Famous 18th Century Biologists

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 1 
Carl Linnaeus
(Botanist)
Carl Linnaeus
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Birthdate: May 23, 1707
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Linnés Råshults Stiftelse, Älmhult Municipality, Sweden
Died: January 10, 1778

Swedish botanist and lecturer Carl Linnaeus, who established the concept of binomial nomenclature, or the system of naming organisms, is also known as the father of modern taxonomy. His system of classification is known as Linnaean taxonomy. He was the first to include humans and apes under the header Anthropomorpha.

 2 
Edward Jenner
(Physicians)
Edward Jenner
4
Birthdate: May 17, 1749
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Berkeley, England
Died: January 26, 1823

Edward Jenner was an English scientist and physician. Referred to as the father of immunology, Jenner is credited with pioneering the concept of vaccines. Jenner's work laid the foundation for subsequent discoveries in the field of immunology; his work is believed to have saved more lives than any other work. In 2002, Jenner was included in BBC’s Greatest Britons list.

 3 
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Naturalist and Biologist Best Known for Proposing that Acquired Characteristics can be Inherited.)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
4
Birthdate: August 1, 1744
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bazentin, France
Died: December 18, 1829

French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck acquired his love for plants while serving as a soldier in the French army. Following an injury, he quit his military career but retained his love for botany. He later taught zoology, studied the classification of invertebrates, and also coined the term biology.

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 4 
Lazzaro Spallanzani
(Italian Physiologist and Biologist Who Made Significant Contributions to the Study of Animal Reproduction and Bodily Functions)
Lazzaro Spallanzani
3
Birthdate: January 12, 1729
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Scandiano, Italy
Died: February 11, 1799

Lazzaro Spallanzani was an Italian physiologist, biologist, and Catholic priest. He is best remembered for making significant contributions to the study of animal reproduction, bodily functions, and animal echolocation. Lazzaro Spallanzani's research on biogenesis was the first step towards debunking the theory of spontaneous generation.

 5 
John Needham
(British Naturalist, Biologist, and Clergyman Who Supported the Theory of Spontaneous Generation)
John Needham
2
Birthdate: September 10, 1713
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: London, England
Died: December 30, 1781
 6 
William Hunter
(Physician)
William Hunter
2
Birthdate: May 23, 1718
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Long Calderwood, Scotland
Died: March 30, 1783

Physician William Hunter is remembered for his efforts in making obstetrics a branch of medicine. After observing medical students in France, he introduced the use of cadavers for dissection in Britain. The Hunterian Museum in Scotland started with a collection of his belongings, including books and works of art.

 7 
Robert Bakewell
(Agriculturalist)
Robert Bakewell
2
Birthdate: May 23, 1725
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Dishley, England
Died: October 1, 1795
 8 
Bernard Germain de Lacépède
(French Naturalist Known for Continuing Comte de Buffon's Encyclopaedic Collection 'Histoire Naturelle')
Bernard Germain de Lacépède
1
Birthdate: December 26, 1756
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Agen, France
Died: October 6, 1825

French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède is best known for his contribution to fellow French naturalist Comte de Buffon's Histoire Naturelle. He enriched the world’s knowledge of fishes and reptiles. Following the rise of Napoleon, Lacépède joined the French Senate and later became a minister of Bourbon state.

 9 
Lorenz Oken
(One of the Most Prominent German Natural Philosophers of the 19th Century)
Lorenz Oken
1
Birthdate: August 1, 1779
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bohlsbach, Germany
Died: August 11, 1851

German naturalist and botanist Lorenz Oken is remembered as one of the most significant German natural philosophers of the 19th century and a leader of the Naturphilosophie movement. His studies on Wolfgang von Goethe’s theory on the vertebrate skull helped prepare ground for Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

 10 
Giovanni Antonio Scopoli
(Italian Naturalist and Physician)
Giovanni Antonio Scopoli
1
Birthdate: June 3, 1723
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Cavalese, Italy
Died: May 8, 1788

Giovanni Antonio Scopoli was an Italian naturalist and physician. He published a number of taxonomic works, such as Entomologia Carniolica, which described hundreds of new species. Giovanni Antonio Scopoli also served as a professor at the University of Pavia and the Mining Academy in Schemnitz.

 11 
Patrick Matthew
(Agriculturalist)
Patrick Matthew
1
Birthdate: October 20, 1790
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Scotland, United Kingdom
Died: June 8, 1874
 12 
Jeanne Villepreux-Power
(Pioneering French Marine Biologist Who Invented the Systematic Application of the Aquarium in Order to Study Marine Life)
Jeanne Villepreux-Power
1
Birthdate: September 24, 1794
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Juillac, France
Died: January 25, 1871

Jeanne Villepreux-Power was a French marine biologist. She is credited with creating aquaria in 1832 in order to experiment with aquatic organisms. Nicknamed the Mother of Aquariophily, Villepreux-Power also invented the systematic application of the aquarium in order to study marine life. Jeanne Villepreux-Power was also a well-known author, conservationist, and dressmaker.

 13 
Antoine de Jussieu
(French Botanist Who Founded a Natural System of Plant Classification)
Antoine de Jussieu
0
Birthdate: July 6, 1686
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lyon, France
Died: April 22, 1758

Starting his career as a botany demonstrator at the Jardin du Roi, French botanist Antoine de Jussieu later went on to establish his own principles of plant classification. He also taught at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle and practiced medicine, mostly treating the poor and the needy.

 14 
Robert Marsham
(Biologist)
Robert Marsham
0
Birthdate: January 27, 1708
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Stratton Strawless, United Kingdom
Died: September 4, 1797