A 3rd-century queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra, which is in present-day Syria, Zenobia took over as the regent of her son, Wahballat, after the assassination of her husband, Odaenathus. She conquered Egypt and much of Asia Minor. Though she declared her independence from Rome, she was defeated eventually.
The 10th Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik reigned during a relatively calm period. His main goal was to defend the vast empire that he had inherited. He built countless castles and palaces in Syria. He is also believed to have reformed the agricultural taxation system of his kingdom.
Second century BC king of Syria Alexander Balas ruled over the Seleucid Empire. He made Jonathan Maccabeus the Jewish governor, thus appeasing Palestine. He was helped by the Roman Senate and the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty during his reign but was killed in combat against Demetrius II Nicator.
Hellenistic Seleucid monarch Seleucus VI Epiphanes grew up amid a civil war between his father, Antiochus VIII, and his uncle, Antiochus IX, and seized power after killing his uncle in a battle. Known for his ruthlessness, he taxed his people heavily to support his wars. He was apparently burnt alive by rioters.