Famous Scottish Biologists

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 1 
Alexander Fleming
(Physician and Microbiologist Who Discovered ‘Penicillin’ World’s First Broadly Effective Antibiotic Substance)
Alexander Fleming
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Birthdate: August 6, 1881
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Darvel, East Ayrshire, Scotland
Died: March 11, 1955

Alexander Fleming was a Scottish microbiologist and physician. He is credited with discovering penicillin, the world's first effective antibiotic substance; a discovery that changed the course of history. He also discovered lysozyme, an antimicrobial enzyme which forms part of the innate immune system. In 1999, Fleming was named in Time magazine's 100 Most Important People of the 20th century list.

 2 
John Muir
(Naturalist)
John Muir
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Birthdate: April 21, 1838
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dunbar
Died: December 24, 1914

John Muir was a Scottish-American naturalist, environmental philosopher, glaciologist, botanist, zoologist, and author. Nicknamed Father of the National Parks and John of the Mountains, Muir was an influential proponent of the preservation of wilderness in the US. He is credited with co-founding the American conservation organization, The Sierra Club. Muir is considered a hero by many environmentalists around the world.

 3 
Patrick Geddes
(Scottish Biologist, Sociologist and Pioneering Town Planner Who Coined the Term 'Conurbation')
Patrick Geddes
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Birthdate: October 2, 1854
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Ballater, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Died: April 17, 1932

Apart from being a sociologist and biologist, Patrick Geddes was known for his impeccable sense of town planning. While he initially taught botany in Dundee, he later turned to sociology and conducted studies in India, Mexico, and other countries. He was eventually knighted for his achievements.

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 4 
Naomi Mitchison
(Novelist)
Naomi Mitchison
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Birthdate: November 1, 1897
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: January 11, 1999

Known for authoring books such as Memoirs of a Spacewoman and The Conquered, Naomi Mitchison was also a driven socialist. She served as an advisor to Botswana’s Bakgatla tribe and had also been a farmer. Honored with numerous awards and honorary doctorates, she lived till age 101.

D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson
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Birthdate: May 2, 1860
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: June 21, 1948

D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson was a Scottish mathematician, biologist, and classics scholar. A pioneer of mathematical biology, Thompson is best remembered for writing a book titled On Growth and Form, which is widely admired by architects, anthropologists, and biologists among others. Over the course of his illustrious career, D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson received several prestigious awards like the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal.

 6 
William Hunter
(Physician)
William Hunter
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Birthdate: May 23, 1718
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Long Calderwood, Scotland
Died: March 30, 1783

Physician William Hunter is remembered for his efforts in making obstetrics a branch of medicine. After observing medical students in France, he introduced the use of cadavers for dissection in Britain. The Hunterian Museum in Scotland started with a collection of his belongings, including books and works of art.

 7 
Ivan T. Sanderson
(Biologist, Writer)
Ivan T. Sanderson
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Birthdate: January 30, 1911
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: February 19, 1973
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 8 
John Boyd Orr
(Teacher)
John Boyd Orr
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Birthdate: September 23, 1880
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kilmaurs, Scotland
Died: June 25, 1971

Apart from being a scientist and physician, John Boyd Orr also conducted ground-breaking research on nutrition. The Nobel Peace Prize winner, who was known for his campaigns to end world hunger, had also served the British army and navy as a medical officer. He was later knighted, too.

 9 
Patrick Matthew
(Agriculturalist)
Patrick Matthew
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Birthdate: October 20, 1790
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Scotland, United Kingdom
Died: June 8, 1874
 10 
Robert Chambers
(Geologist)
Robert Chambers
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Birthdate: July 10, 1802
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Peebles, Scotland
Died: March 17, 1871
 11 
John Goodsir
(Anatomist)
John Goodsir
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Birthdate: March 20, 1814
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Anstruther, Scotland
Died: March 6, 1867
 12 
Francis Maitland Balfour
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Birthdate: November 10, 1851
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland,
Died: July 19, 1882
 13 
Iain Mattaj
(Biologist)
Iain Mattaj
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Birthdate: October 5, 1952
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: St Andrews, United Kingdom