Bourbons and various Neapolitan churches. He also worked on silver sculptures in his final days.

 42 
Giacomo della Porta
(Italian Architect and Sculptor)
Giacomo della Porta
2
Birthdate: 1532 AD
Birthplace: Porlezza, Italy
Died: 1602 AD

Italian architect Giacomo della Porta was instrumental in the transition of Mannerism to early Baroque style. Born into a family of sculptors, he grew up to become a Roman renaissance figure. He also designed palaces such as Villa Aldobrandini and structures such as the façade of the Church of Gesù.

 43 
Andrea Pisano
(Italian Sculptor and Architect)
Andrea Pisano
2
Birthdate: 1290 AD
Birthplace: Pontedera, Italy
Died: 1348 AD

Fourteenth-century Italian sculptor Andrea Pisano was initially trained as a goldsmith. His major works include three bronze doors of the cathedral of Florence, apart from many significant marble works. He also contributed to ending the Byzantine influence on modern art and had also been the superintending architect of Orvieto cathedral.

 44 
Properzia de Rossi
2
Birthdate: 1490 AD
Birthplace: Bologna, Italy
Died: 1530 AD
Properzia de' Rossi was an Italian sculptor whose works, especially her marble portrait busts, gained her popularity. De' Rossi was also a controversial figure; her life has generally been described as tumultuous and she was also accused of vandalism of a garden and assault of another sculptor named Amico Aspertini.
 45 
Andrea della Robbia
(Italian Renaissance Sculptor)
Andrea della Robbia
2
Birthdate: October 20, 1435
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: August 4, 1525
Italian Renaissance sculptor Andrea della Robbia was the nephew of renowned terra-cotta sculptor Luca della Robbia. Andrea specialized in marble work and narrative sculpture. His creations can be found at the Foundling Hospital, Florence, and the Pistoia Cathedral. He also created many versions of the Madonna and Child.
 46 
Jacopo della Quercia
(Italian Sculptor)
Jacopo della Quercia
2
Birthdate: 1374 AD
Birthplace: Siena, Italy
Died: October 20, 1438

Jacopo della Quercia was an Italian sculptor who was regarded as the most important sculptor in Siena at that time. Not surprisingly, he was commissioned to work on several prominent sculptures including the Trenta Chapel in Lucca's Basilica of San Frediano. Jacopo della Quercia is also credited with decorating the chapel of Saint Sebastian in Siena Cathedral.

 47 
Alessandro Algardi
(Italian Sculptor)
Alessandro Algardi
2
Birthdate: July 31, 1598
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bologna, Italy
Died: June 10, 1654

Alessandro Algardi was an Italian sculptor and a popular exponent of the high-Baroque style of architecture. Along with Pietro da Cortona and Francesco Borromini, Algardi was counted among the major rivals of another popular sculptor and architect, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Alessandro Algardi is best remembered for his portrait busts that have great dignity and vivacity.

 48 
Bartolomeo Ammannati
(Italian Architect and Sculptor)
Bartolomeo Ammannati
1
Birthdate: June 18, 1511
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Settignano, Italy
Died: April 13, 1592

Bartolomeo Ammannati was an Italian sculptor and architect. He is credited with constructing the original Ponte Santa Trinita, which was rebuilt in 1957 after its destruction during the Second World War. A respected architect of his time, Bartolomeo Ammannati was commissioned to work on several ambitious projects including the Fountain of Neptune in Florence. 

 49 
Niccolò dell'Arca
2
Birthdate: 1434 AD
Birthplace: Bari, Italy
Died: March 2, 1493

Niccolò dell'Arca was a sculptor remembered for his artistic contribution to Arca di San Domenico, a monument that took almost 500 years to complete, with contributions from the best sculptors of their time. Other important works of his include a marble statue of St. John the Baptist, the terracotta bust of Saint Dominic, and the terracotta figure of Saint Monica.

 50 
Leone Leoni
(Italian Sculptor)
Leone Leoni
1
Birthdate: 1509 AD
Birthplace: Arezzo, Italy
Died: July 22, 1590

Leone Leoni was an Italian sculptor who was considered the best of the Cinquecento medallists. During his lifetime, Leoni was commissioned to design several important medals, including Michelangelo's 88th birthday medal. He was also commissioned to sculpt the busts of prominent personalities like Charles V, Philip II, and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy.