Throughout history, there have been many American women astronomers who have made significant contribution to the field. The list includes many familiar and great American female astronomers such as Annie Jump Cannon, Maria Mitchell, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Amy Mainzer.
Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868, American
Astronomer
Annie Jump CannonAnnie Jump Cannon
11 December 1863, American
Astronomer

Maria MitchellMaria Mitchell
01 August 1818, American
Astronomer

Cecilia Payne-GaposchkinCecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
10 May 1900, British, American
Astronomer, University teacher

Vera RubinVera Rubin
23 July 1928, American
Astronomer

Michelle ThallerMichelle Thaller
American
 
Carolyn S. ShoemakerCarolyn S. Shoemaker
24 June 1929, American
Astronomer

Williamina FlemingWilliamina Fleming
15 May 1857, British, American, Scottish
Astronomer

Amy MainzerAmy Mainzer
02 January 1974, American
astronomer

Valerie ThomasValerie Thomas
1943 AD, American
scientist and inventor