Famous Russian Philosophers

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 1 
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
(Novelist & Writer Best Known for His Work 'The Gulag Archipelago')
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
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Birthdate: December 11, 1918
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Kislovodsk, Russia
Died: August 3, 2008

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, philosopher, historian, and political prisoner. An outspoken critic of Communism and the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn helped raise awareness of the Gulag, a government agency that oversaw forced labor camps set up in accordance with Vladimir Lenin's order. His non-fiction text The Gulag Archipelago was a highly influential work and sold millions of copies.

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Helena Blavatsky
(Writer, Co-founder of the Theosophical Society)
Helena Blavatsky
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Birthdate: August 12, 1831
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Dnipro, Ukraine
Died: May 8, 1891

Russian philosopher Helena Blavatsky, or Madame Blavatsky, was one of the co-founders of the Theosophical Society. She popularized the slogan “There is no religion higher than truth.” She was inspired by the Arya Samaj and later converted to Buddhism. She also wrote books such as The Secret Doctrine.

 3 
Peter Kropotkin
(Anarchist, Socialist & Historian)
Peter Kropotkin
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Birthdate: December 9, 1842
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: February 8, 1921

Russian philosopher Peter Kropotkin was a passionate advocate of anarcho-communism. He was also an activist, revolutionary, economist, and sociologist. He was arrested and imprisoned for his activism in 1874. However, he managed to escape and lived in exile for over 40 years in different countries across Europe. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. 

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 4 
George Gurdjieff
(Russian Philosopher and Spiritual Teacher Known for His Work ‘All and Everything’)
George Gurdjieff
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Birthdate: 1866 AD
Birthplace: Gyumri, Armenia
Died: October 29, 1949

Born to a poet and carpenter, George Gurdjieff grew up reading a lot of science books in his hometown, Kars. He later laid down the concept of The Fourth Way, stating that humans can overcome their state of waking sleep through methods involving a combination of music, dance, and lectures.

 5 
Aleksandr Dugin
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Birthdate: January 7, 1962
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia

One of the prime organizers of the National Bolshevik Party, Russian politologist Aleksandr Dugin is known for his association with fascism. He supports the creation of a Eurasian empire, which will oppose North Atlantic interests. He has also penned books such as The Fourth Political Theory and Foundations of Geopolitics.

 6 
Mikhail Bakhtin
(Russian Literary Theorist and Philosopher Known for His Work ‘Toward a Philosophy of the Act’)
Mikhail Bakhtin
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Birthdate: November 17, 1895
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Oryol, Russia
Died: March 7, 1975
Mikhail Bakhtin was a Russian philosopher, scholar, and literary critic who worked on ethics, literary theory, and the philosophy of language. Bakhtin's writings inspired scholars who were working on various traditions, such as structuralism, semiotics, religious criticism, and Marxism. Mikhail Bakhtin is also credited with influencing various Western schools of theory.
 7 
Nicholas Roerich
(Russian Painter, Archaeologist and Philosopher)
Nicholas Roerich
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Birthdate: October 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: December 13, 1947

Russian painter, writer, philosopher, theosophist and archaeologist, Nicholas Roerich, counted among the greatest Russian painters, is noted for initiating the modern movement for the defense of cultural objects. One of the greatest feats that he achieved during his lifetime was the Roerich Pact that was signed into law by the US and most nations of the Pan-American Union.

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 8 
Mikhail Bakunin
(Philosopher)
Mikhail Bakunin
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Birthdate: May 30, 1814
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Russia
Died: July 1, 1876

Mikhail Bakunin was a Russian socialist and anarchist. He is credited with founding an anarchist school of thought called collectivist anarchism. Regarded as one of the most influential personalities of anarchism, Mikhail Bakunin has had a major influence on thinkers like Peter Kropotkin, Herbert Marcuse, Errico Malatesta, Neil Postman, E. P. Thompson, and A. S. Neill.    

 9 
Alexander Bogdanov
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Birthdate: August 22, 1873
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sokolka, Poland
Died: April 7, 1928

Alexander Bogdanov was a Russian physician, science fiction writer, philosopher, and Bolshevik revolutionary. Bogdanov is credited with inventing Tektology, which is widely considered a forerunner of systems theory. A multi-talented personality, Alexander Bogdanov was also a renowned economist and culture theorist.

