Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of United States and the first one to be elected from the Democratic Party. He was a lawyer, planter, and an army man but is most remembered as one of the greatest presidents of the United States. After being tortured in the captivity of British Army and orphaned as a teenager, he developed a fierce hatred towards the British, which was the driving force for the rest of his life. He gained national fame through his role in the War of 1812, where he won decisive victories over the Indians and the main British invasion army at the Battle of New Orleans. After losing in the first attempt, he was elected as President of United States in his second attempt. He was the first President to truly embrace the powers of the presidency. He strongly believed in preserving the union and power of democracy. Although, his personal life was highly criticized and remained a cause of discomfort throughout his life, he never surrendered to his opponents and kept fighting until the end of his life. He is regarded as one of the most influential U.S. presidents in history, as well as one of the most aggressive and controversial. He is often referred as the first ‘people’s president’ for expanding the role of the President from mere executive to active representative of the people.
- He was born on March 15, 1767, in Waxhaws border region between The Carolinas, to Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson. He had two elder brothers, Hugh and Robert.His parents were Scott-Irish colonists, who landed in Philadelphia when they immigrated to America in 1765. His father died in February 1767, three weeks before Andrew was born, in an accident. His mother died while nursing prisoners of war, after contracting cholera in 1781.His eldest sibling, Hugh, died of heatstroke following the Battle of Stone Ferry in 1779. His brother Robert also died in 1781 after contracting smallpox. After being orphaned, he lived briefly with his extended family in Waxhaws.He received his early education from private tutors and then attended the local school before studying law in Salisbury, North Carolina, in his late teens.In 1787, after apprenticing with prominent lawyers for three years, he was granted license to practice and moved to Jonesborough.Career
- In 1796, he was elected as a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention. He was elected as Tennessee’s U.S. Representative, after it achieved statehood.In 1797, he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican, but he resigned within a year.From 1798 to 1804, he served as the judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court.In 1801, he was also appointed commander of the Tennessee militia, with the rank of colonel.He served in the War of 1812 and his troops defeated the British in New Orleans under his leadership. After this military success, he was appointed Major General.In 1817, during the First Seminole War, he and his troops captured Pensacola, Florida. He was named Florida's military governor in March 1821.In 1822, he was nominated for Presidential elections by the Tennessee legislature and he was also elected as its U.S. Senator. But Jackson lost the 1824 presidential elections to John Quincy Adams.In 1828, he re-contested for the post of President and involved Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp. This time, he defeated Adams and became the seventh President of United States.In 1832 elections, he was again nominated as the Presidential candidate by the Democratic Party. The rechartering of the Second National Bank became the primary issue during this election and he vetoed the bill, believing that bank was basically a corrupt monopoly whose stock was mostly held by foreigners. His decision earned him the favor of the common man and he was re-elected as the President of United States.Major Works
- His work as an army commander was commendable and extraordinary. He became a national war hero after defeating the British in New Orleans. He was a strict officer but popular with his troops, which acquired him the popular nickname ‘Old Hickory’.As the President of United States, his works were highly respected and admired by the citizens of America. One of his greatest feats as the president was his firm stand in the battle against the monopoly of the Second Bank of the United States. He was referred to as the first "citizen-president", representing the common man.Awards & Achievements
- In 1815, he received the Thanks of Congress and a Congressional Gold Medal as his war commemorate.Personal Life & Legacy
- He married Rachel Donelson, a married woman, whom he believed to have been divorced from her husband after separation. However, the divorce had never been completed, making their marriage invalid. After the divorce was officially completed, they remarried in 1794. They had no children of their own.He adopted three sons, Theodore, an Indian orphan; Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson; and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan. He also volunteered and became the guardian of eight other children.Rachel died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828. He was grief-stricken and severely depressed by her death. He never remarried.He died on June 8, 1845 in Nashville, Tennessee, of chronic tuberculosis, dropsy, and heart failure. His body was interred at The Hermitage Nashville, Tennessee.
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