 10 
Nikolai Bukharin
(General Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (1926-1929))
Nikolai Bukharin
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Birthdate: October 9, 1888
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: March 15, 1938
Marxist economist Nikolai Bukharin was drawn toward the Bolshevik ideology while studying economics. Though a staunch communist and a chief ally of Joseph Stalin, Bukharin was later falsely accused of spying and engaging in counter-revolutionary activities. Following his execution, he was posthumously made a party member in 1988.
 11 
P. D. Ouspensky
(Philosopher, Writer)
P. D. Ouspensky
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Birthdate: March 5, 1878
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kharkiv, Ukraine
Died: October 2, 1947
 12 
Vladimir Solovyov
(Philosopher)
Vladimir Solovyov
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Birthdate: January 28, 1853
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: August 13, 1900
 13 
Nikolai Berdyaev
(Former philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person)
Nikolai Berdyaev
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Birthdate: March 18, 1874
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kiev, Ukraine
Died: March 24, 1948
 14 
Alexander Herzen
(Father of Russian socialism)
Alexander Herzen
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Birthdate: April 6, 1812
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: January 21, 1870

Alexander Herzen was a Russian thinker and writer. Regarded as the father of Russian socialism, Herzen played an influential role in the political set up of the 19th and 20th century. He also influenced personalities like Isaiah Berlin, who regarded Herzen as his hero. Herzen's book My Past and Thoughts is considered one of the best autobiographies in Russian literature.

 15 
Alexander Blok
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Birthdate: November 28, 1880
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: August 7, 1921
 16 
Lev Shestov
(Former existentialist and religious philosopher best known for his critiques of both philosophic rationalism and scientism)
Lev Shestov
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Birthdate: February 12, 1866
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kyiv, Ukraine
Died: November 19, 1938
 17 
Nikolay Chernyshevsky
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Birthdate: July 24, 1828
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Saratov, Russia
Died: October 29, 1889
 18 
Georgi Plekhanov
(Russian Philosopher, Marxist Theoretician and Founder of Social-Democratic Movement in Russia)
Georgi Plekhanov
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Birthdate: December 11, 1856
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Gryazinsky District, Russia
Died: May 30, 1918

Russian revolutionary and Marxist theorist Georgi Plekhanov is remembered for establishing Liberation of Labour, the first Russian Marxist organization. One of his best-known works was Socialism and Political Struggle. He later went against the Bolsheviks and Lenin and criticized their policies. He supported the Entente powers during World War I.

 19 
Zinovia Dushkova
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Birthdate: July 19, 1953
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kongaz, Moldova

Zinovia Dushkova is a Russian poet, historian, philosopher, and author. A prominent writer, Dushkova's works have been translated into seven languages. In 2015, she was honored with the 20 Years of Gagauzia Medal. In 2017, Zinovia Dushkova’s book, The Call of the Heart, was honored at the Nautilus Book Awards with a silver medal in the United States of America.

 20 
Andrei Platonov
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Birthdate: August 28, 1899
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Voronezh, Russia
Died: January 5, 1951
 21 
Sergei Bulgakov
(Russian Orthodox Theologian, Priest, Philosopher, and Economist)
Sergei Bulgakov
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Birthdate: July 28, 1871
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Livny, Russia
Died: July 13, 1944

Born into a family of Russian Orthodox priests, Sergei Bulgakov, had grown distant from theology in his youth and studied law and political economy instead. Though he experimented with Marxism, he later moved back to the Church and formed what is now known as sophiology.

 22 
Pavel Florensky
(Theologian)
Pavel Florensky
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Birthdate: January 22, 1882
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Yevlakh, Azerbaijan
Died: December 8, 1943

Russian theologian Pavel Florensky is best remembered for his essay The Pillar and the Ground of Truth. During Stalin’s regime and amid a phase of national atheism, he was sent to jail and also banished to Siberia for his religious beliefs, which he refused to renounce.

 23 
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov
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Birthdate: June 9, 1829
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Klyuchi, Russia
Died: December 28, 1903
 24 
Aleksei Losev
(Philosopher, Philologist)
Aleksei Losev
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Birthdate: September 23, 1893
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Novocherkassk, Russia
Died: May 24, 1988
 25 
Fyodor Tyutchev
(Former writer whose whole literary output constitutes a struggle to fuse political passion with poetic imagination)
Fyodor Tyutchev
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Birthdate: 1803 AD
Birthplace: Ovstug, Russia
Died: 1873 AD

Born to an affluent landowner, Fyodor Tyutchev was homeschooled and grew up to represent his country as a diplomat in Germany. A nationalist and Pan-Slavist, he also became one of the most-quoted Russian poets. His love poems were inspired by his affair with his daughter’s governess.

 26 
Helena Roerich
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Birthdate: February 12, 1879
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: October 5, 1955
 27 
Alexandre Koyré
(Philosopher)
Alexandre Koyré
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Birthdate: August 29, 1892
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Taganrog, Russia
Died: April 28, 1964
 28 
Alexander Zinoviev
(Philosopher, Sociologist, Writer)
Alexander Zinoviev
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Birthdate: October 29, 1922
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Chukhlomsky District, Russia
Died: May 10, 2006

Formerly the head of Logic Department of Moscow University, Soviet philosopher Alexander Zinoviev first came to limelight with his 1960 publication, Philosophical Problems of Many-Valued Logic, and later for his satirical novel, The Yawning Heights. Exiled from his country in 1978, he lived in Munich until his return to Russia in 1999, meanwhile producing numerous seminal fictional and nonfictional works.  

 29 
Pyotr Chaadayev
(Russian author)
Pyotr Chaadayev
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Birthdate: June 7, 1794
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: April 26, 1856
 30 
Afrikan Spir
(Philosopher whose notable ideas as The principle of identity as the theoretical foundation of religion)
Afrikan Spir
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Birthdate: November 15, 1837
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine
Died: March 26, 1890
 31 
Konstantin Leontiev
(Philosopher)
Konstantin Leontiev
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Birthdate: January 25, 1831
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Meshtshovskij County, Russia
Died: November 24, 1891
Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov
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Birthdate: May 13, 1804
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: October 5, 1860

Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, and amateur artist. Apart from co-founding an intellectual movement called the Slavophile movement, Khomyakov went on to serve as one of the most distinguished theoreticians of the movement.

 33 
Vasily Rozanov
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Birthdate: May 2, 1856
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Vetluga, Russia
Died: February 5, 1919
Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky
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Birthdate: December 10, 1822
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Obertse, Russia
Died: November 19, 1885

Russian naturalist and philosopher Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky is remembered for opposing Darwin’s theory of evolution and for mingling Russian nationalism with his own study of natural history. He likened cultures to species and claimed that each culture was unique and could not pass on cultural traits to other cultures.

 35 
Yevgeny Baratynsky
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Birthdate: March 2, 1800
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tambov Governorate, Russian Empire
Died: July 11, 1844
 36 
Vyacheslav Ivanov
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Birthdate: February 28, 1866
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: July 16, 1949
 37 
Johann Christoph Gottsched
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Birthdate: February 2, 1700
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Mendeleyevo Microdistrict
Died: December 12, 1766

Johann Christoph Gottsched was a German author, philosopher, and critic. Although he exercised an undisputed literary dictatorship for about 30 years in Germany, Gottsched had become a personification of foolish pedantry during his later years. Nevertheless, Gottsched played a major role in the development of German literature. He also served as the editor of many journals dedicated to literary criticism.

 38 
Stanisław Leśniewski
(Mathematician)
Stanisław Leśniewski
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Birthdate: March 30, 1886
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Serpukhov, Russia
Died: May 13, 1939

Stanisław Leśniewski was a Polish mathematician, philosopher, and logician, who belonged to the first generation of the Lwów–Warsaw School of logic. His major contribution to mathematics was the construction of three nested formal systems: protothetic, ontology, and mereology. He was also a radical nominalist. He died shortly before the German invasion of Poland in 1939.  

 39 
Antiochus Kantemir
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Birthdate: September 8, 1708
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Iași, Romania
Died: March 31, 1744
 40 
Nikolay Onufriyevich Lossky
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Birthdate: December 6, 1870
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Krāslava, Latvia
Died: January 24, 1965
 41 
Boris Chicherin
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Birthdate: June 7, 1828
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Russia
Died: February 3, 1904
 42 
Ivan Kireyevsky
(Literary Critic)
Ivan Kireyevsky
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Birthdate: April 3, 1806
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: June 23, 1856
 43 
Pyotr Lavrov
(Philosopher)
Pyotr Lavrov
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Birthdate: June 14, 1823
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Pskov Governorate, Russia
Died: February 6, 1900
 44 
Fyodor Shcherbatskoy
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Birthdate: September 19, 1866
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kielce, Poland
Died: March 18, 1942

Renowned Russian scholar and Indologist Fyodor Shcherbatskoy not only spoke 6 European languages fluently but had also mastered the Sanskrit and Tibetan languages. His research took him to India and Mongolia, and he penned influential books on Buddhist philosophy, such as his 2-volume Buddhist Logic. He also launched the Russian Institute of Buddhist Culture.

Nikolay Konstantinovich Mikhaylovsky
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Birthdate: November 27, 1842
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Meshchovsk, Russia
Died: February 10, 1904
 46 
Mikhail Shcherbatov
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Birthdate: July 22, 1733
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: December 12, 1790
Konstantin Sergeyevich Aksakov
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Birthdate: April 10, 1817
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Aksakovo, Russia
Died: December 7, 1860
 48 
Abram Deborin
(Philosopher)
Abram Deborin
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Birthdate: June 16, 1881
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Upyna, Lithuania
Died: March 8, 1963
 49 
Peter Struve
(Economist)
Peter Struve
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Birthdate: February 7, 1870
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Perm, Russia
Died: February 26, 1944

Russian political-economist, historian and editor Peter Struve, initially a Marxist, became a liberal following his arrest and exile from Russia in 1901. After returning to Russia in 1905, he co-founded the liberal Constitutional Democratic Party. He joined the White movement after the Bolshevik Revolution. He lived in exile in Paris from 1920 and emerged as a noted critic of Russian Communism.

 50 
Viktor Afanasyev
(Politician)
Viktor Afanasyev
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Birthdate: November 18, 1922
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Died: April 10, 1994
Find out more about the greatest Russian Philosophers, including Vladimir Lenin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Leon Trotsky, Leo Tolstoy and Mikhail Bakunin.